Technologies

Agriculture de Conservation [Tunisia]

Semis direct

technologies_3727 - Tunisia

Completeness: 90%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

Angar Houcine

Institut National des Grandes Cultures

Tunisia

land user:

Abderabbou Adnen

Association d'Agriculture de Conservation

Tunisia

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1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

No

Comments:

Au contraire, l'agriculture de conservation favorise la limitation de dégradation des terres et améliore la production.

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

L’agriculture de conservation est une technologie basée sur trois principes : la perturbation minimale du sol, la couverture permanente des sols et la diversification de cultures en rotations ou en séquences.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

Vu les problèmes de dégradation des terres par l’érosion hydrique et le baisse de la fertilité chimique et biologique des sols qui ont conduit à une diminution des rendements des grandes cultures, l’agriculture et lors d’une réunion avec les représentants du ministère de l’agriculture ou un groupe étranger a présenté l’agriculture de conservation comme alternative à la dégradation des terres et l’amélioration de sa fertilité, il s’est convaincu de l’utilité de cette technologie et il a testé l’application de l’agriculture de conservation avec ses trois principes dans ses terres avec l’appui d’un groupe d’experts français du CIRAD à travers l’agence française de développement AFD et le centre technique des céréales en Tunisie.
En faite l’agriculture de conservation consiste à éliminer le labour de la terre et le remplacer par un désherbage chimique pour éliminer les mauvaises herbes et de semer directement par un semoir spécial appelé semoir de semis direct. Ensuite l’agriculture conduit ses cultures comme il le faisait auparavant après récolte, l’agriculture doit laisser une partie des résidus des cultures sur le sol pour le couvrir durant l’été, la période ou il n’y a pas des cultures. L’agriculture de conservation exige aussi l’élimination de la monoculture et le diversification des cultures qu’on appelle rotation ou séquence des cultures des différentes familles.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Comments, short description:

Semis Direct sous couvert végétal vivant permanent.

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Tunisia

Region/ State/ Province:

Krib, Siliana

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1-10 km2
Comments:

140 ha (98% de surface est cultivé)

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[{"tech_impacts_situationdisadvantaged": 6}], "tech_qg_118": [{"tech_impacts_waterquantity": 1}], "tech_qg_119": [{"tech_impacts_waterquality": 7}], "tech_qg_120": [{"tech_impacts_harvestingwater": 7}], "tech_qg_121": [{"tech_impacts_surfacerunoff": 7}], "tech_qg_122": [{"tech_impacts_waterdrainage": 7}], "tech_qg_123": [{"tech_impacts_groundwater": 7}], "tech_qg_124": [{"tech_impacts_evaporation": 7}], "tech_qg_125": [{"tech_impacts_soilmoisture": 7}], "tech_qg_126": [{"tech_impacts_soilcover": 7}], "tech_qg_127": [{"tech_impacts_soilloss": 7}], "tech_qg_128": [{"tech_impacts_soilaccumulation": 7}], "tech_qg_129": [{"tech_impacts_soilcrusting": 7}], "tech_qg_130": [{"tech_impacts_soilcompaction": 7}], "tech_qg_131": [{"tech_impacts_nutrientcycling": 7}], "tech_qg_133": [{"tech_impacts_soilorganicmatter": 7}], "tech_qg_134": [{"tech_impacts_soilacidity": 3}], "tech_qg_135": [{"tech_impacts_animaldiversity": 6}], "tech_qg_136": [{"tech_impacts_plantdiversity": 7}], "tech_qg_137": [{"tech_impacts_invasivespecies": 5}], "tech_qg_138": [{"tech_impacts_beneficialspecies": 7}], "tech_qg_139": [{"tech_impacts_habitatdiversity": 7}], "tech_qg_140": [{"tech_impacts_biomass": 7}], "tech_qg_141": [{"tech_impacts_emissioncarbon": 7}], "tech_qg_142": [{"tech_impacts_floodimpacts": 7}], "tech_qg_143": [{"tech_impacts_firerisk": 7}], "tech_qg_144": [{"tech_impacts_windvelocity": 7}], "tech_qg_145": [{"tech_impacts_pestcontrol": 7}], "tech_qg_147": [{"tech_impacts_downstreamflooding": 7}], "tech_qg_149": [{"tech_impacts_downstreamsiltation": 7}], "tech_qg_150": [{"tech_impacts_groundwaterpollution": 7}], "tech_qg_151": [{"tech_impacts_bufferingcapacity": 7}], "tech_qg_152": [{"tech_impacts_windtransportedsediments": 7}], "tech_qg_153": [{"tech_impacts_damageneighbourfield": 7}], "tech_qg_154": [{"tech_impacts_damageinfrastructure": 7}], "tech_qg_155": [{"tech_impacts_impactgreenhousegases": 7}], "tech_qg_156": [{"tech_sustainability": 0, "tech_sustainability_indicate": {"en": "Au contraire, l'agriculture de conservation favorise la limitation de d\u00e9gradation des terres et am\u00e9liore la production. "}}], "tech_qg_160": [{"tech_implementation_year": 1999, "tech_implementation_decades": "implemenation_10_50"}], "tech_qg_163": [{"tech_perarea_size": {"en": "1 hectare", "fr": "1 hectare"}}], "tech_qg_164": [{"tech_input_average_wage": {"en": "20 Dinar Tunisien.", "fr": "20 Dinar Tunisien."}, "tech_input_exchange_rate": 2.5, "tech_input_national_currency": {"en": "Dinar Tunisien", "fr": "Dinar Tunisien"}}], "tech_qg_165": [{"tech_est_timing": {"en": "Novembre", "fr": "Novembre"}, "tech_est_activity": {"en": "D\u00e9sherbage chimique au lieu du labour", "fr": "D\u00e9sherbage chimique au lieu du labour"}}, {"tech_est_timing": {"en": "Novembre", "fr": "Novembre"}, "tech_est_activity": {"en": "Semis direct", "fr": "Semis direct"}}, {"tech_est_timing": {"en": "D\u00e9cembre", "fr": "D\u00e9cembre"}, "tech_est_activity": {"en": "Premier apport de fertilisation azot\u00e9e", "fr": "Premier apport de fertilisation azot\u00e9e"}}, {"tech_est_timing": {"en": "Janvier", "fr": "Janvier"}, "tech_est_activity": {"en": "D\u00e9sherbage chimique", "fr": "D\u00e9sherbage chimique"}}, {"tech_est_timing": {"en": "Mars", "fr": "Mars"}, "tech_est_activity": {"en": "Deuxi\u00e8me apport de fertilisation azot\u00e9e", "fr": "Deuxi\u00e8me apport de fertilisation azot\u00e9e"}}], "tech_qg_167": [{"tech_impacts_vegcover": 7}], "tech_qg_168": [{"tech_exposure_incrdecr": "increase", "tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_169": [{"tech_exposure_season": "season_dry", "tech_exposure_incrdecr": "increase", "tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_170": [{"tech_exposure_incrdecr": "decrease", "tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_171": [{"tech_exposure_season": "season_rainy", "tech_exposure_incrdecr": "decrease", "tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_179": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_181": [{"tech_costbenefit_est_long": "costbenefit_verypositive", "tech_costbenefit_est_short": "costbenefit_positive"}], "tech_qg_182": [{"tech_costbenefit_est_long": "costbenefit_verypositive", "tech_costbenefit_est_short": "costbenefit_verypositive"}], "tech_qg_184": [{"country": "country_TUN", "person_gender": "gender_male", "person_lastname": {"en": "Angar", "fr": "Angar"}, "person_firstname": {"en": "Houcine", "fr": "Houcine"}, "person_institution_name": {"en": "Institut National des Grandes Cultures", "fr": "Institut National des Grandes Cultures"}, "user_resourceperson_type": "resourceperson_slmspecialist"}, {"country": "country_TUN", "person_gender": "gender_male", "person_lastname": {"en": "Abderabbou", "fr": "Abderabbou"}, "person_firstname": {"en": "Adnen", "fr": "Adnen"}, "person_institution_name": {"en": "Association d'Agriculture de Conservation", "fr": "Association d'Agriculture de Conservation"}, "user_resourceperson_type": "resourceperson_landuser"}], "tech_qg_185": [{"tech_drawing": "51ab7c19-6843-4ae1-8836-41b8d376f9fa", "tech_drawing_date": "30/04/2018", "tech_drawing_author": {"en": "Houcine Angar", "fr": "Houcine Angar"}, "tech_specifications": {"en": "Le dessin technique montre une partie de la parcelle qui est cultiv\u00e9e, dont le sol est couvert par les cultures. Une deuxi\u00e8me partie est parcouru par le semoir de semis direct, dont le sol est couvert par les r\u00e9sidues de la culture pr\u00e9c\u00e9dente.", "fr": "Le dessin technique montre une partie de la parcelle qui est cultiv\u00e9e, dont le sol est couvert par les cultures. Une deuxi\u00e8me partie est parcouru par le semoir de semis direct, dont le sol est couvert par les r\u00e9sidues de la culture pr\u00e9c\u00e9dente."}}], "tech_qg_188": [{"tech_impacts_microclimate": 7}], "tech_qg_191": [{"tech_adoption_quantify": {"fr": "12000 ha"}, "tech_adoption_percentage": "adoption_percentage_less_10", "tech_adoption_spontaneously": "tech_adoption_spont_0_10"}], "tech_qg_192": [{"tech_adaptation_modification_other": {"fr": "la d\u00e9gradation du mulch n\u00e9cessite plus d'azote."}}], "tech_qg_193": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_199": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_200": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_201": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_202": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_very_well"}], "tech_qg_204": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_moderately"}], "tech_qg_208": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_very_well"}], "tech_qg_210": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_very_well"}], "tech_qg_211": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_very_well"}], "tech_qg_213": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_well"}], "tech_qg_214": [{"tech_exposure_sensitivity": "cope_moderately"}], "tech_qg_217": [{"tech_cost_calculation_base": "tech_input_calc_per_area"}], "tech_qg_218": [{"tech_input_est_unit": {"en": "litre", "fr": "litre"}, "tech_input_est_costs": 20.0, "tech_input_est_specify": {"en": "herbicides", "fr": "herbicides"}, "tech_input_est_quantity": 3.0, "tech_input_est_total_costs_pi": 60.0, "tech_input_est_percentage_costs": 100.0}, {"tech_input_est_unit": {"en": "quintal", "fr": "quintal"}, "tech_input_est_costs": 22.0, "tech_input_est_specify": {"en": "fertilisation azot\u00e9e", "fr": "fertilisation azot\u00e9e"}, "tech_input_est_quantity": 2.5, "tech_input_est_total_costs_pi": 55.0, "tech_input_est_percentage_costs": 100.0}], "tech_qg_220": [{"tech_impacts_droughtimpacts": 7}], "tech_qg_221": [{"tech_impacts_cyclones": 7}], "tech_qg_222": [{"tech_input_est_total_costs": 471.5}], "tech_qg_225": [{"location_comments": {"en": "140 ha (98% de surface est cultiv\u00e9)", "fr": "140 ha (98% de surface est cultiv\u00e9)"}}], "tech_qg_226": [{"tech_access_roads": 3, "tech_access_water": 2, "tech_access_energy": 3, "tech_access_health": 2, "tech_access_markets": 3, "tech_access_education": 2, "tech_access_financial": 2, "tech_access_employment": 1, "tech_access_techassistance": 3}], "tech_qg_228": [{"tech_impacts_landslides": 7}], "tech_qg_230": [{"tech_adaptation_yes": 1}], "tech_qg_232": [{"tech_input_est_total_costs_usd": 188.6}], "tech_qg_236": [{"tech_lu_grazingland_pop_count": 200, "tech_lu_grazingland_pop_species": "animals_50"}, {"tech_lu_grazingland_pop_count": 10, "tech_lu_grazingland_pop_species": "animals_60"}], "qg_location_map": [{"location_map": "{\"type\":\"FeatureCollection\",\"features\":[{\"type\":\"Feature\",\"id\":1526493271618,\"geometry\":{\"type\":\"Point\",\"coordinates\":[9.358886562065768,36.08762113719165]},\"properties\":null}]}"}], "qg_sources_field": [{"sources_specify": {"fr": "8 Agricultures des diff\u00e9rents r\u00e9gions."}}], "qg_funding_project": [{"funding_project": 1}], "tech_qg__approaches": [{"link_id": "3725"}], "qg_accept_conditions": [{"accept_conditions": 1}], "qg_strengths_compiler": [{"strengths_compiler": {"fr": "Conservation du sol contre l'\u00e9rosion hydrique et am\u00e9lioration de sa fertilit\u00e9 et propri\u00e9t\u00e9s physico-chimique et biologique du sol."}}, {"strengths_compiler": {"fr": "R\u00e9duction des couts de production des cultures. "}}, {"strengths_compiler": {"fr": "Am\u00e9lioration de la marge brute."}}, {"strengths_compiler": {"fr": "S\u00e9questration du carbonne dans le sol."}}, {"strengths_compiler": {"fr": "R\u00e9duction de l'utilisation de l'\u00e9nergie."}}], "qg_funding_institution": [{"funding_institution": 6147}], "qg_strengths_landusers": [{"strengths_landuser": {"fr": "Conservation et am\u00e9lioration de la fertilit\u00e9 et propri\u00e9t\u00e9s physico-chimiques et biologiques du sol."}}, {"strengths_landuser": {"fr": "Stabilisation des rendements des cultures."}}, {"strengths_landuser": {"fr": "Am\u00e9liorer la biodiversit\u00e9 v\u00e9g\u00e9tale et animale."}}, {"strengths_landuser": {"fr": "Diminuer la pollution des nappes souterraines."}}, {"strengths_landuser": {"fr": "Coservation de l'eau dans le sol."}}], "qg_weaknesses_compiler": [{"weaknesses_compiler": {"fr": "N\u00e9cissit\u00e9 d'une bonne technicit\u00f6 de la part des agriculteurs. "}, "weaknesses_overcome": {"fr": "Il faut accompagner techniquement les agriculteurs d\u00e9sireux d'adopter cette technologie. "}}, {"weaknesses_compiler": {"fr": "Faiblement adopt\u00f6 en Tunisie. "}, "weaknesses_overcome": {"fr": "Il faut beaucoup du travail pour \u00e9tendre cette bonne pratique et il faut6 \u00e9tablir une strat\u00f6gie national pour le d\u00e9veloppement de l'agriculture de conservation. "}}], "qg_weaknesses_landusers": [{"weaknesses_landuser": {"fr": "L'utilisation d'un herbicide total (gluphosate)."}, "weaknesses_overcome": {"fr": "Remplacement de l'herbicide par un d\u00e9sherbage m\u00e9canique par les rouleaux ou le paturage."}}, {"weaknesses_landuser": {"fr": "Cout de semoir de semis direct pour les petits agriculteurs."}, "weaknesses_overcome": {"fr": "Subvention sp\u00e9cial pour l'achat de semoir et association des agriculteurs pour l'utilisation en commun de semoir. "}}, {"weaknesses_landuser": {"fr": "Pas de l\u00e9gislation qui encourage l'adoption. "}, "weaknesses_overcome": {"fr": "Octroi des subventions et encouragements."}}, {"weaknesses_landuser": {"fr": "Manque de vulgarisation et sensibilsation. "}, "weaknesses_overcome": {"fr": "Plus de sensibilisation et de vulgarisation pour accompagner les agriculteurs. "}}], "qg_sources_interviews_experts": [{"sources_specify": {"fr": "1 expert agronome."}}], "qg_sources_interviews_landusers": [{"sources_specify": {"fr": "8 Agricultures des diff\u00e9rents r\u00e9gions."}}]}>, 'map_url': '/en/wocat/technologies/view/technologies_3727/map/', 'template': 'raw'}

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:

1999

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Appui par l'Institut Nationale des Grandes Cultures (INGC).

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem
  • protect a watershed/ downstream areas – in combination with other Technologies
  • preserve/ improve biodiversity
  • reduce risk of disasters
  • adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts
  • mitigate climate change and its impacts
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - other
  • vegetables - other
  • Céréales, légumineuses alimentaires, fourragères, cultures industriels, et cultures pérennes.
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2
Specify:

Fourrages d'été aprés foin.

Grazing land

Grazing land

Extensive grazing:
  • Ranching
Intensive grazing/ fodder production:
  • Cut-and-carry/ zero grazing
  • Improved pastures
Animal type:
  • cattle - dairy
  • goats
  • sheep
Species:

cattle - dairy

Count:

200

Species:

poultry

Count:

10

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • rotational systems (crop rotation, fallows, shifting cultivation)
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover
  • minimal soil disturbance

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
  • A3: Soil surface treatment
  • A4: Subsurface treatment
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V2: Grasses and perennial herbaceous plants
  • V4: Replacement or removal of alien/ invasive species
management measures

management measures

  • M2: Change of management/ intensity level
  • M3: Layout according to natural and human environment
  • M4: Major change in timing of activities
  • M5: Control/ change of species composition

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
  • Wm: mass movements/ landslides
  • Wr: riverbank erosion
  • Wo: offsite degradation effects
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
  • Ed: deflation and deposition
  • Eo: offsite degradation effects
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pc: compaction
  • Pk: slaking and crusting
  • Pi: soil sealing
  • Pw: waterlogging
  • Ps: subsidence of organic soils, settling of soil
  • Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bh: loss of habitats
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bf: detrimental effects of fires
  • Bs: quality and species composition/ diversity decline
  • Bl: loss of soil life
  • Bp: increase of pests/ diseases, loss of predators
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification
  • Hs: change in quantity of surface water
  • Hg: change in groundwater/aquifer level
  • Hp: decline of surface water quality
  • Hq: decline of groundwater quality
  • Hw: reduction of the buffering capacity of wetland areas

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

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Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Le dessin technique montre une partie de la parcelle qui est cultivée, dont le sol est couvert par les cultures. Une deuxième partie est parcouru par le semoir de semis direct, dont le sol est couvert par les résidues de la culture précédente.

Author:

Houcine Angar

Date:

30/04/2018

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

1 hectare

other/ national currency (specify):

Dinar Tunisien

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

2.5

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

20 Dinar Tunisien.

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Désherbage chimique au lieu du labour Novembre
2. Semis direct Novembre
3. Premier apport de fertilisation azotée Décembre
4. Désherbage chimique Janvier
5. Deuxième apport de fertilisation azotée Mars

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour ouvriers personne/jour 2.0 8.0 16.0 100.0
Equipment location tracteur heure 6.0 18.0 108.0 100.0
Equipment location semoir heure 1.0 45.0 45.0 100.0
Equipment location moisonneuse heure 1.25 30.0 37.5 100.0
Equipment location presse paille balle 120.0 0.4 48.0 100.0
Plant material semences quintal 1.7 60.0 102.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides herbicides litre 3.0 20.0 60.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides fertilisation azotée quintal 2.5 22.0 55.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 471.5
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 188.6
Comments:

Le coût par unité est relatif à l'année 1999, mais actuellement il s'et augmenté de 70% à peu prés.

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Comments:

Pas des activités spécifiques pour entretenir cette technologie. Se sont les meme que les activités de mise en place.

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Comments:

Pas des activités spécifiques pour entretenir cette technologie. Se sont les meme que les activités de mise en place.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

L'augmentation des prix des intrants.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:

450.00

Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered:

Station propre à l'exploitant.

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Semi aride supérieur.

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • convex situations

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

on surface

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?

No

Is flooding of the area occurring?

No

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • high
Habitat diversity:
  • high

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • rich
Individuals or groups:
  • groups/ community
Level of mechanization:
  • mechanized/ motorized
Gender:
  • men
Age of land users:
  • middle-aged
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

L'exploitant est bien éduqué.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • large-scale
Comments:

140 ha en Agriculture de Conservation.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • individual

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

crop quality

decreased
increased

fodder production

decreased
increased

fodder quality

decreased
increased

animal production

decreased
increased

risk of production failure

increased
decreased

product diversity

decreased
increased

production area

decreased
increased

land management

hindered
simplified
Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased

farm income

decreased
increased

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased

economic disparities

increased
decreased

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

health situation

worsened
improved

cultural opportunities

reduced
improved

recreational opportunities

reduced
improved

community institutions

weakened
strengthened

national institutions

weakened
strengthened

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

worsened
improved

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity

decreased
increased

water quality

decreased
increased

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved

surface runoff

increased
decreased

excess water drainage

reduced
improved

groundwater table/ aquifer

lowered
recharge

evaporation

increased
decreased
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil loss

increased
decreased

soil accumulation

decreased
increased

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

soil compaction

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased

acidity

increased
reduced
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover

decreased
increased

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased

invasive alien species

increased
reduced

animal diversity

decreased
increased

beneficial species

decreased
increased

habitat diversity

decreased
increased

pest/ disease control

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

flood impacts

increased
decreased

landslides/ debris flows

increased
decreased

drought impacts

increased
decreased

impacts of cyclones, rain storms

increased
decreased

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased

fire risk

increased
decreased

wind velocity

increased
decreased

micro-climate

worsened
improved

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

downstream siltation

increased
decreased

groundwater/ river pollution

increased
reduced

buffering/ filtering capacity

reduced
improved

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced

damage on neighbours' fields

increased
reduced

damage on public/ private infrastructure

increased
reduced

impact of greenhouse gases

increased
reduced

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well
seasonal temperature dry season increase well
annual rainfall decrease well
seasonal rainfall wet/ rainy season decrease well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm well
local thunderstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
heatwave well
cold wave well
extreme winter conditions well
drought very well
land fire moderately
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
landslide very well
Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
epidemic diseases very well
insect/ worm infestation very well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
extended growing period well
reduced growing period moderately

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 1-10%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

12000 ha

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?

Yes

other (specify):

la dégradation du mulch nécessite plus d'azote.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Conservation et amélioration de la fertilité et propriétés physico-chimiques et biologiques du sol.
Stabilisation des rendements des cultures.
Améliorer la biodiversité végétale et animale.
Diminuer la pollution des nappes souterraines.
Coservation de l'eau dans le sol.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Conservation du sol contre l'érosion hydrique et amélioration de sa fertilité et propriétés physico-chimique et biologique du sol.
Réduction des couts de production des cultures.
Amélioration de la marge brute.
Séquestration du carbonne dans le sol.
Réduction de l'utilisation de l'énergie.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
L'utilisation d'un herbicide total (gluphosate). Remplacement de l'herbicide par un désherbage mécanique par les rouleaux ou le paturage.
Cout de semoir de semis direct pour les petits agriculteurs. Subvention spécial pour l'achat de semoir et association des agriculteurs pour l'utilisation en commun de semoir.
Pas de législation qui encourage l'adoption. Octroi des subventions et encouragements.
Manque de vulgarisation et sensibilsation. Plus de sensibilisation et de vulgarisation pour accompagner les agriculteurs.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Nécissité d'une bonne technicitö de la part des agriculteurs. Il faut accompagner techniquement les agriculteurs désireux d'adopter cette technologie.
Faiblement adoptö en Tunisie. Il faut beaucoup du travail pour étendre cette bonne pratique et il faut6 établir une stratögie national pour le développement de l'agriculture de conservation.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

8 Agricultures des différents régions.

  • interviews with land users

8 Agricultures des différents régions.

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

1 expert agronome.

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in Tunisia: Approches and Strategies Implemented

URL:

http://www.ctic.org/media/pdf/WCCA/01_Houcine%20Angar(1).pdf

Title/ description:

Agriculture de Conservation : Concilier adaptation et mitigation pour une intensification durable des systèmes agricoles méditerranéens

URL:

http://www.ipemed.coop/adminIpemed/media/fich_article/1469717998_pwp-atelier-5-medcop-climatmrabet-inra.pdf

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