View sectionsExpand all Collapse all
1. General information
1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology
Key resource person(s)
1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT
When were the data compiled (in the field)?
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:
1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology
Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?
2. Description of the SLM Technology
2.1 Short description of the Technology
Definition of the Technology:
Marshy land is transformed into a ridge and ditch area, where the ridges are wide enough for the nursery of diverse plants and seedlings and where after 6-8 years the yearly management practices the land got strong enough for various agricultural practices (i.e. guava, hog plum, plums and timber wood plantation).
2.2 Detailed description of the Technology
The technology of marshy land convert into ridge and ditch was taken by a community of southern of Bangladesh in order to make that area productive. Long year ago a continuous marshy land covered most of the area of southern Bangladesh like Pirjpur, Jhalokath. This area was flooded more than 9 month and remain perennial wet, that were totally unproductive. So, that technology not only increases agricultural production or economical benefits but also creates a green belt by developing agro-forest. The technology consists of ridge and ditch area. Ridges are elevated beds - land which is 4-6 feet high from surface and 7-9 feet wide. Length of each bed is variable according to size of the land. And ditches are canals - areas that are 5-6 feet wide and deeper than the normal surface area.
At initial stage elevated areas are not strong enough to start cultivating trees like guava, hug plum or other fruit plants. So they use it for nursery of diversified plants, fruit trees such as Banana and Papaya, vegetables, preparation of seedling sapling or as seedbed (rice). Management practices are running every year to develop the ridges and make them strong. Land users are putting soil/muck from the ditches on the ridges to make them higher and to give better protection from flooding water, to increase the fertility, to conserve moisture and reserve organic matter. Though eroded soil and other plant residues are accumulated in the ditches so ultimately they return over the ridge surface. Land become suitable after 4-5 year for planting various trees like guava hog plum, plums, lemons, Areca nuts and various timber producing tress like Teak (Tectona grandis), Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Approximately 7 – 8 year after fruit trees are become appropriate and the physical and biological conditions of the sites have improved. Then land user start to cultivate various vegetables and other agricultural practices. Furthermore, sometime users set up a platform for creeper crops on the canal which works as support for Pumpkins and gourds. Trees and vegetables are irrigated from ditch/canal where water is reserve over the year, even in dry season if necessary. As a result of growing biomass, land degradation from the site has reduced and the fertility of the soil has increased. When fruit trees have reached its harvesting stage, the land users collect fruits for sale with expected income of about 1000USD. Vegetable also provide more than 500USD benefit from each site every year. Approximately 25 years after Mahogany, Teak, and other timber producing trees are getting mature and reach their harvesting stage. Land user cut the trees for selling with expected income of about 10000 USD from each site and size of approximately one hectare.
The technology is working well and is easily manageable by the land users. Nowadays not only farmers but also a large portion of population are interacting with that technology and their lifestyle have changed. Many people are also working to manufacture initial nursery products like seedling bag, earthen pot, creeping materials like bamboo, string, yarn, net, seedling and other material for preparing plant nursery, fruit garden, mixed agro-forest etc. Other people work to transport product from the area to the consumers and some people work to manufacture vehicles like boats, local vans etc. Also locale communities developed the largest floating market of Bangladesh.
The farmers are applying the technology without any extra financial support. According to the land users, they estimate about 200 – 300 family which have applied the technology. Approximately 350 person-day/ha were employed for construction and 50 person – day/ha sufficient for yearly maintenance work. 1600 USD was spending on the construction and most of the cost covered by owner. Farmers have faced some drawback such as undeveloped communication infrastructure and insufficiently developed market places. On the other hand, if they get support from government and related authority, this technology even become more beneficial for them.
2.3 Photos of the Technology
2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment
Region/ State/ Province:
Atghar Kuriana Union, Swarupkati, Pirojpur
Further specification of location:
sites are increasing day by day and enter into deep swampy land
2.6 Date of implementation
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
- 10-50 years ago
2.7 Introduction of the Technology
Specify how the Technology was introduced:
- through land users' innovation
3. Classification of the SLM Technology
3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology
- improve production
- create beneficial economic impact
- create beneficial social impact
3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied
- Annual cropping
- Perennial (non-woody) cropping
- Tree and shrub cropping
Main crops (cash and food crops):
Main crops are guava and hog plum. vegetables are harvested within five to six month. Bananas and papaya stay for several years. woody trees are harvest after they get mature.
Mixed (crops/ grazing/ trees), incl. agroforestry
3.3 Further information about land use
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
Number of growing seasons per year:
3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs
- wetland protection/ management
- convert marshy land into productive ridge and ditch
3.5 Spread of the Technology
Specify the spread of the Technology:
- evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered:
- 10-100 km2
The technology expanding with time.
3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology
- A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
- V1: Tree and shrub cover
- S2: Bunds, banks
3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology
physical soil deterioration
- Pw: waterlogging
- Hs: change in quantity of surface water
Land was lower and flooded more than 9 month and remain perennial wet. So the technology helps to overcome waterlogged condition and remain surface water over the year even in dry season at ditch area.
3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation
Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
- restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land
4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs
4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology
4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing
Method of marshy land transform into productive land bases on ridges and ditches. ridges are 7-9 feet wide and 4-6 feet high. Height is variable because yearly management practices increase the height of the ridges. Ditches are connected with each other from the edge/end of the each ridge. This types of connection support water movement and the moving of the boats for crop management and crop harvesting.
4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs
Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
- per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:
Specify currency used for cost calculations:
- US Dollars
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:
4.4 Establishment activities
|Activity||Type of measure||Timing|
|1.||Develop ridge and ditch||Structural||7-15 days|
|2.||vegetative cover with vegetables, seedling, sapling||Vegetative||2-3 months|
|3.||fruit trees, timber producing trees||Vegetative||3-25 years|
Mainly the structural measure are important. But other measures are also important to make the technology stable. At initial stage without vegetative measure, soil will not become stable enough to take further steps of plantation.
4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment
If possible, break down the costs of establishment according to the following table, specifying inputs and costs per input. If you are unable to break down the costs, give an estimation of the total costs of establishing the Technology:
|Specify input||Unit||Quantity||Costs per Unit||Total costs per input||% of costs borne by land users|
|Plant material||seedling (fruit trees)||piece||500.0||0.1||50.0||100.0|
|Plant material||seedling (timber producing trees)||piece||300.0||0.1||30.0||100.0|
|Total costs for establishment of the Technology||1600.0|
4.6 Maintenance/ recurrent activities
|Activity||Type of measure||Timing/ frequency|
|1.||management practice to make ridges and ditches uniform and productive||Structural||3-7days|
|2.||seasonal vegetable||Vegetative||2-3 month|
4.7 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)
|Specify input||Unit||Quantity||Costs per Unit||Total costs per input||% of costs borne by land users|
|Plant material||seedling vegetable ( e.g gourd)||pieces||250.0||0.05||12.5||100.0|
|Construction material||string, ropes||piece||1.0||5.0||5.0||100.0|
|Total costs for maintenance of the Technology||317.5|
4.8 Most important factors affecting the costs
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:
Basket, spade and other equipment which are needs to develop the site is not carried by land user, these are collecting by laborers. transportation cost also carried by local traders. farmers are represent their product in local market (floating guava market) and then local traders are buy it and transport it to city or capital
5. Natural and human environment
- < 250 mm
- 251-500 mm
- 501-750 mm
- 751-1,000 mm
- 1,001-1,500 mm
- 1,501-2,000 mm
- 2,001-3,000 mm
- 3,001-4,000 mm
- > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:
Length of rainy season 5 month that causes water level becoming close to the bed.
Slopes on average:
- flat (0-2%)
- gentle (3-5%)
- moderate (6-10%)
- rolling (11-15%)
- hilly (16-30%)
- steep (31-60%)
- very steep (>60%)
- mountain slopes
- hill slopes
- valley floors
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
- not relevant
Soil depth on average:
- very shallow (0-20 cm)
- shallow (21-50 cm)
- moderately deep (51-80 cm)
- deep (81-120 cm)
- very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
- medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
- medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
- high (>3%)
5.4 Water availability and quality
Ground water table:
< 5 m
Availability of surface water:
Water quality (untreated):
for agricultural use only (irrigation)
Is water salinity a problem?
Is flooding of the area occurring?
Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:
flooding normally occur in rainy season but it is not destructive for the technology
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:
This green belt workes as shelter for birds.
5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology
Sedentary or nomadic:
Market orientation of production system:
- mixed (subsistence/ commercial
- 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
Individuals or groups:
- individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
- manual work
Age of land users:
5.7 Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology
- < 0.5 ha
- 0.5-1 ha
- 1-2 ha
- 2-5 ha
- 5-15 ha
- 15-50 ha
- 50-100 ha
- 100-500 ha
- 500-1,000 ha
- 1,000-10,000 ha
- > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
Size depends on user capability. Sometime users like to make smaller sites which are easy to maintain. Larger sites reduce waste of land and give extra space to cultivation.
5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights
- individual, titled
Land use rights:
Water use rights:
- open access (unorganized)
5.9 Access to services and infrastructure
employment (e.g. off-farm):
roads and transport:
drinking water and sanitation:
6. Impacts and concluding statements
6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown
bare land become productive
organic materials are mainly used
vegetable and fruit resides can use as animal food
timber trees not only fill local demand but also supply in many area of Bangladesh
forest/ woodland quality
risk of production failure
Crop failure by flooding is protected
Here produce timber, fruit, vegetable, seedling sapling etc
production area remarkably increase
Very easy and local farmers manage it easily.
Water availability and quality
irrigation water availability
Water is available even in dry season
irrigation water quality
demand for irrigation water
ditch contain enough water in available condition for plant
Income and costs
expenses on agricultural inputs
diversity of income sources
Peoples not only depend on agriculture.
It reduces the economic disparities as it opens new working places.
food security/ self-sufficiency
Net yearly production of food increases.
People get proper nutrient from fruits and vegetable, which are totally chemical free
land use/ water rights
situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups
not only men but also women are work on site. normally land users family members are always help them every way
Water cycle/ runoff
Total amount of water is reduced.
Good quality water found in all seasons.
excess water drainage
Drainage condition of cultivated ridge area is very good
Vegetative cover reduces the total evaporation .
Yearly management practice helps to increase the soil moisture.
Annual and perennial crops cover the area.
nutrient cycling/ recharge
soil organic matter/ below ground C
Release reserved carbon from muck.
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals
A bare land convert into vegetative cover
biomass/ above ground C
Variety among plants and crops is seem.
The trees serve as nesting habitat
Climate and disaster risk reduction
ridges are free from flood
water reserved in ditch in dry season
emission of carbon and greenhouse gases
large vegetation consume huge amount of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases
6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown
buffering/ filtering capacity
wind transported sediments
damage on neighbours' fields
damage on public/ private infrastructure
impact of greenhouse gases
6.4 Cost-benefit analysis
How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
To develop such kinds of structure requires a huge amount of investment which is not covered in a short time. But in the future it becomes highly beneficial. Yearly maintenance practices not only increase soil fertility, moisture and nutrient availability but land become higher from flooding water as well.
6.5 Adoption of the Technology
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?
6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology
|Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view|
|The Technology increase the amount of productive land.|
|Peoples economic condition have changed to the better. This technology creates working place for many people.|
|The Technology increase availability of fresh products. e.g vegetable, fruits.|
|The development of largest floating market of Bangladesh is seen as very positive.|
|Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view|
|The Technology increase the greenhouse gas consumption.|
|Seedling and sapling are distributed in whole country and increase the vegetation cover.|
|It fulfills the demand of timber and it reduces the deforestation of natural forests.|
6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them
|Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view||How can they be overcome?|
|The communication and transport infrastructure is not very well developped.||Reconstruction of the road.|
|Floating market are temporary and disapear after morning.||Make stable market places.|
|Farmer have no precise knowledge about crop, seeds and hybrid varieties.||Government and non-government organizations services is required.|
|Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view||How can they be overcome?|
|Water ecosystem is hampered||More research should be taken|
|Huge amount of reserved carbon get released.||Planting enough tree to consume that|
7. References and links
7.1 Methods/ sources of information
- field visits, field surveys
- interviews with land users