Technologies

Closed Area Management in Abagerima Learning Watershed [Ethiopia]

Closed area management

technologies_4134 - Ethiopia

Completeness: 92%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Carbon Benefits Project (CBP) {'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 155, 'label': 'Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)', 'text': 'CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland', 'template': 'raw'} {'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 155, 'label': 'Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)', 'text': 'CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland', 'template': 'raw'}

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

No

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Closed area management is an area within a watershed into which human and livestock access is limited, and the area is left for natural recovery of vegetation and soil. Management relates to activities by the community to ensure such protection and to support regeneration, such as constructing drainage and retention structures, selective bush removal, regular grass cutting, occasional tree planting, and organisation of economic activities like grass cutting.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

1. The closed area management technology is applied within Abagerima Learning Watershed of the Water and Land Resource Centre project.
2. In the area closures, community-based participatory management is applied to recover degraded areas.
3. The area is closed from agricultural activities and livestock grazing, while water harvesting and drainage structures are constructed, like small trenches and cut-off drains.
4. Natural grasses are regularly cut and carried, and selective trees are planted.
5. Forage growth for animal feed is encouraged, thereby reducing soil erosion, storing water, reducing soil loss, and avoiding conflicts with down-stream users.
6. The community is committed and responsible for closed area management, such as construction of trenches for water drainage and harvesting, plantation of trees, and to reduce soil erosion. The communities of the Abagerima Learning Watershed are very happy to manage their closed areas and equally share the grass biomass, and later on selective trees.
7. As a consequence, forage biomass has been increasing over the past 6 years and is regularly cut and carried, while indigenous and introduced trees are growing.
8. Through these activities, heavily degraded and overgrazed land could be transformed into productive land.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

General remarks regarding photos:

The photos were all taken during field work on 24 October 2018, while several technologies were assessed by different compilers. In the Abagerima area a full watershed was developed in 2013 by the Water and Land Resource Centre, Addis Ababa University and Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, funded by Swiss Development Cooperation and its Ethiopian partners.

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Ethiopia

Region/ State/ Province:

Amhara Region, West Gojam Zone, Bahir Dar Zurya

Further specification of location:

the area is near Bahir Dar regional capital

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):

0.306

If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2
Is/are the technology site(s) located in a permanently protected area?

No

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:

2012

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The Water and Land Resource Centre was highly involved in this area as one of its Learning Watersheds, and area closure was an element integrated into the landscape to protect and managed the area by using cut & carry system.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem
  • protect a watershed/ downstream areas – in combination with other Technologies
  • preserve/ improve biodiversity
  • create beneficial economic impact
  • create beneficial social impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Yes

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agroforestry

Grazing land

Grazing land

Intensive grazing/ fodder production:
  • Cut-and-carry/ zero grazing
Animal type:
  • cattle - dairy
  • cattle - non-dairy beef
  • cattle - non-dairy working
  • goats
  • horses
  • mules and asses
  • poultry
  • sheep
  • Cattle (differentiation between different types of cattles is difficult)
Is integrated crop-livestock management practiced?

Yes

If yes, specify:

trees like Cordia African,Crtonemacrotathes, Vices Vasta, Gravilia Robusta. crops like ; Maize, Teff, Figer milat, Mango, Avocado, coffee, Rhahimes(gesho). pegenpea, saspania,Napire grass, Local grass.

Products and services:
  • meat
  • milk
  • skins/ hides
  • transport/ draught
Species:

cattle - non-dairy beef

Count:

1656

Species:

sheep

Count:

284

Species:

goats

Count:

186

Species:

horses

Count:

30

Species:

mules and asses

Count:

605

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Type of tree:
  • Acacia senegal
  • Grevillea robusta
Are the trees specified above deciduous or evergreen?
  • mixed deciduous/ evergreen
Products and services:
  • Fuelwood
  • Nature conservation/ protection
Comments:

Livestock population:
Because it is not possible to list more than 5 different livestock for its "populations" the population of poultry is missing (1539 chicken)

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • Yes (Please fill out the questions below with regard to the land use before implementation of the Technology)
Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Yes

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agroforestry
Grazing land

Grazing land

Extensive grazing:
  • Ranching
Animal type:
  • cattle - dairy
  • cattle - non-dairy beef
  • cattle - non-dairy working
  • goats
  • horses
  • mules and asses
  • poultry
  • sheep
Is integrated crop-livestock management practiced?

Yes

If yes, specify:

trees like Cordia African,Crtonemacrotathes, Vices Vasta, Gravilia Robusta. crops like ; Maize, Teff, Figer milat, Mango, Avocado, coffee, Rhahimes(gesho). pegenpea, saspania,Napire grass, Local grass.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • agroforestry
  • area closure (stop use, support restoration)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
  • V2: Grasses and perennial herbaceous plants
structural measures

structural measures

  • S3: Graded ditches, channels, waterways
  • S4: Level ditches, pits
management measures

management measures

  • M2: Change of management/ intensity level
  • M3: Layout according to natural and human environment

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pc: compaction
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bh: loss of habitats
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bs: quality and species composition/ diversity decline
  • Bl: loss of soil life
water degradation

water degradation

  • Hs: change in quantity of surface water

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

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Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

The drawing is a free-hand sketch of the area closure near Laguna Giyorgis Church in Abagerima Learning Watershed.
The boarder of the closed area consists of cut off drains, forests, roads and croplands.

Author:

Melese Blilign, Bekalu Bitew

Date:

24/10/2018

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

31 ha

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • USD
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

3.7

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. survey October (end of rainy season)
2. planning & community awareness October
3. preparing materials October
4. design & layout November
5. implementation December (beginning of dry season)
Comments:

Community awareness was raised by frequent visits of different stakeholders to Abagerima Learning Watershed.

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour construction of trenches person-days 210.0 3.7 777.0 0.0
Labour pit preparation for tree planting numbers 90.0 1.5 135.0 0.0
Equipment hand tools numbers 240.0 2.8 672.0 0.0
Plant material tree seedlings numbers 106.0 1.5 159.0 50.0
Plant material grass and legume seeds kg 200.0 22.0 4400.0 50.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 6143.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 6143.0
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

Water and Land Resource Centre (WLRC), Agricultural Office and in the Abagerima watershed the communities are involved in all types of SLM activities

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. grass cutting once per year
2. bush clearing irregular

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour grass cutting person-days 150.0 3.7 555.0 100.0
Labour bush clearing person-days 20.0 3.7 74.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 629.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 629.0

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Establishment of the technology at the initial stage (digging of trenches, cut-off drains and waterways) causes high costs.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:

1350.00

Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered:

Abagerima Learning Watershed meteo station

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
  • low (<1%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

good

Water quality (untreated):

poor drinking water (treatment required)

Water quality refers to:

both ground and surface water

Is water salinity a problem?

No

Is flooding of the area occurring?

No

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Both surface & ground water availabilities are small in March & April at the end of the dry season.

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Habitat diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • groups/ community
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Age of land users:
  • youth
  • middle-aged

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale
Comments:

The area of land ownership is of less than 1 ha for the majority, but few people have up to 2 ha of cultivated land.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)
  • individual

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

crop quality

decreased
increased

fodder production

decreased
increased

fodder quality

decreased
increased

animal production

decreased
increased

wood production

decreased
increased

forest/ woodland quality

decreased
increased

non-wood forest production

decreased
increased

product diversity

decreased
increased

production area

decreased
increased

land management

hindered
simplified

energy generation

decreased
increased
Water availability and quality

drinking water availability

decreased
increased

drinking water quality

decreased
increased

water availability for livestock

decreased
increased

water quality for livestock

decreased
increased

irrigation water availability

decreased
increased

irrigation water quality

decreased
increased

demand for irrigation water

increased
decreased
Income and costs

farm income

decreased
increased

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased

economic disparities

increased
decreased

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

health situation

worsened
improved

land use/ water rights

worsened
improved

cultural opportunities

reduced
improved

recreational opportunities

reduced
improved

community institutions

weakened
strengthened

national institutions

weakened
strengthened

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

conflict mitigation

worsened
improved

situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

worsened
improved

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity

decreased
increased

water quality

decreased
increased

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved

surface runoff

increased
decreased

excess water drainage

reduced
improved

groundwater table/ aquifer

lowered
recharge

evaporation

increased
decreased
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil loss

increased
decreased

soil accumulation

decreased
increased

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

soil compaction

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased

salinity

increased
decreased

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased

acidity

increased
reduced
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover

decreased
increased

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased

invasive alien species

increased
reduced

animal diversity

decreased
increased

beneficial species

decreased
increased

habitat diversity

decreased
increased

pest/ disease control

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

flood impacts

increased
decreased

landslides/ debris flows

increased
decreased

drought impacts

increased
decreased

impacts of cyclones, rain storms

increased
decreased

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased

fire risk

increased
decreased

wind velocity

increased
decreased

micro-climate

worsened
improved

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability

decreased
increased

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season

reduced
increased

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

downstream siltation

increased
decreased

groundwater/ river pollution

increased
reduced

buffering/ filtering capacity

reduced
improved

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced

damage on neighbours' fields

increased
reduced

damage on public/ private infrastructure

increased
reduced

impact of greenhouse gases

increased
reduced

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase very well
seasonal temperature winter increase very well
annual rainfall very well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm very well
local thunderstorm very well
Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
epidemic diseases very well
insect/ worm infestation very well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

400-480 households

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%
Comments:

The community got a technical adviser plus small material incentives, while there was high mobilization for SWC work.

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?

No

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Grass biomass increased, run off to foot slope of cultivated land decreased, water availability increased and conflicts resolved.
Closed area is also used as a home for wild animals.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Areas are giving high forage biomass for animals.
Restoring the water & the vegetation cover are fine.
Generally the closed areas improve the livelihoods of the community due to its economical, social & environmental advantages.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Older people complain that animals should still be allowed to openly graze. Give continuous service for the community.
Trees are not fully adapt to climate, environment and use. Select appropriate technology; reintroduce moisture harvesting structures (hillside terraces)
Resource allocation Raise external support for the Learning watershed
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Resources allocation & sharing of benefits Needs to be organized by group & clear bylaws for better management & sharing of resources

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

The compiler himself is the technician assigned to the Learning Watershed, and has been working in the area for several years. Furthermore, he is currently doing field work for his master's thesis in the area.

  • interviews with land users

numerous interviews in the past

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

the compiler's colleague assisted him in compiling the information according to the QT.

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

24/10/2018

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

none

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

none

7.4 General comments

The WOCAT QT is an interesting database & very simple questionniare for a SLM technician.

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