New SLM Technology [Uganda]

technologies_1391 - Uganda

Completeness: 71%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Obore Obanya


Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Ministry of agriculture, animal industry and fisheries (MAAIF) - Uganda

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Water borne manuring system involves runoff water driving the manure placed in trenches to every individual citrus tree which fruits through the year.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


The citrus orchard is sited on a gently sloping land. A cowshed is built on the upper part of the slopy land. When it rains the runoff removes the manure from the shed and the trenches to the orchard. This enables the citrus to fruit throught the year. A combination of water harvesting and soil fertility improvement, a process technically known as fertigation.

Purpose of the Technology: Water harvesting and soil fertility improvement for increased production and income.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: After establishing the orchard several trenches are made leading to each citrus tree. The trenches are almost graded which enables the flow of runoff and manure by gravity. Additional manure is heaped at several points along the trenches. The trenches are regularly maintained.

Natural / human environment: The technology involves and is on a perrenial cropland. It is both structural and agronomical in nature, located in a semi-arid zone. Soil is sandy loam and on a very gentle slope.

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:


Further specification of location:


Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1-10 km2

The SWC technology is applied by farmers scattered all over Asuret Subcounty

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

A farmer own intiative, continously modified as a result of exposure to other landuser and extension staff.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • fibre crops - cotton
  • oilseed crops - sunflower, rapeseed, other
  • oilseed crops - groundnuts
  • root/tuber crops - sweet potatoes, yams, taro/cocoyam, other
  • root/tuber crops - cassava
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • pineapple
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • citrus
  • mango, mangosteen, guava
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2

Longest growing period in days: 100 Longest growing period from month to month: Mar - Jul Second longest growing period in days: 70 Second longest growing period from month to month: Aug - Nov


Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): inadequate soil moisture due to recurrent drought, declining soil fertility

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): few structures to control runoff water and wind erosion.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • integrated soil fertility management
  • water harvesting
  • irrigation management (incl. water supply, drainage)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification

Main type of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Ha: aridification

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: high

Main technical functions: sediment harvesting

Secondary technical functions: water spreading

Structural measure: supply trenches
Vertical interval between structures (m): 0.6
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.6
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.6
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.6

Construction material (earth): hand dug trenches

Lateral gradient along the structure: 1.00%

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Uganda shillings

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Trench digging Dry season

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 104.0 104.0 100.0
Equipment Tools ha 1.0 84.0 84.0 100.0
Plant material Seedlings ha 1.0 600.0 600.0 100.0
Plant material Improved breeds ha 1.0 1500.0 1500.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 2288.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 1.53

Duration of establishment phase: 12 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Silt removal Wet season/each cropping season

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 24.0 24.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Fertilizer ha 1.0 23.0 23.0 100.0
Other Feeds ha 1.0 13.0 13.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 60.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 0.04

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour and farm inputs

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 1001-1500 m a.s.l. (between 1066 - 1219m a.s.l.)

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility: Medium (ranked 1) and low (ranked 2)
Soil drainage/infiltration: Good (ranked 1) and medium (ranked 2)
Soil water storage capacity: medium (ranked 1) and high (ranked 2)

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
  • rich
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 0.5% - 1%
2% of the land users are rich and own 1% of the land.
4% of the land users are average wealthy and own 1% of the land.
14% of the land users are poor and own 8% of the land.
80% of the land users are poor and own 90% of the land.
Level of mechanization: Manual work (ranked 1, concentrated in small area and manual labour is very applicable), animal traction (ranked 2)

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: Also 1-2 ha (ranked 2) and 5-15 ha (ranked 3)

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
Land use rights:
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production


fodder production

Income and costs

farm income



Other socio-economic impacts

Milk production


Input constraints


Socio-cultural impacts

community institutions


national institutions


SLM/ land degradation knowledge


conflict mitigation


Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

excess water drainage


soil moisture


soil cover


soil loss

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

plant diversity


animal diversity


habitat diversity

Climate and disaster risk reduction

wind velocity

Other ecological impacts

Soil fertility


6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

wind transported sediments


6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:


6.5 Adoption of the Technology


There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: the technology are permanent and result oriented

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
receive advise from technical staff

How can they be sustained / enhanced? get income to purchase improved inputs
access improved varieties and inputs.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? employs labour
improve on reveue base
improve on his knowledge
pass experience to other
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
extension workers use farmers for passing technology

How can they be sustained / enhanced? continous meeting with farmer innovators
there is room for reasearch

How can they be sustained / enhanced? field visits to other FI and study tours
entry point for learning
makes extension agents became gender biased

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
expensive to maintain introduce mechanisation
it is tedious
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
use of traditional materials include conventional inputs
limited by rainfall get other source of water

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Atlas of Uganda dept of lands and survey. 1967.

Available from where? Costs?

Entebbe Uganda

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Promoting farmer innovation project, Min of Agriculture, animal industry, and fisheries. 1997.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

soil map of the world FAO. 1990.

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Soil of Eastern region of Uganda dept of lands and survey UGA.. 1964.

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