Valley floor paddy terraced cultivation [Bangladesh]

Lunga (Chakma), Ghona (Chittagonian local dialect)

technologies_1346 - Bangladesh

Completeness: 61%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Dept. of Public Administration (Dept. of Public Administration) - Bangladesh

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Valley floor cultivation practiced by the rehabilitated tribal farmers through intensifying cultivation.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


This technology is designed to maximize the land utilization through rice cultivation on terraced valley floor. Food production for household consumption is the main purpose of this technology. In additrion to this optimum utilization of underutilized valley floor is other purpose. The earlier vegetations were composed of cane, garjan, jarul and other bushy species. Usually the valley floor is slashed and cleared followed by levelling and modification of the natural terraces. The hill slope edges are cut to widen the cultivable area. The valley floor is opened at one end with a small outlet. The soil of the valley is sandy loam belonging to Brown Hill Soil with moderate fertility receiving high rainfall.

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Chittagong Hill Tracts

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):


If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.4 km2.

This technology originally started about 1960 then taken up more intensively from 2000.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • as part of a traditional system (> 50 years)
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The origin is debated but one view is that it has come from migrants from the plain of greater Chittagong districts. (Recent - <10years)

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Annual cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • vegetables - other
  • Aaus paddy
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2

Longest growing period in days: 120; Longest growing period from month to month: Dec - Mar; Second longest growing period in days: 90; Second longest growing period from month to month: Jun - Aug


Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Excessive and unjustified use of productive land; forests clearing, conversion to human habitation and associated soil erosion.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Water erosion, shade effects on crop production, very limited crop land, biotic interferance (illicit logging)

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Boro - fellow - aman. Ocassionally Aaus paddy or limited vegetables is also tried/cultivated.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • mixed rainfed-irrigated

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • cross-slope measure

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

structural measures

structural measures

  • S1: Terraces

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: increase of infiltration

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, water spreading

Construction material (earth): All the structures viz. pit, trenches etc. are earthen.

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 5.00%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 5.00%

Lateral gradient along the structure: 2.50%

For water harvesting: the ratio between the area where the harvested water is applied and the total area from which water is collected is: 1:10.00

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. land preparation and levelling 50 man days
2. terracing 20 man days
3. drainage 20 man days
4. cultivation 20 man days

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment


Duration of establishment phase: 0 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Repairing/manding ridges and drainages
2. Reparing /Mending ridges & ridges 2 days/each cropping season
3. Mending the terraces 2 days/each cropping season
4. Weeding 1 day/each cropping season

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)


Area of paddy field/ local land unit is called Khani which equals 100 decimal

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour shortage, animal shortaged, extreme humidity

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

This area experianced with sufficient rainfall as well as longer drought period. The temperature of this area also varies between 5- 40°C

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil depth on average: Deposited (soil) area

Soil fertility is medium: Generally the valley floor is fertile due to deposition of the nutrients washed from the valley.

Soil drainage / infiltration is medium since it changes between water logged and well drained situations.

Soil water storage capacity is medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • very poor
  • average
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 1% - 2%

16% of the land users are rich and own 30% of the land (Above 10 acres.).
29% of the land users are average wealthy and own 35% of the land (Between >5 but <10 acres.).
55% of the land users are poor and own 35% of the land (The farmers who enjoy the right over 5 acres of land.).

Off-farm income specification: Basically the technology is concentrated on paddy cultivation and rice straw is the by product, which is used for livestock rearing.

Level of mechanization: Animal traction is required during the cultivation only.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:


6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 1-10%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

13 households covering 5 percent of stated area.

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%

13 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: survey results

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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