Technologies

Seed Priming and Microfertilization [Mali]

technologies_1328 - Mali

Completeness: 65%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

Aune Jens

Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Norway

{'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 20, 'label': 'Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)', 'text': 'Book project: SLM in Practice - Guidelines and Best Practices for Sub-Saharan Africa (SLM in Practice)', 'template': 'raw'} {'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 758, 'label': 'Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)', 'text': 'Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norwegian University of Life Sciences) - Norway', 'template': 'raw'}

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Seed priming and microfertilization are two agronomic measures to increase soil fertility and increase crop harvests in semi-arid drylands.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

Seed priming consists of soaking seeds for 8 hours prior to sowing and microfertilization is the application of small amounts of mineral fertilizer to the planting hole.

Purpose of the Technology: Seed priming and microfertilization have been found to be effective in increasing pearl millet and sorghum yields under dryland cropping systems. It is also applicable for cowpeas, groundnuts and sesame. Priming will increase the water use efficiency because the seed can start to germinate immediately after sowing. Results from Mali (Koro and Segou) show that yields can be increased by 50 % if microfertilization is combined with seed priming. Other benefits are reduced labour constraints (thanks to simultaneous application) and risk reduction. Seed priming and microfertilization can be practiced independently from each other; however, the combination reduces the risk of crop failure and shows best results in terms of yield increase. Microfertilization has also been mechanised in Mali.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Seed priming should be carried out after a rain shower sufficient for sowing (15-20 mm) at the beginning of the rainy season. After soaking, the seeds should be air dried for 1 hour prior to sowing (to reduce the stickiness of the seeds and to reduce risk of burning by fertilizer). Fertilizer (NPK 16-16-16; or DAP) is applied at a micro-dose of 0.3 g per planting station, equivalent to 3-8 kg fertilizer/ha, dependent on plant population density. The air-dried seeds and the fertilizer can be applied simultaneously by first mixing the seeds and the fertilizer and thereafter taking a pinch of the mixture between the thumb and the forefinger.

Natural / human environment: The Mopti region is located in the semi-arid Sahel with an average annual rainfall of 400-800 mm during one 3.5 month rainy season. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study undertaken in 1999 identified soil fertility as one of the farmers’ most serious constraints.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Mali

Region/ State/ Province:

Mopti Region

Further specification of location:

Koro

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Aune", "fr": "Jens B. Aune"}}, {"image": "df8483ba-93d0-443b-baa0-0c35dd750ad8", "image_caption": {"en": "Priming \u2013 soaking the seeds for 8 hours", "fr": "Amor\u00e7age - tremper les graines pendant 8 heures"}, "image_photographer": {"en": "Adama Coulibaly", "fr": "Adama Coulibaly"}}], "tech_qg_1": [{"tech_definition": {"en": "Seed priming and microfertilization are two agronomic measures to increase soil fertility and increase crop harvests in semi-arid drylands.", "fr": "Cette combinaison de deux technologies - pr\u00e9-germination et microfertilisation - est destin\u00e9e \u00e0 l'augmentation du rendement du mil et du sorgho par l'am\u00e9lioration de la fertilit\u00e9 du sol."}}], "tech_qg_2": [{"tech_description": {"en": "Seed priming consists of soaking seeds for 8 hours prior to sowing and microfertilization is the application of small amounts of mineral fertilizer to the planting hole.\r\n\r\nPurpose of the Technology: Seed priming and microfertilization have been found to be effective in increasing pearl millet and sorghum yields under dryland cropping systems. It is also applicable for cowpeas, groundnuts and sesame. Priming will increase the water use efficiency because the seed can start to germinate immediately after sowing. Results from Mali (Koro and Segou) show that yields can be increased by 50 % if microfertilization is combined with seed priming. Other benefits are reduced labour constraints (thanks to simultaneous application) and risk reduction. Seed priming and microfertilization can be practiced independently from each other; however, the combination reduces the risk of crop failure and shows best results in terms of yield increase. Microfertilization has also been mechanised in Mali.\r\n\r\nEstablishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Seed priming should be carried out after a rain shower sufficient for sowing (15-20 mm) at the beginning of the rainy season. After soaking, the seeds should be air dried for 1 hour prior to sowing (to reduce the stickiness of the seeds and to reduce risk of burning by fertilizer). Fertilizer (NPK 16-16-16; or DAP) is applied at a micro-dose of 0.3 g per planting station, equivalent to 3-8 kg fertilizer/ha, dependent on plant population density. The air-dried seeds and the fertilizer can be applied simultaneously by first mixing the seeds and the fertilizer and thereafter taking a pinch of the mixture between the thumb and the forefinger.\r\n\r\nNatural / human environment: The Mopti region is located in the semi-arid Sahel with an average annual rainfall of 400-800 mm during one 3.5 month rainy season. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study undertaken in 1999 identified soil fertility as one of the farmers\u2019 most serious constraints.", "fr": "La pr\u00e9-germination et la microfertilisation permettent d\u2019augmenter les rendements de petit mil et de sorgho dans les syst\u00e8mes de culture en zones arides. Ces technologies fonctionnent aussi pour le ni\u00e9b\u00e9, l\u2019arachide et le s\u00e9same.\r\n\r\nBut de la technologie: La pr\u00e9-germination augmente l\u2019efficience d\u2019usage de l\u2019eau car les graines peuvent commencer \u00e0 germer imm\u00e9diatement apr\u00e8s le semis. Les r\u00e9sultats au Mali (Koro et S\u00e9gou) montrent que les rendements peuvent augmenter de 50% si la microfertilisation est combin\u00e9e avec la pr\u00e9-germination. Les autres avantages sont la r\u00e9duction des contraintes de travail (gr\u00e2ce \u00e0 l\u2019application simultan\u00e9e) et la diminution du risque. La pr\u00e9-germination et la microfertilisation peuvent \u00eatre pratiqu\u00e9e ind\u00e9pendamment l\u2019une de l\u2019autre, cependant, la combinaison des deux diminue le risque d\u2019\u00e9chec de la culture et permet d\u2019obtenir les meilleurs r\u00e9sultats en termes de rendement. La microfertilisation a aussi \u00e9t\u00e9 m\u00e9canis\u00e9e au Mali.\r\n\r\nActivit\u00e9s d'\u00e9tablissement et de maintenance et entr\u00e9es: La pr\u00e9-germination consiste \u00e0 tremper les graines pendant 8 heures avant le semis et la microfertilisation est l\u2019apport d\u2019une petite quantit\u00e9 d\u2019engrais aux trous de plantation. La pr\u00e9-germination devra \u00eatre effectu\u00e9e apr\u00e8s une averse de pluie suffisante pour semer (15-20 mm), au d\u00e9but de la saison des pluies. Apr\u00e8s trempage, les graines subiront un s\u00e9chage d\u2019une heure juste avant le semis (afin d\u2019\u00e9viter qu\u2019elles soient collantes et br\u00fbl\u00e9es par l\u2019engrais). L\u2019engrais (NPK 16-16-16, ou di-ammonium phosphate (DAP)) est d\u00e9pos\u00e9 \u00e0 la microdose de 0,3 g par trou de plantation, ce qui \u00e9quivaut \u00e0 3-8 kg d\u2019engrais/ha, selon la densit\u00e9 de plantation. Les graines s\u00e9ch\u00e9es \u00e0 l\u2019air peuvent \u00eatre d\u00e9pos\u00e9es simultan\u00e9ment en les m\u00e9langeant avec l\u2019engrais et en prenant une pinc\u00e9e du m\u00e9lange entre le pouce et l\u2019index.\r\n\r\nEnvironnement naturel / humain: La r\u00e9gion de Mopti fait parti de la zone semi-aride du Sahel avec une pluviom\u00e9trie moyenne annuelle de 400-800 mm durant une seule saison de pluies de 3.5 mois. Une \u00e9tude participative en 1999 a identifi\u00e9 la baisse de la fertilit\u00e9 du sol comme une des contraintes majeures pour les cultivateurs."}}], "tech_qg_5": [{"tech_who_implemented": ["implementation_experiments", "implementation_externally"]}], "tech_qg_6": [{"tech_main_purpose": ["main_purpose_production", "main_purpose_economic"]}], "tech_qg_7": [{"tech_lu_comments": {"en": "Major land use problems (land users\u2019 perception): soil fertility decline, insufficiency or unavailability of arable lands, population growth and its impact on reducing land availability, frequency and length of fallow periods, insufficient flooding of the plains, increasing soil erosion", "fr": "Principaux probl\u00e8mes d'utilisation des terres (perception des utilisateurs fonciers): baisse de fertilit\u00e9 du sol, insuffisance des terres arables, densit\u00e9 des populations, fr\u00e9quence et dur\u00e9e de la jach\u00e8re, inondations insuffisantes des plateaux, augmentation de l'\u00e9rosion du sol"}}], "tech_qg_8": [{"tech_measures": ["tech_measures_agronomic"]}], "tech_qg_9": [{"tech_landuse_2018": ["tech_lu_cropland"]}], "tech_qg_10": [{"tech_lu_cropland_sub": ["lu_cropland_ca"]}], "tech_qg_19": [{"tech_watersupply": "tech_watersupply_rainfed"}], "tech_qg_20": [{"tech_slm_group": ["tech_slm_group_soilfertility"], "tech_slm_group_other": {"en": "Seed priming", "fr": "Amor\u00e7age des semences"}}], "tech_qg_21": [{"tech_measures_agronomic_sub": ["measures_agronomic_a2"]}], "tech_qg_26": [{"tech_measures_comments": {"en": "Main measures: agronomic measures", "fr": "Mesures principales: Pratiques agronomiques"}}], "tech_qg_27": [{"tech_degradation": ["degradation_chemical"]}], "tech_qg_30": [{"degradation_chemical_sub": ["degradation_cn"]}], "tech_qg_34": [{"degradation_comments": {"en": "Main type of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content\r\n\r\nMain causes of degradation: soil management (Use of organic and inorganic fertilisers lower than recommended, reduction in fallow period), crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (removal of crop residues), other human induced causes (specify) (clearing and cultivation of marginal lands), other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify (natural low soil fertility and fragile soils), population pressure", "fr": "Principal type de d\u00e9gradation abord\u00e9: Cn: baisse de la fertilit\u00e9 du sol et du niveau de mati\u00e8re organique\r\n\r\nPrincipales causes de d\u00e9gradation:gestion des sols, gestion des cultures (annuelles, p\u00e9rennes, arbre/buissons), autres causes induites par l\u2019homme (sp\u00e9cifier) (d\u00e9frichement et cultivation des terres marginales), autres causes naturelles (avalanches, \u00e9ruptions volcaniques, topographie extr\u00eame, coul\u00e9e de boue, etc.) Sp\u00e9cifier. (fertilit\u00e9 du sol naturellement faible, terres fragiles), pression de la population"}}], "tech_qg_35": [{"tech_prevention": ["intervention_reduce_ld"]}], "tech_qg_43": [{"tech_maint_timing": {"en": "onset of rainy season, late June", "fr": "D\u00e9but de la saison des pluies, fin juin"}, "tech_maint_activity": {"en": "Soak seeds for 8 hours prior to sowing", "fr": "Tremper les graines 8 heures avant les semer (au d\u00e9but de la saison des pluies, fin juin)"}}, {"tech_maint_timing": {"en": "before sowing", "fr": "Avant le semis"}, "tech_maint_activity": {"en": "Mix seeds and NPK fertilizer (16-16-16) or DAP at a ratio of 1:1", "fr": "M\u00e9langer graines et engrais NPK (16-16-16) ou DAP \u00e0 proportions \u00e9gales avant de semer"}}, {"tech_maint_timing": {"fr": "Avant le semis"}, "tech_maint_activity": {"en": "Sow seeds and fertilizer simultaneously and cover with soil", "fr": "Semer graines et engrais simultan\u00e9ment et couvrir de terre"}}], "tech_qg_44": [{"tech_maint_comments": {"en": "Seed priming and microfertilization are agronomic measures which are carried out repeatedly each cropping season. All activities are listed under maintenance / recurrent activities (below). There is no establishment phase (as defined by WOCAT). Seed priming can be started after sufficient rain for sowing has been received. If the method fails, it can be repeated again. Option: If farmers have the resources to buy higher amount of fertilizer and if the season is promising, they can apply 2 g fertilizer per pocket at first weeding (20 days after sowing). This results in higher yields but also requires an additional operation for the farmer, tripling the labour inputs for fertilizer application. If this practice is adopted, it is not necessary to apply 0.3 g fertilizer at sowing. All activities are carried out by manual labour; microfertilisation has partly been mechanised, using an ox-drawn implement.", "fr": "Activit\u00e9s de mise en place: La pr\u00e9-germination et la microfertilisation sont des mesures agronomiques \u00e0 r\u00e9p\u00e9ter \u00e0 chaque culture. Toutes les activit\u00e9s sont list\u00e9es sous entretien / activit\u00e9s r\u00e9currentes. Il n\u2019y a pas de phase de mise en place (d\u00e9finition WOCAT) Activit\u00e9s r\u00e9currentes: Si les exploitants agricoles ont les moyens d\u2019acheter plus d\u2019engrais et si la saison est prometteuse, ils peuvent mettre 2 g d\u2019engrais par trou au premier d\u00e9sherbage. Le rendement est meilleur, mais le travail est accru par une op\u00e9ration suppl\u00e9mentaire, triplant le temps de travail pour les apports d\u2019engrais. Si cette pratique est adopt\u00e9e, il est inutile d\u2019appliquer 0,3 g d\u2019engrais au semis. Toutes les activit\u00e9s sont manuelles ; la microfertilisation a \u00e9t\u00e9 partiellement m\u00e9canis\u00e9e gr\u00e2ce \u00e0 un outil tir\u00e9 par des b\u0153ufs"}}], "tech_qg_45": [{"tech_input_maint_unit": {"en": "ha", "fr": "ha"}, "tech_input_maint_costs": 1.0, "tech_input_maint_specify": {"en": "Labour", "fr": "Travail"}, "tech_input_maint_quantity": 1.0, "tech_input_maint_total_costs_pi": 1.0}], "tech_qg_52": [{"tech_input_maint_comments": {"en": "Machinery/ tools: weeding tool\r\n\r\nSowing can alternatively be mechanised, which will cause establishment costs (purchase of the sowing machine)", "fr": "Remarque : Le semis peut \u00eatre m\u00e9canis\u00e9, ce qui induira des co\u00fbts de mise en place (achat d\u2019un semoir)"}}], "tech_qg_54": [{"tech_rainfall": ["tech_rainfall_501_750"], "tech_rainfall_specifications": {"en": "500-750 mm (ranked 1, length of dry period: 8 months) as well as 250-500 mm and 750-1000 mm (ranked 2)", "fr": "500-750 mm (class\u00e9 1, dur\u00e9e de la p\u00e9riode s\u00e8che: 8 mois, saison des pluies fin juin - mi-octobre) ainsi que 250-500 mm et 750-1000 mm (class\u00e9 2)"}}], "tech_qg_55": [{"tech_agroclimatic_zone": ["tech_agroclimatic_zone_semiarid"], "tech_agroclimatic_zone_specifications": {"en": "Thermal climate class: tropics", "fr": "Classe de climat thermique: tropiques"}}], "tech_qg_56": [{"tech_slopes": ["tech_slopes_flat", "tech_slopes_gentle"], "tech_landforms": ["tech_landforms_plateau"], "tech_altitudinalzone": ["tech_altitudinalzone_100_500"]}], "tech_qg_57": [{"tech_topography_comments": {"en": "Altitudinal zone: 1001-500 m a.s.l. (260m)", "fr": "Zones altitudinales: 101-500 m (260m)"}}], "tech_qg_58": [{"tech_topsoil_organic": ["tech_topsoil_organic_low"]}], "tech_qg_59": [{"tech_soil_comments": {"en": "Soil fertility: Low", "fr": "Fertilit\u00e9 du sol: Faible"}}], "tech_qg_71": [{"tech_gender": ["gender_women", "gender_men"], "tech_wealth": ["tech_wealth_average", "tech_wealth_rich"], "tech_individuals": ["individuals_individual"], "tech_mechanisation": ["mechanisation_manual", "mechanisation_animal"], "tech_market_orientation": ["tech_market_orientation_mixed"]}], "tech_qg_72": [{"tech_land_size": ["tech_land_size_2_5", "tech_land_size_5_15"], "tech_land_comments": {"en": "2-20 ha", "fr": "2-20 ha"}, "tech_land_size_relative": ["tech_size_smallscale"]}], "tech_qg_73": [{"tech_ownership": ["tech_ownership_communal"], "tech_landuserights": ["tech_userights_communal", "tech_userights_individual"]}], "tech_qg_76": [{"tech_impacts_specify": {"en": " combined effect of seed priming and microfertilisation 50%, seed priming alone 25%", "fr": "Effet combin\u00e9 de la pr\u00e9-germination et de la microfertilisation 50%, pr\u00e9-germination seule 25%"}, "tech_impacts_cropproduction": 6}], "tech_qg_77": [{"tech_landuser_comments": {"en": "Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users", "fr": "Les utilisateurs de terres qui utilisent la technologie sont principalement des utilisateurs de terrains communs / moyens"}}], "tech_qg_79": [{"tech_impacts_specify": {"en": " increased production of straw", "fr": " Production de paille / biomasse accrue"}, "tech_impacts_fodderproduction": 6}], "tech_qg_85": [{"tech_impacts_specify": {"en": " Risk minimisation: decreased risk of crop failure; and low financial risk in the case of crop failure; seed priming reduces the risk of fertilizer application", "fr": "Minimisation des risques: diminution du risque de rupture des r\u00e9coltes; Et faible risque financier en cas de d\u00e9faillance des r\u00e9coltes; L'amor\u00e7age des graines r\u00e9duit le risque d'application d'engrais"}, "tech_impacts_productionfailure": 5}], "tech_qg_95": [{"tech_input_determinate_factors": {"en": "Fertilizers", "fr": "Le facteur le plus d\u00e9terminant concernant les co\u00fbts de la technologie est l'achat de l'engrais."}}], "qg_location": [{"country": "country_MLI", "state_province": {"en": "Mopti Region", "fr": "R\u00e9gion de Mopti"}, "further_location": {"en": "Koro", "fr": "Koro"}}], "tech_qg_103": [{"tech_impacts_specify": {"en": " Decreased financial resources needed for purchasing fertilizer, makes the technology feasible for poor small-scale farmers", "fr": "Diminution des ressources financi\u00e8res n\u00e9cessaires \u00e0 l'achat d'engrais rend la technologie possible pour les petits agriculteurs pauvres"}, "tech_impacts_expenses": 5}], "tech_qg_145": [{"tech_impacts_specify": {"en": " Increased resistance to Striga (pest)", "fr": "R\u00e9sistance accrue \u00e0 Striga (parasite)"}, "tech_impacts_pestcontrol": 5}], "tech_qg_160": [{"tech_implementation_decades": "implemenation_less_10"}], "tech_qg_164": [{"tech_input_average_wage": {"en": "2.00", "fr": "2.00"}, "tech_input_national_currency": {"en": "CFA", "fr": "CFA"}}], "tech_qg_168": [{"tech_exposure_incrdecr": "increase", "tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_unknown"}], "tech_qg_179": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_unknown"}], "tech_qg_182": [{"tech_costbenefit_est_long": "costbenefit_verypositive", "tech_costbenefit_est_short": "costbenefit_verypositive"}], "tech_qg_183": [{"tech_costbenefit_comments": {"en": "The technology has a benefit-cost ratio of 10 (increased production value is 10 times higher than the costs for additional fertilizer). Compared to the 6 g microfertilisation method (using Coke caps) cost-benefits ratio of 0.3 g treatment is 8-20 times hi", "fr": "Le rapport b\u00e9n\u00e9fice-co\u00fbt de la technologie est de 10 (valeur de la production est 10 fois plus importante que le co\u00fbt additionnel d\u2019engrais)."}}], "tech_qg_184": [{"country": "country_NOR", "person_gender": "gender_male", "person_lastname": {"en": "Aune", "fr": "Aune"}, "person_firstname": {"en": "Jens", "fr": "Jens"}, "person_institution_name": {"en": "Norwegian University of Life Sciences", "fr": "Norwegian University of Life Sciences "}, "user_resourceperson_type": "resourceperson_slmspecialist"}], "tech_qg_185": [{"tech_drawing_author": {"fr": "Adama Coulibaly"}, "tech_specifications": {"en": "Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low\r\n\r\nTechnical knowledge required for land users: low\r\n\r\nMain technical functions: increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,\u2026)", "fr": "Pr\u00e9-germination \u2013 tremper les graines pendant 8 heures\r\n\r\nLieu: Koro. R\u00e9gion de Mopti\r\n\r\nConnaissances techniques requises pour le personnel de terrain / conseillers: faible\r\n\r\nConnaissances techniques requises pour les utilisateurs des terres: faible\r\n\r\nPrincipales fonctions techniques: augmentation de la disponibilit\u00e9 des nutriments (r\u00e9serve, recyclage, ...)"}}], "tech_qg_186": [{"tech_impacts_specify": {"en": " clearance of new land is avoided", "fr": "L'autorisation de nouvelles terres est \u00e9vit\u00e9e"}, "tech_impacts_other_measure": 5, "tech_impacts_other_specify": {"en": "Land productivity", "fr": "Productivit\u00e9 de la terre "}, "tech_impacts_other_labelleft": {"en": "decreased", "fr": "en baisse"}, "tech_impacts_other_labelright": {"en": "increased", "fr": "augment\u00e9"}}, {"tech_impacts_specify": {"fr": " R\u00e9colte plus pr\u00e9coce"}, "tech_impacts_other_measure": 4, "tech_impacts_other_specify": {"en": " Earlier harvest (food security)", "fr": "S\u00e9curit\u00e9 alimentaire am\u00e9lior\u00e9"}, "tech_impacts_other_labelleft": {"en": "decreased", "fr": "en baisse"}, "tech_impacts_other_labelright": {"en": "increased", "fr": "augment\u00e9"}}], "tech_qg_191": [{"tech_adoption_comments": {"en": "50% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support\r\n\r\nComments on spontaneous adoption: Field officers from NGO\u2019s report that in some villages in the \u201cDogon area\u201d in the Mopti region more than 50 % of the farmers are using the technologies on their own initiative.\r\n\r\nThere is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology\r\n\r\nComments on adoption trend: Microfertilization has become a very popular technology in some area in Mali.", "fr": "50% des utilisateurs de terrains ont adopt\u00e9 la technologie sans support mat\u00e9riel externe\r\n\r\nIl existe une forte tendance \u00e0 l'adoption spontan\u00e9e de la technologie\r\n\r\nComments on adoption trend: La tendance \u00e0 l\u2019adoption spontan\u00e9e est \u00e9lev\u00e9e. La microfertilisation est devenue une technologie tr\u00e8s populaire dans certaines r\u00e9gions du Mali. Des agents de terrain d\u2019OGN rapportent que dans certains villages Dogons de la r\u00e9gion de Mopti, plus de 50% des exploitants agricoles utilisent les technologies de leur propre chef. Des OGN travaillant dans les r\u00e9gions de Mopti et S\u00e9gou sont actuellement actifs dans la promotion de la pr\u00e9-germination et de la microfertilisation "}, "tech_adoption_spontaneously": "tech_adoption_spont_50_90"}], "tech_qg_197": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_unknown"}], "tech_qg_202": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_205": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_unknown"}], "tech_qg_214": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_unknown"}], "tech_qg_219": [{"tech_input_maint_unit": {"en": "ha", "fr": "ha"}, "tech_input_maint_costs": 2.0, "tech_input_maint_specify": {"en": "Fertilizer", "fr": "Engrais"}, "tech_input_maint_quantity": 1.0, "tech_input_maint_total_costs_pi": 2.0}], "tech_qg_220": [{"tech_impacts_specify": {"en": " Reduced susceptibility to beginning-of-season droughts; less burning effect if drought after sowing", "fr": " moins de br\u00fblure des plantes en cas de s\u00e9cheresse post-semis"}, "tech_impacts_droughtimpacts": 5}], "tech_qg_223": [{"tech_input_maint_total_costs": 3.0}], "tech_qg_233": [{"tech_input_maint_total_costs_usd": 3.0}], "qg_references": [{"references_title": {"en": "Aune JB, Doumbia M, Berthe A (2007): Microfertilizing sorghum and pearl millet in Mali - Agronomic, economic and social feasibility in Outlook on AGRICULTURE Vol 36, No 3, 2007, pp 199\u2013203;", "fr": "Aune JB, Doumbia M, Berthe A (2007): Microfertilizing sorghum and pearl millet in Mali - Agronomic, economic and social feasibility in Outlook on AGRICULTURE Vol 36, No 3, 2007, pp 199\u2013203;"}}, {"references_title": {"en": "Aune JB, Doumbia M, Berthe A (2005): Integrated Plant Nutrient Management Report 1998-2004; Drylands Coordination Group Report 36, Norway;", "fr": "Aune JB, Doumbia M, Berthe A (2005): Integrated Plant Nutrient Management Report 1998-2004; Drylands Coordination Group Report 36, Norway;"}}, {"references_title": {"en": "Aune JB, Bationo A (2008): Agricultural intensification in the Sahel. Agricultural Systems 98: 119-125", "fr": "Aune JB, Bationo A (2008): Agricultural intensification in the Sahel. Agricultural Systems 98: 119-125"}}, {"references_title": {"en": "Habima, D. 2008. Drylands ecofarming: An analysis of ecological farming prototypes in two Sahelian zones: Koro and Bankass. M.Sc Thesis, UMN, \u00c5s, Norway", "fr": "Habima, D. 2008. Drylands ecofarming: An analysis of ecological farming prototypes in two Sahelian zones: Koro and Bankass. M.Sc Thesis, UMN, \u00c5s, Norway"}}], "qg_location_map": [{"location_map": "{\"type\":\"FeatureCollection\",\"features\":[{\"type\":\"Feature\",\"id\":1495123612289,\"geometry\":{\"type\":\"Point\",\"coordinates\":[-5.13553,15.915499999999994]},\"properties\":null}]}"}], "qg_funding_project": [{"funding_project": 20}], "qg_accept_conditions": [{"accept_conditions": 1}], "qg_strengths_compiler": [{"strengths_compiler": {"en": "Decreased financial resources needed for purchasing fertilizer, makes the technology feasible for poor small-scale farmers", "fr": "Co\u00fbts d\u2019achat d\u2019engrais diminu\u00e9s : la technologie devient accessible aux petits exploitants pauvres"}}, {"strengths_compiler": {"en": "No additional labour inputs (the technology does not significantly increase sowing time due to simultaneous application of seeds and fertilizer)", "fr": "Pas de travail suppl\u00e9mentaire (le temps de semis graines + engrais n\u2019augmente pas r\u00e9ellement avec cette technologie)"}}, {"strengths_compiler": {"en": "Adaptability to different land use systems: micro-fertilization can also be mechanised", "fr": "Productivit\u00e9 accrue / d\u00e9frichage suppl\u00e9mentaire \u00e9vit\u00e9"}}, {"strengths_compiler": {"fr": "Adaptabilit\u00e9 \u00e0 diff\u00e9rents syst\u00e8mes d\u2019utilisation des terres : la microfertilisation peut aussi \u00eatre m\u00e9canis\u00e9e"}}], "qg_funding_institution": [{"funding_institution": 758}], "qg_weaknesses_compiler": [{"weaknesses_compiler": {"en": "Dependence partly on availability of mineral fertilizer", "fr": "D\u00e9pendance en partie sur la disponibilit\u00e9 d'engrais min\u00e9ral"}, "weaknesses_overcome": {"en": "the technology should be combined with complementary methods for maintenance of soil fertility, such as increased recycling of crop residues as mulch and manure application", "fr": "La technologie devrait \u00eatre combin\u00e9e avec des m\u00e9thodes compl\u00e9mentaires pour la maintenance de la fertilit\u00e9 des sols, comme l'augmentation du recyclage des r\u00e9sidus des cultures en tant que demande de fumier et de fumier"}}], "qg_weaknesses_landusers": [{"weaknesses_landuser": {"fr": "D\u00e9pendance partielle aux engrais chimiques"}, "weaknesses_overcome": {"fr": "la technologie devrait \u00eatre combin\u00e9e avec des m\u00e9thodes compl\u00e9mentaires de maintien de la fertilit\u00e9 du sol, telles qu\u2019un meilleur recyclage des r\u00e9sidus de culture (paillage) et des apports de fumier."}}]}>, 'map_url': '/en/wocat/technologies/view/technologies_1328/map/', 'template': 'raw'}

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • during experiments/ research
  • through projects/ external interventions

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
Comments:

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): soil fertility decline, insufficiency or unavailability of arable lands, population growth and its impact on reducing land availability, frequency and length of fallow periods, insufficient flooding of the plains, increasing soil erosion

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • integrated soil fertility management
  • Seed priming

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
Comments:

Main measures: agronomic measures

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

Main causes of degradation: soil management (Use of organic and inorganic fertilisers lower than recommended, reduction in fallow period), crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (removal of crop residues), other human induced causes (specify) (clearing and cultivation of marginal lands), other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify (natural low soil fertility and fragile soils), population pressure

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

{'additional_translations': {}, 'content_type': None, 'preview_image': '', 'key': 'Technical drawing', 'value': None, 'template': 'raw'}
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…)

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

CFA

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

2.00

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Soak seeds for 8 hours prior to sowing onset of rainy season, late June
2. Mix seeds and NPK fertilizer (16-16-16) or DAP at a ratio of 1:1 before sowing
3. Sow seeds and fertilizer simultaneously and cover with soil None
Comments:

Seed priming and microfertilization are agronomic measures which are carried out repeatedly each cropping season. All activities are listed under maintenance / recurrent activities (below). There is no establishment phase (as defined by WOCAT). Seed priming can be started after sufficient rain for sowing has been received. If the method fails, it can be repeated again. Option: If farmers have the resources to buy higher amount of fertilizer and if the season is promising, they can apply 2 g fertilizer per pocket at first weeding (20 days after sowing). This results in higher yields but also requires an additional operation for the farmer, tripling the labour inputs for fertilizer application. If this practice is adopted, it is not necessary to apply 0.3 g fertilizer at sowing. All activities are carried out by manual labour; microfertilisation has partly been mechanised, using an ox-drawn implement.

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 1.0 1.0
Fertilizers and biocides Fertilizer ha 1.0 2.0 2.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 3.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 3.0
Comments:

Machinery/ tools: weeding tool

Sowing can alternatively be mechanised, which will cause establishment costs (purchase of the sowing machine)

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Fertilizers

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

500-750 mm (ranked 1, length of dry period: 8 months) as well as 250-500 mm and 750-1000 mm (ranked 2)

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: tropics

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 1001-500 m a.s.l. (260m)

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility: Low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
  • rich
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale
Comments:

2-20 ha

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

combined effect of seed priming and microfertilisation 50%, seed priming alone 25%

fodder production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

increased production of straw

risk of production failure

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Risk minimisation: decreased risk of crop failure; and low financial risk in the case of crop failure; seed priming reduces the risk of fertilizer application

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Decreased financial resources needed for purchasing fertilizer, makes the technology feasible for poor small-scale farmers

Other socio-economic impacts

Land productivity

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

clearance of new land is avoided

Earlier harvest (food security)

decreased
increased

Ecological impacts

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

pest/ disease control

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Increased resistance to Striga (pest)

Climate and disaster risk reduction

drought impacts

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Reduced susceptibility to beginning-of-season droughts; less burning effect if drought after sowing

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase not known

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm not known
local windstorm not known
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not known

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period not known

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

Comments:

The technology has a benefit-cost ratio of 10 (increased production value is 10 times higher than the costs for additional fertilizer). Compared to the 6 g microfertilisation method (using Coke caps) cost-benefits ratio of 0.3 g treatment is 8-20 times hi

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 51-90%
Comments:

50% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: Field officers from NGO’s report that in some villages in the “Dogon area” in the Mopti region more than 50 % of the farmers are using the technologies on their own initiative.

There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Microfertilization has become a very popular technology in some area in Mali.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Decreased financial resources needed for purchasing fertilizer, makes the technology feasible for poor small-scale farmers
No additional labour inputs (the technology does not significantly increase sowing time due to simultaneous application of seeds and fertilizer)
Adaptability to different land use systems: micro-fertilization can also be mechanised

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Dependence partly on availability of mineral fertilizer the technology should be combined with complementary methods for maintenance of soil fertility, such as increased recycling of crop residues as mulch and manure application

7. References and links

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Aune JB, Doumbia M, Berthe A (2007): Microfertilizing sorghum and pearl millet in Mali - Agronomic, economic and social feasibility in Outlook on AGRICULTURE Vol 36, No 3, 2007, pp 199–203;

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Aune JB, Doumbia M, Berthe A (2005): Integrated Plant Nutrient Management Report 1998-2004; Drylands Coordination Group Report 36, Norway;

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Aune JB, Bationo A (2008): Agricultural intensification in the Sahel. Agricultural Systems 98: 119-125

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Habima, D. 2008. Drylands ecofarming: An analysis of ecological farming prototypes in two Sahelian zones: Koro and Bankass. M.Sc Thesis, UMN, Ås, Norway

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