Model Village Approach to Scale out Organic Agriculture [不丹]

Petoen Gi Yue Ngoe Zin Baedhi Rangzhin Sanam Dharchhab Tangthab (དཔེ་སྟོན་གྱི་གཡུས་ངོས་འཛིན་འབད་འདི་རང་བཞིན་སོ་ནམ་དར་ཁྱབ་བཏང་ཐབས།)

approaches_6838 - 不丹

完整性: 94%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与方法评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式





Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog

Lull village, Lengbi Chiwog Community), Kazhi Gewog (Block), Wangduephodrang Dzongkhag (District)



Dorji Phub


Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Geog, Wangdue Phodrang

Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangdue Phodrang.





Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog (Block), Kazhi Gewog (Block), Wangduephodrang Dzongkhag (District)

Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangdue Phodrang.



Wangchuk Tshering


Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangduephodrang

Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangduephodrang.


Wangchuk Tshering


Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Geog, Wangduephodrang

Lull Village, Lengbi Chiwog, Kazhi Gewog, Wangduephodrang.


Strengthening national-level institutional and professional capacities of country Parties towards enhanced UNCCD monitoring and reporting – GEF 7 EA Umbrella II (GEF 7 UNCCD Enabling Activities_Umbrella II)
National Soil Services Centre, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture & Livestock (NSSC) - 不丹

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件




2. SLM方法的描述

2.1 该方法的简要说明

Organic agriculture includes a variety of farming systems that advance the sustainable production of food and fibres, prioritizing human health, and environmental, social, and economic aspects. The main objective of the model village approach is to promote the commercialization of organic farm produce.

2.2 该方法的详细说明


Organic farming is a system of agricultural production based on the use of natural processes and resources. Organic farming is on the rise worldwide. Until 1961, when chemicals were introduced to Bhutanese farmers, Bhutan was 100% organic. There were no chemicals to buy and no chemicals to use. There were no genetically modified seeds to buy and no genetically modified seeds to use. Farmers were required to weed their field by hands instead of spraying butachlor, a powerful pesticide used in paddy fields. According to Dzongkhag agriculture officer (DAO), a farmer in Wangdue, said that organic agriculture is "what we used to do." Traditional farming methods in Bhutan are organic and the departure from that has been a recent movement. But young farmers who started after the introduction of chemicals cannot remember a time when chemicals were not a part of their farming practices. The increase in chemicals is a recent trend, and depending on which chemical is under consideration the trend has either stagnated or grown. According to the national organic program, the use of fertilizer has remained constant over the last thirty years. On the other hand, the use of synthetic herbicides has grown each year. The primary example of herbicides used are butachlor in rice paddy fields and metribeuzin in potatoes (Hokenson, 2014).
The Department of Agriculture in collaboration with Dzongkhag Agriculture Office and Gewog Administration identified Lull village, Lengbi Chiwog of Kazhi gewog as a "Model Organic Village" to improve the livelihoods of people through crop diversification and income generation. Lull village was identified as an organic village in 2018. The main objective of this approach is to promote the commercialization of organic farm produce through post-production and value addition (Dorji, 2022).
In 2013, 51-year-old Tashi Bidha was the only farmer in Lull, a village situated in the Kazhi gewog region, approximately 40 kilometers from Bajo, Wangdue. The village, comprising a mere eight households, was classified as one of the most isolated in the Wangdue region. Lull is presently the first prosperous organic village in Wangdue. This began in 2013 with the initiative of one individual to establish road connectivity. Phub Dorji, a native of Lull, remarked that the village lacked roads and electricity at the time.
The village's application for road connectivity was rejected in 2013 due to its failure to satisfy the minimum threshold of 20 households. Many were apprehensive when Phub Dorji suggested that they make their own road. Following some deliberation, however, six households reached a consensus. Six households contributed more than Nu.500,000 towards the repair of the 8.8 kilometers of road in Lull. Electricity arrived in the village months after the road was constructed. The community consented to transition to organic practices in 2017.
Wangdue’s agriculture extension stated the village received potato seeds, asparagus seedlings, bio-fertiliser, bio-pesticide and vermicomposting among others. The village has five polyhouses, and they have first-hand training in bio-pesticide preparation. They are now technically equipped. Lull previously cultivated wheat, barley, and chili. The village currently produces more than eleven different types of commodities and distributes its goods in Phuentsholing, Thimphu, Punakha, and Wangdue. Potatoes, garlic, and chili peppers are among the principal cash commodities of Lull. Presently, income generation has increased to Nu 770,000 since the transition to organic practices.

2.3 该方法的照片

2.5 采用该方法的国家/地区/地点




Wangdue phodrang


Kazhi, Lull village

2.6 该方法的开始和终止日期



2.7 方法的类型

  • 最近的本地倡议/创新

2.8 该方法的主要目的/目标

To improve the livelihoods of people by through crop diversification and income generation while promoting the commercialization of organic farming through post-production and value-addition for independency and self sufficiency.

2.9 推动或妨碍实施本办法所适用的技术的条件

  • 启动

Able to conserve biodiversity and nature resources on farm and in the surrounding environment.

  • 启动

Increasing income and reducing production cost

  • 启动

Integration of traditional knowledge, joint problem solving and farmer to farmer exchange can improve a community relations and lead to greater involvement and commitment of producers.

  • 启动

Organic farming policy will help to protect farming communities in the present global situations.

  • 启动

Sustainable use of resources ultimately protecting lands and use of organic fertilizers improving soil fertility

  • 阻碍

Less aware to the organic technical knowledge

  • 阻碍

Higher prices for the organic products leading to low consumer demands and no specific market outlet for organic production.

  • 阻碍

Extensive labor as organic farm management requires intensive care and monitoring.

  • 启动

Environment- Reduces environmental contamination risks and minimises the public health costs of pesticide poisonings, etc.

3. 相关利益相关者的参与和角色

3.1 该方法涉及的利益相关者及其职责

  • 当地土地使用者/当地社区

Land users

To practice various methods of organic farming

  • 国家政府(规划者、决策者)

National Centre for Organic Agriculture (NCOA)

Provide training on Organic farming practices, Local Organic Assurance Standard, facilitate farm input support, field inspections and certification.


Dzongkhag Organic Focal Person, Extension Supervisor and Tshogpa.

3.2 当地土地使用者/当地社区参与该方法的不同阶段
当地土地使用者/当地社区的参与 指定参与人员并描述活动
启动/动机 自我动员 Lull, an abandoned village before 2013 due to its remote location, has witnessed a revival. Mr. Phub Dorji, the current Tshogpa of Lenbee chiwog from Lull village, has taken the initiative to construct the Lull farm road. He collected contributions for fuel and basic maintenance from beneficiaries, and the Dzongkhag Agriculture Office facilitated the deployment of a CMU Excavator. The construction of a 9.00 km farm road to Lull village was a collaborative effort, gradually connecting with the Dzongkhag and extending further to the National Centre for Organic Agriculture (NCOA). Thereafter, Lull village has been adopted as a "Model Organic Village".
计划 外部支持 The Dzongkhag, Gewog, and NCOA have collectively formulated a plan in consultation with land users and submitted a funding request to GEF-LDCF.
实施 自我动员 NCOA, Dzongkhag Agriculture Office, Gewog Agriculture Office and Land Users.
监测/评估 被动 The monitoring and evaluation as sited above were in team comprising of representative from NCOA, Dzongkhag and Gewog. Compilation of progress report and submission annually to NCOA, Dzongkhag and Gewog Administration.

3.3 流程图(如可用)


Organic model village/ group and its linkage with the gewog center


Niki Rai

3.4 有关SLM技术选择的决策

  • 所有相关参与者,作为参与式方法的一部分

This approach involves participation of all the relevant stakeholders (Dzongkhag Agriculture Office, Gewog Administration, NCOA, Tshogpa and Land Users)

  • 对充分记录的SLM知识进行评估(基于证据的决策)

4. 技术支持、能力建设和知识管理

4.1 能力建设/培训


  • 土地使用者

Both female and male

  • 农民对农民
  • 示范区域
  • 公开会议

Land users were provided with wide range of training targeting towards organic farming practices. The training was provided on Low Cost Plastic House Construction, Soil fertility Management (Composting & Vermi Composting), Nursery raising & transplanting, Bio Pesticide preparation and application and Post Harvest Management practices focusing on target crops. Further they were also provided with study tour to ARDC Bajo to update on the latest technology targeting on Soil fertility and Bio Pesticide management besides Bio Char preparation.

4.2 咨询服务


  • 在土地使用者的土地上
  • 在固定中心

Advisory services are provided from Gewog Agriculture Extension Supervisor/ Dzongkhag Organic Focal, ARDC Bajo, National Center for Organic Agriculture (NCOA).

4.3 机构强化(组织发展)

  • 是,适度
  • 本地
  • 区域

They are able to produce organic products for their self consumption and also able to supply to other institutions like schools and to the common vegetable markets.

  • 能力建设/培训
  • 设备
  • Seeds, Bio Fertilizers, Bio Pesticides/Fungicide, Low Cost & Prefabricated Plastic House, Electric Fencing Materials & Grass cutter.

Land users were provided with inputs (Improved Seeds, Bio-Fertilizers, Bio-Pesticide and Fungicide) at the initial stage prior to the capacity building. After the training, the inputs that land users can afford were gradually lifted through timely consultation meetings. The crucial inputs that the land users can't afford were included in the plan - and they were supplied with electric fencing materials to mitigate crop depredation from wild pests followed by a grass cutter for timely weed management within and around the field.

4.4 监测和评估



Monitoring and evaluation were done during the field visit to assess the physical progress by Extension Supervisor, Dzongkhag Agriculture Office & NCOA followed by consultation meetings where progress are reviewed and new plan were proposed. This progress and plan were finally submitted to NCOA, Dzongkhag Agriculture Office and Gewog Administration annually.

4.5 研究


5. 融资和外部物质支持

5.1 该方法中SLM组成部分的年度预算



  • 10,000-100,000


5.2 为土地使用者提供财政/物质支援



Funding in the initial set up was provided by GCF-LCDF- which stands for Global Environment Facility-Least Developed Countries Fund

5.3 对特定投入的补贴(包括劳动力)

  • 设备
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
机械 充分融资 Rice milling machine and other processing machine
工具 部分融资 Green house
Electric fencing materials, Grass cutter 充分融资
  • 自愿

They are only six households and they carry out labor sharing without any incentives

5.4 信用


5.5 其它激励或手段


6. 影响分析和结论性陈述

6.1 方法的影响

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Improved community relationship and led to greater involvement of the stakeholders and commitment of the producer

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Land users proposal while planning has been improved from the initial. They can prioritize their needs towards strengthening organic farming.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Organic farming practices improves sustainable use of resources ultimately resulting in conserving natural resources and increasing soil fertility

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Improved livelihoods through higher income generation and reduced production cost

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

There is an exchange and learning platform among the stakeholders

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The approach involves a participatory decision making process.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The group is encouraging and influencing other local communities and has been learning site disseminated through television.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Enhance team work, collaboration and cooperation among community and stake holders

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

This approach helped financially unstable farmers to improve their livelihood

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

No gender bias

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The evidence based learning through hands on training and study tour to ARDC Bajo has encouraged the young people currently in the community while those young students attending during the break and social influence are encouraging the young generations to take up the organic farming in the future.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The approach of organic farming provided healthy production leading to improved food security and nutrition.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

No specific market outlet for un processed organic product especially fresh vegetables though follow up are being done by Dzongkhag with opening of Organic Market Outlet at Bajo Town.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

There is no usage of chemical fertilizers resulting in the reduction in pollution.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

This approach is an integrated human, environment and sustainable agriculture production system while reducing external inputs like use of synthetic fertilizers and other harmful chemical pesticide.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Young generations are being encouraged to adopt organic production systems

6.2 土地使用者实施SLM的主要动机

  • 增加生产

Optimum production

  • 增加利润(能力),提高成本效益比

Low cost of production with reasonable market price of the product.

  • 声望、社会压力/社会凝聚

This approach has further improved their cohesion and interaction while every individuals support the responsibility taken by individual assigned.
This community has prestige that no community has. They have nomination of representatives within themself. Suppose for Agriculture, Tshogpa is representative of the group. So rest will provide full support for what ever activities the Tshogpa leads or directs the very reason for the success of Model Organic Village approach.

  • 环境意识

This approach reduces environmental contamination risks

  • 习俗和信仰,道德

This approach preserves old tradition and respects the local culture.

  • 提高SLM知识和技能

It helps to maintain higher soil fertility and best use of local resources leading to proper land management

  • 美学改进

It helps to conserve biological diversity and balance ecosystem.

  • 冲突缓解

For small and poor farmers, organic farming can be an effective risk management tool that reduces input cost, diversifies production and improve local food security

6.3 方法活动的可持续性


Organic production encourage long term commitment to maintain soil fertility, particularly addressing soil erosion, degradation and desertification and also reduce external energy consumption and reduce water use

6.4 该方法的长处/优点

Low cost of investment and low external input use
Higher prices for organic products provide higher earning for producer involved in production, processing and trade hereby benefiting the small farmers
Provide awareness and knowledge among the producers about organic farming techniques
Increase international organic market and provide niche export market for Bhutanese farmers that can comply with organic standards
Provide a platform for business development in producing organic products and processing high value organic products(manufacturing)

6.5 该方法的弱点/缺点以及克服它们的方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Labor intensive Mechanization
Lack of knowledge on organic production Hands on training on organic production
Lack of specific market for organic production Need support policies from high levels
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Certification is costly for small farmers and could be a serious barrier to access a market that will require certification in future. Proper legal framework and policies for farmers with affordable price in future.
Limited awareness in the domestic market about nutritional, safety and quality of organic farm produce More awareness in the market as well as consumers,

7. 参考和链接

7.1 方法/信息来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查


  • 与土地使用者的访谈


7.2 参考可用出版物


National framework for organic farming in Bhutan, Department of Agriculture, 2006




Model organic village prospering, Chenga Dorji, 2022


website, BBS

7.3 链接到网络上可用的相关信息


Model organic village prospering, Model organic village in Lull chiwog under Kazhi gewog venturing into complete organic farm




National framework for organic farming in Bhutan