Technologies

Banquettes en terre irriguée combinées à l’agroforesterie [Morocco]

Qanderte (ⵇⴰⵓⴷⴰⵕⵟ) القندرت

technologies_2165 - Morocco

Completeness: 90%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Moha Ahdour

Agriculteur

Morocco

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Projet de Gestion Participative et Intégrée des Bassins Versants pour la Lutte contre l’Erosion (FAO/GPC/MOR/050/SWI)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Royaume du Maroc, Haut Commissariat aux Eaux et Forêts et à la Lutte Contre la Désertification (Royaume du Maroc) - Morocco

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

No

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Les banquettes, combinées avec des plantations à base d'espèces forestières et fruitières, ont pour objectif de lutter contre l'érosion hydrique qui menace les habitations et les infrastructures de base en aval de la parcelle.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

La récurrence de périodes de sécheresse et de violentes averses estivales provoque l’accélération de l’érosion hydrique sous toutes ses formes et des inondations qui compromettent sérieusement tout développement normal de la zone. Pour lutter contre l’érosion hydrique, un exploitant du Douar de Flilou a pris l'initiative de mettre en place une parcelle de plantations anti érosives en s’inspirant d’un projet pilote mis en place par la FAO à proximité.
Des banquettes traditionnelles ont été établies grâce à la construction de talus en pierre qui suivent les courbes de niveau.
Le but de ces structures est de fractionner les pentes et de diminuer l’importance duruissellement pour contrôler l’érosion, augmenter l’infiltration et la quantité d’eau stockée dans le sol et accumuler les sédiments érodés.
Des cultures diversifiées sont installées sur ces banquettes. La plantation des légumineuses aide aussi à améliorer la fertilité du sol. Des structures de collecte des eaux ont été développées pour améliorer encore les rendements des plantations d’arbres fruitiers en particulier. Un des inconvénients de cette technologie est qu’elle nécessite un entretien très fréquent.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Morocco

Region/ State/ Province:

Midelt

Further specification of location:

Qcer Flylou

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • applied at specific points/ concentrated on a small area
Comments:

Une superficie inferieur à 0,1 km2.

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:

2011

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem
  • reduce risk of disasters
  • adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • vegetables - other
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • agave / sisal
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • figs
  • pome fruits (apples, pears, quinces, etc.)
  • olive
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Type of tree:
  • Pinus species
  • Populus species
  • Chêne vert (cf. Quercus ilex), roseau
Comments:

Principaux produits/ services: Olivier, figuiers, pommier, chênes vert ,pin d’Alep, gave, roseau, légumes, peuplier...

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • Yes (Please fill out the questions below with regard to the land use before implementation of the Technology)
Comments:

Au passé la parcelle a été un terrain de parcours accidenté et maintenant la parcelle est devenu agro-forestière.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • mixed rainfed-irrigated
Comments:

Valorisation des eaux pluviale pour assurer l 'irrigation des plantations (eaux des seguia).
Et également, il assure l'irrigation par un tuyau bronché de sa maison vers la parcelle.

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • agroforestry
  • cross-slope measure
  • ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
structural measures

structural measures

  • S1: Terraces
  • S7: Water harvesting/ supply/ irrigation equipment
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type
  • M3: Layout according to natural and human environment
  • M5: Control/ change of species composition

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
  • Wm: mass movements/ landslides
  • Wo: offsite degradation effects
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
  • Eo: offsite degradation effects
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bs: quality and species composition/ diversity decline
  • Bl: loss of soil life
  • Bp: increase of pests/ diseases, loss of predators
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification
  • Hs: change in quantity of surface water

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Longueur de la parcelle : 20 m
Largeur de la parcelle : 14 m
Espace entre banquettes: 1.50 cm
L'espace entre les arbres est très faible (moins d'1 mètre).

Author:

Chkirni Malika

Date:

03/05/2017

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

280 m2

other/ national currency (specify):

Dirhams

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

10.0

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

80 dirhams

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Installation des banquètes Novembre
2. Plantation des oliviers Mars
3. Plantation des figuiers Mars
4. Plantation des roseaux Mars
5. Plantation des pommiers Mars
6. Plantation de chêne vert Avril
7. Plantation du pin d’Alep Avril
8. Plantation des cyprès Avril
Comments:

Plantation des plantes de raisin , noyer, faux poivrier , raquette de figue de barbarie...
Ainsi des cultures des maraichage notamment persil ,oignions, fèves, tomates..etc

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Main d’ouvre de construction des banquettes Jours 60.0 80.0 4800.0 100.0
Plant material plantation des oliviers plants 70.0 7.5 525.0 100.0
Plant material plantation des pommiers plants 14.0 8.0 112.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Engrais 18/46 kg 50.0 4.2 210.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 5647.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 564.7
Comments:

Toutes les activités ont été à la charge de l’exploitant de terre. Les couts ont été calculés seulment pour 200 m2 et non pas par hectare.

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Cultures maraîchères
2. Fertilsation du sol deux fois par année
3. Entretien des banquettes après l'hiver
4. Irrigation deux fois par mois

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour main d'oeuvre jours 5.0 80.0 400.0 100.0
Equipment Tuyau d’irrigation M 38.0 7.0 266.0 100.0
Equipment Achat d’engrais Kg 50.0 4.2 210.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 876.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 87.6

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

La disponibilité de main d'oeuvre.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Pluvimétrie très variable d'une année à autre.

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Un climat rude marqué par un hiver rigoureux et un été chaud, influencé par les amplitudes thermiques saisonnières et
journalières.

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Il s’agit des calcaires, des calcaires dolomitiques et des marnes du jurassique. Cette série repose en discordance sur les terrains sous-jacents.

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?

No

Is flooding of the area occurring?

Yes

Regularity:

episodically

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • high
Habitat diversity:
  • high
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:

La régénération d'autres espèces dégradés notamment le thym et l'armoise.

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
  • commercial/ market
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Gender:
  • men
Age of land users:
  • elderly
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

C'est un agriculteur vieux.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)
  • communal (organized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

crop quality

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Bonne conduite des cultures par l’apport du fumier organique, ainsi que l'irrigation.

forest/ woodland quality

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

L'irrigation des plantes forestiers facilite la bonne croissance de ces espèces par rapport aux plantations dans des terrains forestiers non-irrigués

product diversity

decreased
increased
Water availability and quality

irrigation water availability

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

L’exploitant a mis en place un système d'irrigation.

demand for irrigation water

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Dans le passé, c'était un parcourt dégradé et maintenant l'exploitant peut effectuer des cultures irriguées.

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Diminution des charges en matière d’achat des intrants.

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

community institutions

weakened
strengthened
Comments/ specify:

Mise en place d’une association par le projet FAO et collaboration avec la Direction Provinciale des Eaux et Forêts de Midelt pour renforcer et sensibiliter les populations quant aux effets bénéfiques de cette pratique.

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity

decreased
increased

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved

surface runoff

increased
decreased

groundwater table/ aquifer

lowered
recharge
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil loss

increased
decreased

soil accumulation

decreased
increased

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

soil compaction

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover

decreased
increased

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased

beneficial species

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

flood impacts

increased
decreased

landslides/ debris flows

increased
decreased

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased

wind velocity

increased
decreased

micro-climate

worsened
improved

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability

decreased
increased

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season

reduced
increased
Comments/ specify:

Car il utilise l'irrigation.

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

downstream siltation

increased
decreased

buffering/ filtering capacity

reduced
improved

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced

damage on neighbours' fields

increased
reduced

damage on public/ private infrastructure

increased
reduced
Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements):

Généralement se sont des impacts positives.

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well
seasonal temperature summer increase moderately

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm moderately
local hailstorm moderately
local snowstorm moderately
local sandstorm/ duststorm moderately
local windstorm moderately
tornado moderately
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
heatwave moderately
cold wave moderately
extreme winter conditions moderately
drought moderately
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
landslide well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 1-10%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

Son voisin à été inspiré la technologie de M.Moha et il a fait la meme chose que lui.

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?

Yes

If yes, indicate to which changing conditions it was adapted:
  • changing markets
Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.):

Diversification des espèces avec des arbres fruitiers et forestiers.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Avantage de point de vue esthétique.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
La lutte contre l'érosion hydrique.
La lutte contre la dégradation off-site (protection des habitations en aval).

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Les arbres sont plantés trop densément pour une production intéressante. Une fois les espèces adaptées identifiées, couper les autres.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users

Interview avec Mr. Moha.

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts
  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation
When were the data compiled (in the field)?

03/05/2017

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

FAO/GCP/INT/093/SPA/2011-Monographie du sous-bassin versant d’Oued Outat

Available from where? Costs?

FAO Maroc

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Rainwater harvesting for drylands and beyond, Brad Lancaster,

Available from where? Costs?

https://www.harvestingrainwater.com/

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Monographie de la province de Midelt

URL:

https://magazine-geo.blogspot.com/2014/06/monographie-de-la-province-de-midelt.html

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all

Modules