Technologies

Planting forest on mountain slopes using moisture accumulating trenches (CACILM) [Turkmenistan]

Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM/ИСЦАУЗР)

technologies_1532 - Turkmenistan

Completeness: 80%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
{'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 'Nikolay Zverev', 'user_id': '1975', 'unknown_user': False, 'template': 'raw'}
land user:

Abdurakhmanov Kurbanmuhammed

Turkmenistan

{'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 7, 'label': 'Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)', 'text': 'Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM I)', 'template': 'raw'} {'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 1181, 'label': 'Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)', 'text': 'The National Institute of Deserts, Flora and Fauna of the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan ( NIDFF) - Turkmenistan', 'template': 'raw'}

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Collecting rainwater in artificial trenches on hill and mountain slopes for the accumulation of water in the soil around the roots of trees planted in the trenches

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

Intensive grazing and the felling of trees and shrubs in Turkmenistan led to the degradation of vegetation and soil. Reforestation through planting on slopes and using moisture accumulating trenches in non-irrigated bogara (rainfed) lands leads to a high survival rate of trees, even in years with low rainfall and without irrigation.
A moisture accumulating trench is triangular in cross-section; its depth is 0.4 m and the width on top is 0.7 m. It is made with the help of a single-bladed plough (the soil is dumped towards the slope) or by mounted trench diggers (the upper ridge of soil from the trench is moved to the lower slope). To remove excess water, a short dam is made at the end of the trench angled towards the slope. Marking of the trench’s location should be made perpendicular to the slope. This allows water to evenly fill the trench. If the slope is to 60-100% covered withherbaceous vegetation and does not exceed 16% steepness, the trenches are furrowed at a distance of 12 m. Seedlings are planted in the planting holes 5 m apart at the bottom of the trench. The height of the seedlings should be no less than 50 cm.Surface runoff collecting in the trenchesseeps into the soil and supplies roots with water. Native species have been planted, including Turkmen juniper, Turkmen maple and common almond. The technology also allows for the cultivation of alien species such as Eldar pine, American arborvitae and Red cedar

Purpose of the Technology: The aim of this technology is to create favourable environmental and social conditions in the Konegumbez village area through the restoration of degraded forests by planting seedlings in moisture accumulating trenches that increase the survival rate of plants in non-irrigated boraga lands

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The Konegumbez village is located in the “Nokhur” pilot area of the “Combating land degradation in the three regions of Turkmenistan” project (2002-2007, GIZ-CCD/NIPRZHM). A group of volunteer foresters consisting of local activists was established with financial support and the assistance of both consultants and the project team to restore the forests around the village. The entire population of the village has been involved in the afforestation of 4 ha of land.

Natural / human environment: Konegumbez village is located 150 km west of Ashgabat in the Central Kopetdag at an altitude of 1000 m. The water table is located at a depth of 150-180 m. The ground water is fresh . The soil type is light and dark grey. The vegetation is comprised of grass-forb with sporadic juniper plants. The annual amount of precipitation is 325-355 mm and the average annual temperature is 10.9ºC. The frost-free season last for 190-222 days. The population of Konegumbez village is 400 people People in the village are engaged in livestock breeding. They also grow vegetables and fruits. The total area of pastures amounts to 3,000 hectares. The limited water supply and restricted pasture areas are important constraints for the living conditions of the local population

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Turkmenistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Turkmenistan, Akhal velayat

Further specification of location:

Bakharlinskiy etrap, Konegumbez village

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)
Comments:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.0415 km2.

Region (oblast) - velayat, district - etrap

All the forests in Turkmenistan form the State Forest Fund, which is 9.9 million hectares (including protected areas). The total area of the mountain state forest fund is 524 hectares, and the area covered by forest is 146 hectares. Most of the forest fund is managed by forestry companies consolidated into the “Gek Gushak” joint-stock company and by the enterprises and organizations of the Ministry of Nature Protection. The mountain ecosystems of Turkmenistan include deciduous (at a height of up to 650 m above sea level), juniper woodlands (700-2600 m asl.) and mountain steppes (2700-3000 m). The deciduous mountain woodlands include ecosystems that consist of Griffith’s Redbud (Cercis griffinhii), Turkmen maple (Acer turcomanicum), fluffy maple (Acer pubescens), Caucasian hackberry (Celtis caucasica), bladder senna (Colutea buhsei) and others species that grow on dry stony canyon slopes. Arid juniper woodlands grow together with the mountain steppes and sporadically occur in an area of 42 thousand ha; they never form large solid massifs. These areas are good pastures for grazing animals. Deforestation has led to a change in the water and wind conditions, which adversely affect the productivity of springs and pasture vegetation. Therefore, one of the factors named by the people in Kenegumbez village among those having negative social and environmental impact on mountain areas, is forest degradation (deforestation and overgrazing). Within the framework of the project, afforestation work has been carried out in an area of 50 hectares near the village in a participatory way. Different methods have been used to demonstrate afforestation techniques and to train people: the normal planting of seedlings and watering of plants with water-carrier vehicles for the first year, as well as restoring forests using water-saving techniques (collecting rainwater in trenches and drip irrigation). The technology, including planting forest crops in artificially made trenches, ensures a good survival rate of plants without the need of additional watering. A dedicated collection of rainwater in trenches increases the amount of moisture in the soil horizons and the depth of moisture. The method was tested on a smooth slope at an altitude of 1200 m above sea level, where only 3-4 juniper trees were growing on 4 hectares of land. Furrowing was carried out, taking into account the grass cover that allows to collect sufficient rainwater in the trenches as well as the area needed for nutrition of adult plants. Experience has shown that, under our conditions, for juniper and other plants it is better to dig furrows 12 m apart and plant seedlings in a trench with 5 m distance between plants, i.e. 170 pcs/ha

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

For 30-40 years, a similar technology has been used, albeit rarely, in the cultivation of Amygdalus communis (common almond) near the houses located on abandoned bogara lands.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • preserve/ improve biodiversity
  • create beneficial social impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • vegetables - other
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • fruits, other
  • tree nuts (brazil nuts, pistachio, walnuts, almonds, etc.)
  • Planted forest cultures: Turkmen juniper, Turkmen maple, common almond
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 222; Longest growing period from month to month: from April

Grazing land

Grazing land

Extensive grazing:
  • Nomadism
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism
Animal type:
  • cattle - dairy
  • sheep
  • Livestock density (if relevant): 10-25 LU /km2
Is integrated crop-livestock management practiced?

Yes

If yes, specify:

Nomadism: Sheep and cows are grazed 11 months a year on natural pastures, where shrubs and trees also grow

Semi-nomadism / pastoralism: Several farmers’ families put their small cattle together in one herd and graze them by turns. Additionally they are engaged in land cultivation. Cows are grazed without a shepherd

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

  • Sanitation cutting of shrubs
Products and services:
  • Fruits and nuts
  • Other forest products
  • Grazing/ browsing
Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The number of animals exceeds the capacity of pastures (this results in an increasing number of innutritious and unpalatable plants), trees and shrubs are felled for fuel and construction purposes (consequently leading to a reduction of the water debit in springs and rivers and an increase in floods and soil erosion on slopes)

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Irrigation water shortage, lack of pastures for grazing animals and mud flows washing away the vegetation planted near the river beds

Grazingland comments: Members of the “Yenish” Daikhan Association are engaged in livestock breeding and land cultivation. Small cattle and cows are grazed for 11 months in pastures covered with forests. Forests mainly consist of juniper stands, which were cut on the flat and slightly sloping parts (easily accessible by people), and now these areas are used only as pastures for grazing animals

Sanitation cutting of shrubs: Felling the old dry and diseased trees as well as trees broken by the winds and mudflows

Problems / comments regarding forest use: Currently the entirety of the mountainous part of large villages has access to gas. Cutting down trees for fuel has declined sharply. Tree felling is only made to construct outbuildings.

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Mixed: Ms: Silvo-pastoralism

Type of grazing system comments: Members of the “Yenish” Daikhan Association are engaged in livestock breeding and land cultivation. Small cattle and cows are grazed for 11 months in pastures covered with forests. Forests mainly consist of juniper stands, which were cut on the flat and slightly sloping parts (easily accessible by people), and now these areas are used only as pastures for grazing animals

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • Yes (Please fill out the questions below with regard to the land use before implementation of the Technology)
Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Yes

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Silvo-pastoralism
Grazing land

Grazing land

Comments:

Type of grazing system comments: Members of the “Yenish” Daikhan Association are engaged in livestock breeding and land cultivation. Small cattle and cows are grazed for 11 months in pastures covered with forests. Forests mainly consist of juniper stands, which were cut on the flat and slightly sloping parts (easily accessible by people), and now these areas are used only as pastures for grazing animals

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed
Comments:

Water supply: после обводнение

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • forest plantation management
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover
  • water diversion and drainage

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
structural measures

structural measures

  • S3: Graded ditches, channels, waterways
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type
  • M2: Change of management/ intensity level
  • M3: Layout according to natural and human environment
  • M5: Control/ change of species composition
Comments:

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -linear

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wo: offsite degradation effects
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bh: loss of habitats
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bs: quality and species composition/ diversity decline
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification
  • Hs: change in quantity of surface water
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Wo: offsite degradation effects, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bh: loss of habitats, Bq: quantity / biomass decline, Bs: quality and species composition /diversity decline

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Hs: change in quantity of surface water

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (Felling trees for fuel and construction purposes drastically reduced the vegetation biomass and changed the habitat of birds and animals), overgrazing (Overgrazing leads to the substitution of edible species with inedible species (weeds).), population pressure (The number of animals grazed exceeds pasture capacity by 1.5-2times.A lack of grazing management leads to destruction of undergrowth and hinders maturation of seeds of pasture species and their sowing)

Secondary causes of degradation: disturbance of water cycle (infiltration / runoff) (Degraded land reduces the absorption of precipitation by soil, which leads to a moisture deficiency in the soil and a reduction in active plant growth. Runoff to gullies is increasing), change in temperature (An increase in temperature leads to increased evaporation from the soil surface. Accumulating additional moisture in the soil by the trenches reduces such negative impacts), droughts (In tukmen mountains drought occurs 3 to 4 times in 10 years, affecting the productivity of plant communities. An excessive number of animals grazed on pastures increases degradation of the vegetation), governance / institutional (The absence of a plan for using the village pastures leads to the degradation of vegetation from overgrazing and inappropriate pasture use)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land
Comments:

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation, mitigation / reduction of land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

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Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Collecting rainwater in artificial trenches on the slopes of hills and mountains for the accumulation of water in the soil around the roots of plants planted in the trenches

Location: Konegumbez village. Turkmenistan, Akhal velayat, Bakharlinskyi etrap

Date: 2012-02-13

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high (Implementation of this technology does not require special or higher education. It is enough to attend consultations and receive advice on the application of the technology.)

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (After consultations, the land users can use this technology in afforestation themselves.)

Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, increase / maintain water stored in soil, reduction in wind speed

Secondary technical functions: increase of biomass (quantity), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)

Aligned: -linear
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 170
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 12
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 5

Trees/ shrubs species: Planted forest cultures: Turkmen juniper, Turkmen maple, common almond

Structural measure: trap triangular in cross-section for water collect
Spacing between structures (m): 12
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.4
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.7
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 3320

Structural measure: The soil is dumped with plough towards the slope
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.2
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.3
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 3320

Structural measure: Making planting holes in the trench
Spacing between structures (m): 5
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.4
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5

Construction material (earth): Furrowing moisture accumulating trenches and planting forest plant seedlings into the trenches.

Construction material (other): The soil from the trench is pushed towards the slope to create a dam

Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Change of land use type: For 4 years the area is guarded from grazing animals

Change of land use practices / intensity level: The herbage has been restored in the former grazing areas for up to 150-200 years, depending on the species planted.

Layout change according to natural and human environment: The conditions created on the site have a positive impact on the dynamics of rainwater absorption by soils and on groundwater recharge; they also increase the absorption of carbon dioxide

Control / change of species composition: The forest plantations have improved the structure of the vegetation cover and doubled the species composition (42 species). Perennial grass yields (hay) has been increased to 11.8 centner/ha (3 times

Author:

Nikolay Zverev, 65 Parahat-1 District, ap.26, 744018, Asdhgabat, Turkmenistan

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Turkmen manat

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

2.86

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

10.00

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Purchase of 680 seedlings (cost of seedlings) After furrowing moisture accumulating trenches (late winter and early spring)
2. Seedling transportation (680 pcs) After furrowing moisture accumulating trenches (late winter and early spring)
3. Planting forest seedlings After rainfall (late winter and early spring)
4. Furrowing moisture accumulating trenches, triangular in cross-section, with a single-bladed plough. A 830 m long trench is furrowed on 1 ha After rainfall
5. Making planting holes Before planting
6. Transportation of wire and fittings (materials for site fencing: 200 racks and 2400 m of wire) Before furrowing moisture accumulating trenches (late winter and early spring)
7. Constructing fences around the planted area to protect from grazing animals After planting the seedlings in water accumulating trenches

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Planting forest seedlings (170 pieces) persons/day/ha 1.5 28.666666677 43.0
Labour Making planting holes persons/day/ha 4.0 28.6 114.4
Labour Constructing fences around the planted area persons/day/ha 5.0 28.6 143.0
Equipment Seedling transportation machine hours/ha 12.0 28.5833333333 343.0
Equipment Tractor for furrowing machine hours/ha 3.3 8.66666666 28.6
Equipment Spade pieces/ha 1.0 85.5 85.5
Equipment Transportation of wire and fittings machine hours/ha 5.0 85.8 429.0
Plant material Purchase of 680 seedlings pieces/ha 170.0 0.7 119.0
Construction material Wooden racks for the fences pieces/ha 100.0 6.0 600.0
Construction material Iron wire for fencing meter/ha 1200.0 0.34333333 412.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 2317.5
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 810.31
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 3 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Guarding the site to prevent access by animals For 4 years after planting and fencing the site

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Guarding the site persons/year/ha 4.0 120.0 480.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 480.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 167.83
Comments:

Machinery/ tools: Spade, Tractor, Spade, “Zil” vehicle to transport reeds, water carrier, spades and sickles

Costs were calculated for 1 ha of plantations with furrowed water accumulating trenches (the length of trenches per one ha is 380 m) and planting 170 plants per 1 ha. The costs for 1 ha are 1109 USD. These calculations were made for guarding 1 ha of the site for 4 years (160 USD). The calculations were made on 15.11.2011

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

The cost of the materials for fencing the site to prevent access by animals. Seedlings of Turkmen juniper and Turkmen maple are rarely cultivated in nurseries, and this leads to a rise in the cost of planting materials

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

The average annual precipitation is 325-355 mm, and most of it falls in the period from December to May

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: temperate. For two months a year, the average temperature is below 5°C

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Slopes on average: Suitable for the passage of a tractor

Landforms: On slopes not exceeding 16%

Altitudinal zone: Konegumbez village is located at a height of 1000 m asl., and the plot itself is at 1200 m asl

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil depth on average: Often there are lower underlying source rocks

Soil texture (topsoil): Light and dark gray soils

Soil fertility is medium

Soil drainage / infiltration is medium

Soil water storage capacity is medium and in April, the maximum moisture available in the soil layer from 0-100 cm deep reaches 96 mm

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

> 50 m

Availability of surface water:

excess

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Ground water table: The water table is located at a depth of 150-180 m

Availability of surface water: Mudflows mainly happen in spring and autumn

Water quality (untreated): The water in springs and wells is of a high quality

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:

There are about 2 500 species of higher plants and 373 species of vertebrates registered within the Kapitsa. There are about 22 species of perennial grasses and 12 annual grasses

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Gender:
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Difference in the involvement of women and men: Women's labor is used for planting

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 1% - 2%

100% of the land users are average wealthy and own 100% of the land.

Off-farm income specification: All the farmers’ families living in the Daikhan Association generate their income solely by working on the lands that belong to the association

Market orientation of production system: A private farm provides its own needs and engages in commercial sales. The households are able to provide themselves with agricultural products and can sell them in towns at market price

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale
Comments:

< 0.5 ha: The forest lands are owned by the state and can be leased for the grazing of animals. Leskhozes (state forest enterprises) don’t carry out other activities.People collect forest products by themselves

15-50 ha: The pasture land belongs to the community and is not divided among separate farms (one household uses approximately 40-50 hectares).

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • leased
  • State-owned land is allocated to a Daikhan Association (DA)
  • State-owned land is allocated to a Daikhan Association (DA)
Comments:

The “Yenish” Daikhan Association (DA), of which Konegumbez is a part, has an irrigated land plot near the Karakum Canal, where tenants grow cotton and wheat. In good years, winter wheat is sown on bogara lands in the mountainous region. Livestock grazed in pastures are private. The government does not collect fees for pastures and livestock

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

fodder production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

4 hwt

Quantity after SLM:

11.8 hwt

Comments/ specify:

The productivity of pasture vegetation has increased by 3 times due to the protection of the site and accumulation of moisture in the soil, as well as reduced wind speed, but for 4 years, this area (4 ha) will be withheld from grazing animals (16 centners of forage)

fodder quality

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

6-7 months

Quantity after SLM:

20 months

Comments/ specify:

Before the technology has been applied 1 sheep could be grazed during 6-7 months/1 ha, and after application of the technology it has become possible to graze 1 sheep/20 months or 2 sheep/10 months

animal production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

2.2 sheep

Quantity after SLM:

0

Comments/ specify:

With previously available forage resources 2.2 sheep could be grazed additionally at 4 ha during 4 years.

wood production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

1 pcs/ha

Quantity after SLM:

170 pcs/ha

Comments/ specify:

After applying the technology, 170 plants can grow on 1 ha of land

risk of production failure

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

30-40%

Quantity after SLM:

80-90%

Comments/ specify:

In dry years, the plants’ survival rate is reduced to 30-40%; the use of the technology increases the survival rate to 85%

Water availability and quality

demand for irrigation water

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

60-70 l/1 pcs

Quantity after SLM:

0

Comments/ specify:

In the first year after planting, watering was carried out twice with 35 l per tree in the forest plantations to achieve a high survival rate of plants

Income and costs

farm income

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

1-2%

Quantity after SLM:

0

Comments/ specify:

If the pasture were owned by a farmer, the income from the livestock breeding would be reduced by 1-2%.

Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

0

Quantity after SLM:

2

Comments/ specify:

Two workshops have been held and vegetation has been planted on the land plot. A guide on the methods of using rainfall for growing plants on bogara has been published

livelihood and human well-being

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

A small forested area appeared near the village (trees are grown with using moisture accumulating trenches), which reduces surface runoff and the wind speed; therefore the moisture remains in the soil longer eventually increasing pasture productivity

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

increased
decreased
Quantity after SLM:

60-70%

Comments/ specify:

The runoff has been reduced by collecting water in the trenches

evaporation

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Plant transpiration and soil evaporation were reduced by lowering the wind speed by planting trees

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

0.8-1.1 m

Quantity after SLM:

1.4-1.8 m

Comments/ specify:

The depth of moisture in the trenches is 1.8 times greater than in virgin soil

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

22 species

Quantity after SLM:

36 species

Comments/ specify:

These figures were taken in the area where the technology was used

habitat diversity

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

0

Quantity after SLM:

20 species

Comments/ specify:

In the future, the seeds of planted trees and associated species will increase biodiversity and species distribution

Climate and disaster risk reduction

wind velocity

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

100%

Quantity after SLM:

15-20%

Comments/ specify:

The wind speed is reduced by 15-20% in the forest areas

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm well
local windstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not known

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

Comments:

In the short term, degraded forest and pasture vegetation restores and provides seeds the ability to self-regenerate and for the regeneration of neighboring areas. In the long term, the forest and pasture vegetation recovers

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

8 households covering 100 percent of stated area

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%
Comments:

5 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: 5 families from the group of volunteer foresters participated in preparation for the planting and in furrowing trenches. The project provided 100% of the funds

3 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: Currently, this technology is used by 3 farmers for the greening of non-irrigated household plots

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: The households are mainly located on steep canyon slopes, so applying this technology or its adaptation requires significant financial and labour costs (manual labor and a bulldozer to construct the terraces). Therefore, if moisture accumulating trenches are furrowed manually, the planting areas would not be very large; plants are mainly cultivated by people who love gardening

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Plants are better rooted in the areas with the forest species planted in the trenches

How can they be sustained / enhanced? We guarded this area, and now we are grazing our sheep only in winter when there is snow. Therefore, these trees will remain for long time
Trees planted in the rainwater accumulating trenches at the site grows faster in comparison to the usual plantations
Some of our farmers use similar technology (changing the distance between the furrows) for greening and planting almonds near households on degraded non-irrigated lands

How can they be sustained / enhanced? We believe that young people building new houses will use this technology, because there is a lot of land available but not enough irrigation water. This technology will help to green the households
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
This technology can be used to restore the forest or to create a garden on non-irrigated lands (bogara) with a high risk for farming

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Climate change that leads to increased temperatures and shortage of irrigation water will extend the arid areas. Demand for this technology or its varieties is always high, because it improves the plants’ survival rate, even in dry years
This technology does not require watering the planted forest for the first year after planting

How can they be sustained / enhanced? When properly managed, the forested area can be used perpetually
The depth of moisture near the root system is 1.8 times greater than in virgin soil due to the collection of rainwater in the trenches

How can they be sustained / enhanced? The trenches can be used for 10 years with no extra costs.
In dry years the survival rate of plants is reduced to 30-40% in plantations withouth water collection trenches; the use of the technology increases the rate to 85%.
The productivity of pasture vegetation has been increased by 3 times from 4 centner/ha to 11.8 centner/ha

How can they be sustained / enhanced? When properly managed, the forested area can be used in perpetuity and will constantly expand due to natural regeneration

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The technology is good, but the 0.25 ha of land near my house are state owned and allocated to me by the government. If I were to fence the nearby degraded lands, my neighbors or the forestry service have the right to deprive me of this land It is necessary that the government allows the use of this land
If we plant forests on large areas and temporarily guard them, then we will have no pastures to graze our livestock If the government would provide us with financial support for afforestation and use of this technology in our pastures, we would select suitable places and plant the trees. We would also guard and manage the plantations
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The area with planted forest should be guarded for 4 years. Regulated grazing. In the second year after planting, only sheep may be grazed on this area (in early spring or winter, when there is no snow). Sheep mostly eat the leaves and stems of herbaceous plants.
In the Soviet Union, when afforestation was carried out, the planting area was completely closed to grazing animals for 5-6 years. Therefore, the local communities did not like such measures. Planting forests is a nationwide problem and it should be solved systematically according to the plan developed, taking into account all the aspects of grazing animals on farms. This year the Forest Act came into force, confirming the need for restoration of forest resources

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Erosion control measures in mountainous areas. The “The restoration and use of soils” collected book, Zykov I.G. - 1998, p.95-106

Available from where? Costs?

Ashgabat, Library of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan

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