Technologies

Irrigation of orchards by using low cost drip irrigation technique [Tajikistan]

Обёрикунии богхо бо истифода аз технологияи обзахиракунии камнарх

technologies_1452 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 80%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Abdulkodirov Adab

MSDSP Aga Khan Foundation

Tajikistan

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Pamir Biological Institute (Pamir Biological Institute) - Tajikistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Kyrgyzstan Mountain Societies Development Support Programme, Aga Khan Development Network (MSDSP KG) - Kyrgyzstan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Irrigation of a young orchard using locally available and low-cost materials for a drip irrigation system in the Pamir’s arid zone

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

The system consists of a reservoir and polyethylene irrigation tubes and emitters installed along the rows of trees. Water accumulates in the reservoir during spring and early summer when there is no deficit in irrigation water. During the dry summer months water is then used for drip irrigation. Located in the upper part of the system, the reservoir ensures water pressure in the system. Due to the complex local topography, this irrigation method can be used without water pumps since natural water pressure ensures normal functioning of the system. Even though this water saving technology is quite effective, drip irrigation is rarely used since both the construction and maintenance of the system are quite expensive. With the introduction of this technology into the poor mountain communities of GBAO, the overall objective was to make drip irrigation technology cheaper and more easily available to farmers. The objective was achieved by the use of simple polyethylene irrigation tubes, simple screws instead of expensive emitters, and natural water pressure excluding the construction of a water pump station. Water is dripped directly to the roots of the trees, thus excluding loss of water and soil erosion. Fertilisers can be added directly to the water reservoir. This technology allows increased water savings of 50%, and 90% of fertilisers. During the growing period trees are watered once every 6 days.

Purpose of the Technology: The purpose of this technology is to improve the water supply for fruit orchards during the growing period in the arid conditions of the Pamirs where available water is very limited.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Steps to implement the technology include the following: dig holes for trees, plant trees, establish water reservoir, lay polyethylene tubes, install emitters and regularly clean irrigation system.

Natural / human environment: The plot is located in an arid zone at the height of 2000m above sea level. It is a high mountain area with typical brown soils and slopes up to 60 degrees steepness. Annual precipitation is quite low and mainly occurs in the autumn and winter period. Summers are extremely dry. The main occupations of the local population include agriculture and cattle breeding.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

GBAO

Further specification of location:

Shugnan

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)
Comments:

0.01 ha

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

the project was implemented in 2006

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • adapt to enviroment

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • fodder crops - alfalfa
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, plum, etc)
  • tree nuts (brazil nuts, pistachio, walnuts, almonds, etc.)
  • pome fruits (apples, pears, quinces, etc.)
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 190Longest growing period from month to month: from April to October

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): lack of water, soil erosion, reduction of yield, reduction of soil fertility

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): lack of irrigation water, reduction of yield

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Cropland: Ct: Tree and shrub cropping

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Cropland

Cropland

  • Tree and shrub cropping

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • full irrigation

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • irrigation management (incl. water supply, drainage)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
management measures

management measures

  • M4: Major change in timing of activities
Comments:

Main measures: vegetative measures

Secondary measures: agronomic measures

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -linear

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Ha: aridification

Main causes of degradation: soil management, crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub), change in temperature, change of seasonal rainfall

Secondary causes of degradation: over abstraction / excessive withdrawal of water (for irrigation, industry, etc.), droughts, population pressure, poverty / wealth

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation
Comments:

Main goals: prevention of land degradation

Secondary goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation, rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

The system consists of a reservoir and polyethylene irrigation tubes and emitters installed along the rows of trees.

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply

Secondary technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), water spreading, increase of biomass (quantity), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)

Aligned: -linear
Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 400
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 3
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 3

Fruit trees / shrubs species: apricot, peach, european walnut, apple

Perennial crops species: alfalfa

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 8.00%

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Tajik Somony

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

4.45

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

3.00

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. tree planting first year
2. mounting of drip irrigation system before planting

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Tree planting Persons/day 2.0 11.0 22.0 100.0
Labour Mounting of drip irrigation system Persons/day 5.0 25.2 126.0
Equipment Tools pieces 5.0 1.2 6.0 100.0
Equipment Other Tools pieces 5.0 2.2 11.0
Equipment Polyethylene tube meters 2200.0 0.445454545 980.0
Equipment Watertank pieces 1.0 600.0 600.0
Plant material Tree seedlings pieces 360.0 0.675 243.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Fertilizer kg 10.0 1.7 17.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 2005.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 450.56
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 1 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. sanitary cutting of trees every 3-5 years
2. hay harvest three time per year
3. unclogging the irrigation tubes every year

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Sanitary cutting of trees Persons/day 0.6 16.66667 10.0 100.0
Labour Hay harvest Persons/day 1.0 9.0 9.0 100.0
Labour Unclogging the irrigation tubes Persons/day 1.0 11.0 11.0
Equipment Tools (Scissors) pieces 2.0 2.5 5.0 100.0
Equipment Tool for harvesting pieces 1.0 2.0 2.0 100.0
Equipment Tools for unclogging tubes pieces 2.0 2.25 4.5 100.0
Equipment Polyethylene tube meters 56.0 0.445454545 24.95 100.0
Equipment Water tank repair 1.0 10.0 10.0 100.0
Plant material Seedlings tree replacement pieces 15.0 0.675 10.13 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Fertilizer kg 10.0 1.7 17.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 103.58
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 23.28
Comments:

For creation of drip irrigation system on a plot of 1 ha (May 2011)

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

equipment for irrigation system (polyethylene tubes)

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

260mm per year, winter summer rains. Length of dry period is about 120 days.

Agro-climatic zone
  • arid

Thermal climate class: temperate. 2 mounth below 5°C and 6 mounth above 10°C

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone is 2100m above sea level

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil texture is about 40% silt

Soil fertility is medium

Soil drainage / infiltration is good

Soil water storage capacity is medium

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • commercial/ market
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 0.5% - 1%

40% of the land users are average wealthy and own 30% of the land.
60% of the land users are poor and own 70% of the land.

Off-farm income specification: In dry season the harvest is about 20 - 30% higher as compared with the farmers which did not use the technology

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

45kg per ha

Quantity after SLM:

80kg per ha

Comments/ specify:

water availability increase production of fruits

fodder production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

5 centner/ha

Quantity after SLM:

20 centner/ha

Comments/ specify:

grass between rows used for fodder

fodder quality

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

bad

Quantity after SLM:

high

Comments/ specify:

before natural grass - after alfa alfa

animal production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

2- 5per hose

Quantity after SLM:

6-15 per hose

Comments/ specify:

increase of fodder production stimulate livestock development

wood production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

0.5 m3/hose

Quantity after SLM:

1-5m3/hose

Comments/ specify:

sanitary cutting of tress

risk of production failure

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

0

Quantity after SLM:

100%

Comments/ specify:

increased water availability

production area

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

10%

Quantity after SLM:

70%

Comments/ specify:

technology helps to use steep slopes

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

0

Quantity after SLM:

50%

farm income

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

10%

Quantity after SLM:

80%

Comments/ specify:

increased harvest

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

0

conflict mitigation

worsened
improved
Quantity before SLM:

50%

Quantity after SLM:

0%

Comments/ specify:

decreased conflict related to irrigation water use

situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

worsened
improved
Quantity before SLM:

0

Quantity after SLM:

50%

Comments/ specify:

increased incomes of poor farmers

Livelihoods and human well-being

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

After the implementation of the technology the households were protected from negative influence of dry season.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

10%

Quantity after SLM:

60%

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

100%

surface runoff

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

100%

Quantity after SLM:

0%

Comments/ specify:

all the water can be absorbed by soil

evaporation

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

0

Quantity after SLM:

10%

Comments/ specify:

transpiration of trees and grass

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

80%

Comments/ specify:

during the dry season

soil cover

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

20%

soil loss

increased
decreased

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

soil compaction

increased
reduced
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased

habitat diversity

decreased
increased
Other ecological impacts

Hazards towards adverse events

improved
reduced
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

100%

Comments/ specify:

reduced dry season effect

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

0%

Quantity after SLM:

50%

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm well
local windstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought not well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

neutral/ balanced

Long-term returns:

positive

Comments:

Increase of irrigation water availability will improve agricultural production and cover all the expenses that were needed for the establishment of the irrigation system

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

18 households (area is 10 ha)

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%
Comments:

80% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

15 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

20% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

3 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: some land users have already adopted the system

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Increase water resources for irrigation of orchards
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Increases water saving up to 50%
Opportunity to irrigate orchards during droughts and dry spells (when there is no irrigation water available)
Opportunity to apply this technology on steep slopes
Reservoir can be filled with rainwater

How can they be sustained / enhanced? through installation of rainwater harvesting system

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The system has to be regularly cleaned from sediments use filters to clean water from sediments

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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