Technologies

Drip irrigation using polyethylene sheeting and intermittent cloth strips. [Tajikistan]

technologies_1037 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 71%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Youth Ecological Center, Tajikistan (Youth Ecological Center, Tajikistan) - Tajikistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
NCCR North-South (NCCR North-South) - Kyrgyzstan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Drip irrigation using polyethylene sheeting and intermittent cloth strips.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

Drip irrigation with polyethylene film was used in areas with extreme conditions who have poor irrigation water available for the cultivation of vegetables. The polyethylene film covers vegetable patches and is filled with water. Every plant is watered with the use of cloth strips which soak up the water. Roots of the plants are watered on a regular basis.

Purpose of the Technology: South of Khatlon lacks water, which is mainly used to irrigate the cotton plantations. Land users stored water in the tanks and used it for drip irrigation. The overall goal of the technology is to use water efficiently, to reduce evaporation and to prevent soil erosion. The technology is used to grow vegetables and tree plants.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Ploughing, digging patches, planting the plants, covering the patches with polyethylene sheet, filling with water. Every plant is watered with the use of cloth strips which soak up the water. This technology requires polyethylene sheeting, and cloth strips for drip irrigation.

Natural / human environment: Annual plants are grown under extreme climatic and unpredictable weather conditions, in saline soils and with poor irrigation water available

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Tajikistan

Further specification of location:

Khatlon District, Nosiri Husrav region

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)
Comments:

Farmland

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • during experiments/ research
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The technology has been used since 2007

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce water input

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 120Longest growing period from month to month: February - MaySecond longest growing period in days: 180Second longest growing period from month to month: June - November

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): lack of irrigation water, high soil salinity, unpredictable weather conditions,

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): lack of irrigation water, high soil salinity, unpredictable weather conditions

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • full irrigation
Comments:

Водопотребление: полностью орошаемое

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • irrigation management (incl. water supply, drainage)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A7: Others
management measures

management measures

  • M4: Major change in timing of activities
Comments:

Main measures: agronomic measures

Secondary measures: management measures

Type of agronomic measures: early planting, relay cropping, retaining more vegetation cover, mulching, green manure, legume inter-planting, manure / compost / residues

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -contour

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cs: salinization/ alkalinization
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pk: slaking and crusting
  • Pi: soil sealing
water degradation

water degradation

  • Hq: decline of groundwater quality
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Cs: salinisation / alkalinisation, Ha: aridification

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Pk: sealing and crusting

Main causes of degradation: soil management, crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub), droughts

Secondary causes of degradation: change in temperature, labour availability

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land
Comments:

Main goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Vegetable seedlings are planted in both sides of the patches, a polyethylene sheet is covered over the patches and filled in with water. A strip is directed toward each plant with one end in water and other - next to a plant. Watering takes place through the strips.

Location: Tajikistan. Khatlon District, Nosiri Husrav region

Date: May 3, 2011

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: O : other
Number of plants per (ha): 1000
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.35
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.7

Trees/ shrubs species: tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 3%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 3%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 3%

Structural measure: Plantation on plain surface
Vertical interval between structures (m): 0.35
Spacing between structures (m): 0.35
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.25
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.7
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 35
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.4
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.7
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.5

Change of land use type: change in type of irrigation

Author:

Kalandarov R., Dushanbe, 3 Herzin street

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Somoni

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

4.5

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

10.00

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. polyethylene sheet

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Installing drip irrigation Persons/day 2.0 20.0 40.0 100.0
Plant material Seeds ha 1.0 25.0 25.0 100.0
Construction material Polyethylene sheet ha 1.0 32.0 32.0 100.0
Construction material Pipes and tools ha 1.0 400.0 400.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 497.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 110.44
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 4 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Preparation of soil December
2. Planting seedlings or seeds (tomatoes, cucumbers, pepper) spring
3. Agronomic work march june

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Preparation of soil Persons/day 2.0 20.0 40.0 100.0
Labour Planting Sees Persons/day 2.0 20.0 40.0 100.0
Labour Agronomic work Persons/day 25.0 20.0 500.0 100.0
Equipment Tools Pieces 4.0 15.0 60.0 100.0
Plant material Seeds (tomatoes, cucumbers, pepper) Gramm 50.0 0.5 25.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Compost/manure kg 500.0 0.4 200.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 865.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 192.22

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Precipitation 150-200mm

Agro-climatic zone
  • arid

Thermal climate class: subtropics. Saline soil

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 374m above sea level

Landforms: The plot is on a plain

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is low

Soil drainage / infiltration is medium and artificial

Soil water storage capacity is medium

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: < 0.5%

Market orientation of production system: Also commercial/ market

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • individual

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

risk of production failure

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

conflict mitigation

worsened
improved

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved

excess water drainage

reduced
improved

evaporation

increased
decreased
Soil

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased

salinity

increased
decreased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

drought impacts

increased
decreased

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm not well
local windstorm not well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

NA

Comments:

Comments on acceptance with external material support: The technology is not widely used

Comments on spontaneous adoption: In one farm

Comments on adoption trend: Is being developed further

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
This variant of drip irrigation is a low cost technology
Higher crop yields are achieved

How can they be sustained / enhanced? This technology helps preserve soil fertility and reduces the washout of nutrients
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
This variant of drip irrigation is a low cost technology
Can be used in greenhouses and under extreme climatic conditions

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Can be developed in changing climate conditions
By reducing the amount of water used for irrigation the technology helps to save water

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Water is available during the growing period
As the technology is not labour intensive it can be readily used

How can they be sustained / enhanced? The technology is not labour intensive
The technology is beneficial for the environment as it prevents soil degradation

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Useless in open space with high temperatures Applicable only in a suitable area
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Not appropriate for use in open spaces with high temperatures Only apply in suitable area
The technology can be used for Solanaceae only Being developed for other crops

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

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