Model Village Approach to Scale out Organic Agriculture [Bután]

Petoen Gi Yue Ngoe Zin Baedhi Rangzhin Sanam Dharchhab Tangthab (དཔེ་སྟོན་གྱི་གཡུས་ངོས་འཛིན་འབད་འདི་རང་བཞིན་སོ་ནམ་དར་ཁྱབ་བཏང་ཐབས།)

approaches_6838 - Bután

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación del Enfoque

Persona(s) de referencia clave/s

Usuario de la tierra:



Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog

Lull village, Lengbi Chiwog Community), Kazhi Gewog (Block), Wangduephodrang Dzongkhag (District)


Usuario de la tierra:

Dorji Phub


Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Geog, Wangdue Phodrang

Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangdue Phodrang.


Usuario de la tierra:



Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog (Block), Kazhi Gewog (Block), Wangduephodrang Dzongkhag (District)

Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangdue Phodrang.


Usuario de la tierra:

Wangchuk Tshering


Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangduephodrang

Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangduephodrang.

Usuario de la tierra:

Wangchuk Tshering


Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Geog, Wangduephodrang

Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangduephodrang.


Nombre del proyecto que facilitó la documentación/ evaluación del Enfoque (si fuera relevante)
Strengthening national-level institutional and professional capacities of country Parties towards enhanced UNCCD monitoring and reporting – GEF 7 EA Umbrella II (GEF 7 UNCCD Enabling Activities_Umbrella II)
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación del Enfoque si fuera relevante)
National Soil Services Centre, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture & Livestock (NSSC) - Bután

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

¿Cuándo se compilaron los datos (en el campo)?


El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT :

2. Descripción del Enfoque MST

2.1 Breve descripción del Enfoque

Organic agriculture includes a variety of farming systems that advance the sustainable production of food and fibres, prioritizing human health, and environmental, social, and economic aspects. The main objective of the model village approach is to promote the commercialization of organic farm produce.

2.2 Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST

Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST:

Organic farming is a system of agricultural production based on the use of natural processes and resources. Organic farming is on the rise worldwide. Until 1961, when chemicals were introduced to Bhutanese farmers, Bhutan was 100% organic. There were no chemicals to buy and no chemicals to use. There were no genetically modified seeds to buy and no genetically modified seeds to use. Farmers were required to weed their field by hands instead of spraying butachlor, a powerful pesticide used in paddy fields. According to Dzongkhag agriculture officer (DAO), a farmer in Wangdue, said that organic agriculture is "what we used to do." Traditional farming methods in Bhutan are organic and the departure from that has been a recent movement. But young farmers who started after the introduction of chemicals cannot remember a time when chemicals were not a part of their farming practices. The increase in chemicals is a recent trend, and depending on which chemical is under consideration the trend has either stagnated or grown. According to the national organic program, the use of fertilizer has remained constant over the last thirty years. On the other hand, the use of synthetic herbicides has grown each year. The primary example of herbicides used are butachlor in rice paddy fields and metribeuzin in potatoes (Hokenson, 2014).
The Department of Agriculture in collaboration with Dzongkhag Agriculture Office and Gewog Administration identified Lull village, Lengbi Chiwog of Kazhi gewog as a "Model Organic Village" to improve the livelihoods of people through crop diversification and income generation. Lull village was identified as an organic village in 2018. The main objective of this approach is to promote the commercialization of organic farm produce through post-production and value addition (Dorji, 2022).
In 2013, 51-year-old Tashi Bidha was the only farmer in Lull, a village situated in the Kazhi gewog region, approximately 40 kilometers from Bajo, Wangdue. The village, comprising a mere eight households, was classified as one of the most isolated in the Wangdue region. Lull is presently the first prosperous organic village in Wangdue. This began in 2013 with the initiative of one individual to establish road connectivity. Phub Dorji, a native of Lull, remarked that the village lacked roads and electricity at the time.
The village's application for road connectivity was rejected in 2013 due to its failure to satisfy the minimum threshold of 20 households. Many were apprehensive when Phub Dorji suggested that they make their own road. Following some deliberation, however, six households reached a consensus. Six households contributed more than Nu.500,000 towards the repair of the 8.8 kilometers of road in Lull. Electricity arrived in the village months after the road was constructed. The community consented to transition to organic practices in 2017.
Wangdue’s agriculture extension stated the village received potato seeds, asparagus seedlings, bio-fertiliser, bio-pesticide and vermicomposting among others. The village has five polyhouses, and they have first-hand training in bio-pesticide preparation. They are now technically equipped. Lull previously cultivated wheat, barley, and chili. The village currently produces more than eleven different types of commodities and distributes its goods in Phuentsholing, Thimphu, Punakha, and Wangdue. Potatoes, garlic, and chili peppers are among the principal cash commodities of Lull. Presently, income generation has increased to Nu 770,000 since the transition to organic practices.

2.3 Fotos del Enfoque

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde el Enfoque fue aplicado



Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

Wangdue phodrang

Especifique más el lugar :

Kazhi, Lull village

2.6 Fechas de inicio y conclusión del Enfoque

Si no se conoce el año preciso, indique la fecha aproximada en la que se inició el Enfoque:

hace menos de 10 años (recientemente)

2.7 Tipo de Enfoque

  • iniciativa local reciente/ innovadora

2.8 Propósitos/ objetivos principales del Enfoque

To improve the livelihoods of people by through crop diversification and income generation while promoting the commercialization of organic farming through post-production and value-addition for independency and self sufficiency.

2.9 Condiciones que facilitan o impiden la implementación de la/s Tecnología/s aplicadas bajo el Enfoque

normas y valores sociales/ culturales/ religiosos
  • facilitan

Able to conserve biodiversity and nature resources on farm and in the surrounding environment.

disponibilidad/ acceso a recursos y servicios financieros
  • facilitan

Increasing income and reducing production cost

colaboración/ coordinación de actores
  • facilitan

Integration of traditional knowledge, joint problem solving and farmer to farmer exchange can improve a community relations and lead to greater involvement and commitment of producers.

  • facilitan

Organic farming policy will help to protect farming communities in the present global situations.

conocimiento de MST, acceso a apoyo técnico
  • facilitan

Sustainable use of resources ultimately protecting lands and use of organic fertilizers improving soil fertility

  • impiden

Less aware to the organic technical knowledge

mercados (para comprar insumos, vender productos) y precios
  • impiden

Higher prices for the organic products leading to low consumer demands and no specific market outlet for organic production.

carga de trabajo, disponibilidad de mano de obra
  • impiden

Extensive labor as organic farm management requires intensive care and monitoring.

  • facilitan

Environment- Reduces environmental contamination risks and minimises the public health costs of pesticide poisonings, etc.

3. Participación y roles de las partes interesadas involucradas

3.1 Partes interesadas involucradas en el Enfoque y sus roles

  • usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales

Land users

To practice various methods of organic farming

  • gobierno nacional (planificadores, autoridades)

National Centre for Organic Agriculture (NCOA)

Provide training on Organic farming practices, Local Organic Assurance Standard, facilitate farm input support, field inspections and certification.

Si varias partes interesadas estuvieron involucradas, indique la agencia principal:

Dzongkhag Organic Focal Person, Extension Supervisor and Tshogpa.

3.2 Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales en las distintas fases del Enfoque
Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales Especifique quién se involucró y describa las actividades
iniciación/ motivación auto-movilización Lull, an abandoned village before 2013 due to its remote location, has witnessed a revival. Mr. Phub Dorji, the current Tshogpa of Lenbee chiwog from Lull village, has taken the initiative to construct the Lull farm road. He collected contributions for fuel and basic maintenance from beneficiaries, and the Dzongkhag Agriculture Office facilitated the deployment of a CMU Excavator. The construction of a 9.00 km farm road to Lull village was a collaborative effort, gradually connecting with the Dzongkhag and extending further to the National Centre for Organic Agriculture (NCOA). Thereafter, Lull village has been adopted as a "Model Organic Village".
planificación apoyo externo The Dzongkhag, Gewog, and NCOA have collectively formulated a plan in consultation with land users and submitted a funding request to GEF-LDCF.
implementación auto-movilización NCOA, Dzongkhag Agriculture Office, Gewog Agriculture Office and Land Users.
monitoreo y evaluación pasivo The monitoring and evaluation as sited above were in team comprising of representative from NCOA, Dzongkhag and Gewog. Compilation of progress report and submission annually to NCOA, Dzongkhag and Gewog Administration.

3.3 Flujograma (si estuviera disponible)


Organic model village/ group and its linkage with the gewog center


Niki Rai

3.4 La toma de decisiones en la selección de Tecnología(s) MST

Especifique quién decidió la selección de las Tecnología/ Tecnologías a implementarse:
  • todos los actores relevantes, como parte de un enfoque participativo

This approach involves participation of all the relevant stakeholders (Dzongkhag Agriculture Office, Gewog Administration, NCOA, Tshogpa and Land Users)

Especifique las bases que sustentaron la toma de decisiones:
  • la evaluación de conocimiento MST bien documentado (la toma de decisiones se basa en evidencia)

4. Apoyo técnico, fortalecimiento institucional y gestión del conocimiento

4.1 Construcción de capacidades / capacitación

¿Se proporcionó la capacitación a usuarios de tierras/ otras partes interesadas?

Especifique quién fue capacitado:
  • usuarios de tierras
Si fuese relevante, también especifique género, edad, estatus, etnicidad, etc.

Both female and male

Forma de capacitación:
  • de agricultor a agricultor
  • áreas de demostración
  • reuniones públicas
Temas avanzados:

Land users were provided with wide range of training targeting towards organic farming practices. The training was provided on Low Cost Plastic House Construction, Soil fertility Management (Composting & Vermi Composting), Nursery raising & transplanting, Bio Pesticide preparation and application and Post Harvest Management practices focusing on target crops. Further they were also provided with study tour to ARDC Bajo to update on the latest technology targeting on Soil fertility and Bio Pesticide management besides Bio Char preparation.

4.2 Servicio de asesoría

¿Los usuarios de tierras tienen acceso a un servicio de asesoría?

Especifique si servicio proporcionado se realizó:
  • en los campos de los usuarios de tierras
  • en centros permanentes
Describa/ comentarios:

Advisory services are provided from Gewog Agriculture Extension Supervisor/ Dzongkhag Organic Focal, ARDC Bajo, National Center for Organic Agriculture (NCOA).

4.3 Fortalecimiento institucional (desarrollo institucional)

¿Se establecieron o fortalecieron instituciones mediante el Enfoque?
  • sí, moderadamente
Especifique el nivel o los niveles en los que se fortalecieron o establecieron las instituciones:
  • local
  • regional
Describa la institución, roles y responsabilidades, miembros, etc.

They are able to produce organic products for their self consumption and also able to supply to other institutions like schools and to the common vegetable markets.

Especifique el tipo de apoyo:
  • construcción de capacidades/ entrenamiento
  • equipo
  • Seeds, Bio Fertilizers, Bio Pesticides/Fungicide, Low Cost & Prefabricated Plastic House, Electric Fencing Materials & Grass cutter.
Proporcione detalles adicionales:

Land users were provided with inputs (Improved Seeds, Bio-Fertilizers, Bio-Pesticide and Fungicide) at the initial stage prior to the capacity building. After the training, the inputs that land users can afford were gradually lifted through timely consultation meetings. The crucial inputs that the land users can't afford were included in the plan - and they were supplied with electric fencing materials to mitigate crop depredation from wild pests followed by a grass cutter for timely weed management within and around the field.

4.4 Monitoreo y evaluación

¿El monitoreo y la evaluación forman parte del Enfoque?


Monitoring and evaluation were done during the field visit to assess the physical progress by Extension Supervisor, Dzongkhag Agriculture Office & NCOA followed by consultation meetings where progress are reviewed and new plan were proposed. This progress and plan were finally submitted to NCOA, Dzongkhag Agriculture Office and Gewog Administration annually.

4.5 Investigación

¿La investigación formó parte del Enfoque?


5. Financiamiento y apoyo material externo

5.1 Presupuesto anual para el componente MST del Enfoque

Indique el presupuesto anual para el componente del MST del Enfoque (en US$):


Si no se conoce el presupuesto anual preciso, indique el rango:
  • 10,000-100,000
Comentarios (ej. fuentes principales de financiamiento/ donantes principales):


5.2 Apoyo financiero/material proporcionado a los usuarios de tierras

¿Los usuarios de tierras recibieron financiamiento/ apoyo material para implementar la Tecnología/ Tecnologías? :

Si respondió sí, especifique el tipo o los tipos de apoyo, condiciones y proveedor(es) :

Funding in the initial set up was provided by GCF-LCDF- which stands for Global Environment Facility-Least Developed Countries Fund

5.3 Subsidios para insumos específicos (incluyendo mano de obra)

  • equipo
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
maquinaria totalmente financiado Rice milling machine and other processing machine
herramientas parcialmente financiado Green house
Electric fencing materials, Grass cutter totalmente financiado
Si la mano de obra de usuarios de tierras fue un insumo sustancial, ¿fue:
  • voluntario?

They are only six households and they carry out labor sharing without any incentives

5.4 Crédito

¿Se proporcionó crédito bajo el Enfoque para actividades MST?


5.5 Otros incentivos o instrumentos

¿Se usaron otros incentivos o instrumentos para promover la implementación de Tecnologías MST?


6. Análisis de impacto y comentarios de conclusión

6.1 Impactos del Enfoque

¿El Enfoque empoderó a los usuarios locales de tierras, mejoró el involucramiento de las partes interesadas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Improved community relationship and led to greater involvement of the stakeholders and commitment of the producer

¿El Enfoque facilitó la toma de decisiones basada en evidencia?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Land users proposal while planning has been improved from the initial. They can prioritize their needs towards strengthening organic farming.

¿El Enfoque ayudó a los usuarios de tierras a implementar y mantener Tecnologías MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Organic farming practices improves sustainable use of resources ultimately resulting in conserving natural resources and increasing soil fertility

¿El Enfoque mejoró la coordinación e implementación efectiva en costos de MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Improved livelihoods through higher income generation and reduced production cost

¿El Enfoque mejoró el conocimiento y capacidades de los usuarios para implementar MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

There is an exchange and learning platform among the stakeholders

¿El Enfoque mejoró el conocimiento y capacidades de otras partes interesadas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

The approach involves a participatory decision making process.

¿El Enfoque construyó/ fortaleció instituciones, colaboración entre partes interesadas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

The group is encouraging and influencing other local communities and has been learning site disseminated through television.

¿El Enfoque mitigó conflictos?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Enhance team work, collaboration and cooperation among community and stake holders

¿El Enfoque empoderó a grupos en desventaja social y económica?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

This approach helped financially unstable farmers to improve their livelihood

¿El Enfoque mejoró la equidad de género y empoderó a las mujeres y niñas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

No gender bias

¿El Enfoque alentó a jóvenes/ la siguiente generación de usuarios de tierras a involucrarse con MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

The evidence based learning through hands on training and study tour to ARDC Bajo has encouraged the young people currently in the community while those young students attending during the break and social influence are encouraging the young generations to take up the organic farming in the future.

¿El Enfoque resultó en mejor seguridad alimentaria/ mejoró la nutrición?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

The approach of organic farming provided healthy production leading to improved food security and nutrition.

¿El Enfoque mejoró el acceso a los mercados?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

No specific market outlet for un processed organic product especially fresh vegetables though follow up are being done by Dzongkhag with opening of Organic Market Outlet at Bajo Town.

¿El Enfoque llevó a un acceso mejorado a tierra y saneamiento?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

There is no usage of chemical fertilizers resulting in the reduction in pollution.

¿El Enfoque llevó a un uso más sostenible/ fuentes de energía?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

This approach is an integrated human, environment and sustainable agriculture production system while reducing external inputs like use of synthetic fertilizers and other harmful chemical pesticide.

¿El Enfoque llevó a oportunidades de empleo, ingresos?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Young generations are being encouraged to adopt organic production systems

6.2 Motivación principal del usuario de la tierra para implementar MST

  • producción incrementada

Optimum production

  • incremento de la renta(bilidad), proporción mejorada de costo-beneficio

Low cost of production with reasonable market price of the product.

  • prestigio, presión social/ cohesión social

This approach has further improved their cohesion and interaction while every individuals support the responsibility taken by individual assigned.
This community has prestige that no community has. They have nomination of representatives within themself. Suppose for Agriculture, Tshogpa is representative of the group. So rest will provide full support for what ever activities the Tshogpa leads or directs the very reason for the success of Model Organic Village approach.

  • conciencia medioambiental

This approach reduces environmental contamination risks

  • costumbres y creencias, moral

This approach preserves old tradition and respects the local culture.

  • conocimiento y capacidades mejorados de MST

It helps to maintain higher soil fertility and best use of local resources leading to proper land management

  • mejoramiento estético

It helps to conserve biological diversity and balance ecosystem.

  • mitigación de conflicto

For small and poor farmers, organic farming can be an effective risk management tool that reduces input cost, diversifies production and improve local food security

6.3 Sostenibilidad de las actividades del Enfoque

¿Pueden los usuarios de tierras sostener lo que se implementó mediante el Enfoque (sin apoyo externo)?
Si respondió que sí, describa cómo:

Organic production encourage long term commitment to maintain soil fertility, particularly addressing soil erosion, degradation and desertification and also reduce external energy consumption and reduce water use

6.4 Fortalezas/ ventajas del Enfoque

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
Low cost of investment and low external input use
Higher prices for organic products provide higher earning for producer involved in production, processing and trade hereby benefiting the small farmers
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
Provide awareness and knowledge among the producers about organic farming techniques
Increase international organic market and provide niche export market for Bhutanese farmers that can comply with organic standards
Provide a platform for business development in producing organic products and processing high value organic products(manufacturing)

6.5 Debilidades/ desventajas del Enfoque y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Labor intensive Mechanization
Lack of knowledge on organic production Hands on training on organic production
Lack of specific market for organic production Need support policies from high levels
Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Certification is costly for small farmers and could be a serious barrier to access a market that will require certification in future. Proper legal framework and policies for farmers with affordable price in future.
Limited awareness in the domestic market about nutritional, safety and quality of organic farm produce More awareness in the market as well as consumers,

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo


  • entrevistas con usuarios de tierras


7.2 Referencias a publicaciones disponibles

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

National framework for organic farming in Bhutan, Department of Agriculture, 2006

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?


Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Model organic village prospering, Chenga Dorji, 2022

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?

website, BBS

7.3 Vínculos a la información relevante disponible en línea

Título/ descripción:

Model organic village prospering, Model organic village in Lull chiwog under Kazhi gewog venturing into complete organic farm



Título/ descripción:

National framework for organic farming in Bhutan



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