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Enfoques
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Promoting farmers and pastoralists consultations in managing rangelands. [Camerún]

Dialogue platforms

approaches_3319 - Camerún

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación del Enfoque

Persona(s) de referencia clave/s

Especialista MST:
Nombre del proyecto que facilitó la documentación/ evaluación del Enfoque (si fuera relevante)
In Search of Common Ground
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación del Enfoque si fuera relevante)
Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) - Camerún

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

¿Cuándo se compilaron los datos (en el campo)?

16/11/2017

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT :

1.4 Referencia/s al/los Cuestionario(s) de Tecnologías MST

2. Descripción del Enfoque MST

2.1 Breve descripción del Enfoque

These are multi stakeholder platforms bringing together rangeland users such as farmers, pastoralists/agro pastoralists to learn, discuss and implement low stake conflict mitigation strategies and mutually beneficial alliances.

2.2 Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST

Descripción detallada del Enfoque MST:

Dialogue Platforms (DP) are usually made up between 12 to 14 community members with a balance from both the pastoralist and farming communities. The members are selected from within the community on the basis of their tract records on peace building, objectivity and interest in the development of their community. The objectives of these platforms are: promote inter community dialogue in natural resources sharing and access, promote sensible resource management, and promote mutual beneficial relationships and constructive conflict resolution and mitigation. The Alternative Conflict Management (ACM) approach is usually promoted and this seeks to address the question of how people can make better decisions together, particularly on difficult, contentious issues. This is implemented as a complement or substitute to more adversarial or non-consensual strategies, such as judicial or legal recourse, unilaterally initiated public information campaigns or partisan political action.
The stages of this multi stakeholder dialogue process mostly facilitated by 'Paralegals' and 'Community Resource Volunteers' of the Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) include:
1. Identification of stakeholders who are mostly farmers, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists but can also include traditional authorities, local administration and technical services
2. Sensitization on approach
3. Setting up of DP and capacity building of members on conflict mediation techniques of Alternative Crisis Management (ACM) approach which privilege negotiation and mediation in resolving resource access/use conflicts
4. Monitoring of the functioning of DP
5. Promoting the emergence of beneficial farming relations between farmers and pastoralists

2.3 Fotos del Enfoque

2.4 Videos del Enfoque

Comentarios, descripción breve:

'Reaching the Unreached': https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gBUXSDnVLUM
A documentary showing some of MBOSCUDA's community development initiatives in North-West Cameroon.

Fecha:

12.12.2012

Lugar:

North-West Cameroon

Nombre del videógrafo:

ISCG project of MBOSCUDA

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde el Enfoque fue aplicado

País:

Camerún

Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

North West Region

Especifique más el lugar :

This approach has been piloted in 23 communities in the North West Region

2.6 Fechas de inicio y conclusión del Enfoque

Indique año del inicio:

2011

Año de conclusión (si el Enfoque ya no se aplica):

2018

Comentarios:

Project funding will end in 2018. Some aspects of this approach have been existing informally within the communities but through the facilitation efforts of development NGOs, it has gained in popularity and has even made its way in to the draft Pastoral Code of the country awaiting enactment by parliament.

2.7 Tipo de Enfoque

  • proyecto/ basado en un programa

2.8 Propósitos/ objetivos principales del Enfoque

- Articulation and mediation of different interests in resource use and sharing.
- Promote beneficial relationships.
- Sustainable resource (land and water) management.
- Constructive conflict resolution.

2.9 Condiciones que facilitan o impiden la implementación de la/s Tecnología/s aplicadas bajo el Enfoque

normas y valores sociales/ culturales/ religiosos
  • impiden

Cultural differences between two main land user (pastoralists and crop farmers) may hinder smooth functioning of approach. Pastoralists are predominantly moslems while farmers are christians. So possibilities for a clash over religious values eg muslims don't take alcohol or eat pork which may be be served during gatherings may arise.

disponibilidad/ acceso a recursos y servicios financieros
  • impiden

This approach does not depend on availability/access to financial resources and services

entorno institucional
  • impiden

Presently the institution set up by law at the level of every sub division to adjudicate farmer-pastoralists' conflicts is the Agro Pastoral Commissions (APC) which have been dubbed as corrupt and inefficient in handling these conflicts. Some are even known to help perpetuate these conflicts for selfish ends. The members of these APCs may see in this new approach the end of their prerogatives since conflicts will no longer be brought to them as farmers and pastoralists try to settle their conflicts amongst themselves without recourse to third party.

colaboración/ coordinación de actores
  • facilitan

The success of this approach is critically hinged on collaboration between main local actors especially farmers and pastoralists and also the facilitation skills of the 'Paralegals' and 'Community Resource Volunteers' of MBOSCUDA, the community based organization facilitating the emergence of this approach.

  • impiden

Absence of collaboration between the main local actors (farmers and pastoralists) will greatly hinder the smooth functioning of dialogue platforms.

marco de trabajo legal (tenencia de tierra, derechos de uso de tierra y agua)
  • facilitan

This approach has yet to get formal backing from the state. This formal backing can come from recognising it in pastoral code.

políticas
  • impiden

To much reliance on animal health care to the detriment of rangelands science and governance in government policy. This predates independence and continues even up to recent times were efforts have been oriented towards the reinforcement of veterinary infrastructure with little concern on facilitating the emergence of structures at the local level for negotiating multiple and complementary uses of resources.

gobernanza de tierras (toma de decisiones, implementación y aplicación)
  • facilitan

This decentralization of decision making, implementation and enforcement actually creates an enabling atmosphere for the emergence of community dialogue platforms.
Also, the land tenure system of the country is under review and it is hoped that the draft provisions creating and recognizing dialogue platforms will be maintained.

conocimiento de MST, acceso a apoyo técnico
  • facilitan

The presence of paralegals and 'community resource volunteers' from MBOSCUDA, a local community based organization, facilitates the emergence of dialogue platforms. They provide support in terms of training and backstopping and also do monitoring and evaluation.

mercados (para comprar insumos, vender productos) y precios
  • facilitan

n.a. since this is an institutional measure.

  • impiden

n.a. since this is an institutional measure.

carga de trabajo, disponibilidad de mano de obra
  • impiden

The DP members render their services pro bono. This calls for extra effort and sacrifice on their part to do this. They can be hindered in offering these services if they also have their own own private and personal matters to attend to such as working in their own fields to tend their crops or animals.

3. Participación y roles de las partes interesadas involucradas

3.1 Partes interesadas involucradas en el Enfoque y sus roles

  • usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales

Rangeland users: pastoralists and farmers.

Pastoralists and farmers drawn from the communities because of their integrity constitute members of dialogue platforms. They look in to conflicts presented to them by the locals to mediate and find low stake solutions to them.

  • organizaciones comunitarias

Mbororo Social, Cultural and Development Association (MBOSCUDA).

Facilitated the emergence of this approach by organising and sponsoring capacity builiding workshops for DP members through their consultants and also parelegals and community resource volunteers who do close follow up of the functioning of DPs.

  • especialistas MST/consejeros agrícolas

Consultants .

Consultants were brought in to train DP members on conflict management, leadership skills and group dynamics.

  • investigadores

Researchers.

Compiling and documentation of practice.

  • gobierno nacional (planificadores, autoridades)

Cameroon government.

Called upon to recognize/formalize this low stake conflict mediation/resolution approach.

  • organización internacional

SNV Netherlands Development Organisation.
Village Aid - a UK based charity.
Comic Relief - UK based charity.
Department of International Development (DFID) UK.

Provision of funding for programme activities.

3.2 Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales en las distintas fases del Enfoque
Involucramiento de los usuarios locales de tierras/ comunidades locales Especifique quién se involucró y describa las actividades
iniciación/ motivación interactivo Because of the endemic conflicts over resource use and access in the community, the locals saw the setting up of DP as a felt need. So local people together with MBOSCUDA operatives jointly analyzed the situation and came up with the need to create DPs as a low stake solution to resolving farmer-pastoralists conflicts without the involvement administrative, judiciary and law enforcement officials who were seen to instead be inefficient and corrupt resolving the conflicts.
planificación interactivo Joint planning sessions between locals and MBOSCUDA operatives were held to map out activities. Locals then designated members from their communities to serve as DPs and these members were suppose to be of high standing in the communities.
implementación interactivo Activities are implemented by DP members with support from MBOSCUDA operatives (paralegals and Community Resource Volunteers).
monitoreo y evaluación apoyo externo For now the monitoring/evaluation of DPs is done by Community Resource Volunteers supported by MBOSCUDA with a fuel allowance to go round and backstop the functioning of DPs.

3.3 Flujograma (si estuviera disponible)

Descripción:

During a village or quarter assembly convened by traditional authorities and facilitated by MBOSCUDA operatives, the conflicting relationship between farmers and pastoralists is discussed and participants take a firm commitment to work towards improving it. The idea of dialogue platform as a low stake measure in mitigating and resolving resource access/use is presented and community support and recognition is solicited. Community members are then called upon to designate members (between 12- 14 in number, and with at least 2 to 3 women and youths) to make up DP for the village/quarter. The DP members are then incapacitated to carry out their duties through short courses in conflict management and leadership skills, group dynamics and existing legal framework on land tenure. They go ahead to carry out their duties which are then monitored by MBOSCUDA operatives. The improved dialogue in the community especially between farmers and pastoralists then fosters the forming of farming alliances between the two groups

Autor:

Blasius Azuhnwi

3.4 La toma de decisiones en la selección de Tecnología(s) MST

Especifique quién decidió la selección de las Tecnología/ Tecnologías a implementarse:
  • solamente usuarios de tierras (autoiniciativa)
Explique:

The land users (farmers and pastoralists) spontaneously decide to form alliances among themselves based on their affinities, location etc

4. Apoyo técnico, fortalecimiento institucional y gestión del conocimiento

4.1 Construcción de capacidades / capacitación

¿Se proporcionó la capacitación a usuarios de tierras/ otras partes interesadas?

Especifique quién fue capacitado:
  • usuarios de tierras
  • personal de campo/ consejeros
Si fuese relevante, también especifique género, edad, estatus, etnicidad, etc.

Dialogue Platform members of both sexes who are generally adults of high and proven standing drawn from the community.

Forma de capacitación:
  • en el contexto de trabajo
  • cursos
Temas avanzados:

- Conflict Management.
- Mediation Skills.
- Leadership Skills
- Group Dynamics.
- Existing legal framework.

Comentarios:

The capacity of field staff and advisers who basically are the paralegals and community resource volunteers were beefed up with these trainings as well.

4.2 Servicio de asesoría

¿Los usuarios de tierras tienen acceso a un servicio de asesoría?

Especifique si servicio proporcionado se realizó:
  • en los campos de los usuarios de tierras
  • en centros permanentes
Describa/ comentarios:

Follow up by MBOSCUDA operatives into the farmers' fields to see the effectiveness of conflict resolution outcomes done by DPs.

4.3 Fortalecimiento institucional (desarrollo institucional)

¿Se establecieron o fortalecieron instituciones mediante el Enfoque?
  • sí, mucho
Especifique el nivel o los niveles en los que se fortalecieron o establecieron las instituciones:
  • local
Describa la institución, roles y responsabilidades, miembros, etc.

The Dialogue Platform members capacities have been built on resolving conflicts.
MBOSCUDA's (Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association) capacity has been built to function as a better community grassroot support organisation.

Especifique el tipo de apoyo:
  • construcción de capacidades/ entrenamiento
Proporcione detalles adicionales:

These refresher courses gave participants the opportunity to share best practices and identify key weaknesses in mediating farmer-herder conflicts.

4.4 Monitoreo y evaluación

¿El monitoreo y la evaluación forman parte del Enfoque?

Comentarios:

A conflict database to ensure effective monitoring of the outcomes of the project and capture trends of conflicts in the Region has been put in place and runned by MBOSCUDA.

Si respondió que sí, ¿la documentación se utilizará para monitoreo y evaluación?

Comentarios:

This database is updated on a trimester basis with information which DP members give paralegals and community resource volunteers. They intend collate and pass it on to Regional Agro-pastoral Officer at the MBOSCUDA's (Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association) regional office in Bamenda where the data base is hosted.

4.5 Investigación

¿La investigación formó parte del Enfoque?

No

5. Financiamiento y apoyo material externo

5.1 Presupuesto anual para el componente MST del Enfoque

Si no se conoce el presupuesto anual preciso, indique el rango:
  • 10,000-100,000
Comentarios (ej. fuentes principales de financiamiento/ donantes principales):

This has been mainly from international charities and donors such as:
mainly Big Lottery Fund through Village Aid but also other UK charities e.g. United Purpose; Front line Defenders; Comic Relief; Guernsey Overseas Aid Commission; Charles Heywood Foundation and Evan Cornish Foundation but also individuals e.g. Veronica Wigley and Oliver Maxwell Sawyer of the UK

5.2 Apoyo financiero/material proporcionado a los usuarios de tierras

¿Los usuarios de tierras recibieron financiamiento/ apoyo material para implementar la Tecnología/ Tecnologías? :

Si respondió sí, especifique el tipo o los tipos de apoyo, condiciones y proveedor(es) :

This was mostly in terms of stationery (files, rim of papers, pen and papers) for the functioning of DPs provided by MBOSCUDA (Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association). This stationery is mostly used in documenting the proceedings and outcome of DPs mediation efforts.

5.3 Subsidios para insumos específicos (incluyendo mano de obra)

  • equipo
Especifique qué insumos se subsidiaron En qué grado Especifique los subsidios
herramientas totalmente financiado Didactic material (files, rim of papers, pen and papers)
Si la mano de obra de usuarios de tierras fue un insumo sustancial, ¿fue:
  • voluntario?
Comentarios:

The services of DP members is on pro bono basis. .

5.4 Crédito

¿Se proporcionó crédito bajo el Enfoque para actividades MST?

No

5.5 Otros incentivos o instrumentos

¿Se usaron otros incentivos o instrumentos para promover la implementación de Tecnologías MST?

No

6. Análisis de impacto y comentarios de conclusión

6.1 Impactos del Enfoque

¿El Enfoque empoderó a los usuarios locales de tierras, mejoró el involucramiento de las partes interesadas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

This approach has greatly empowered local land users who increasingly do not have to turn to third parties (traditional authorities, administrative and judicial authorities or law and enforcement officers) to adjudicate in land use conflicts but seek recourse in Dialogue Platforms.

¿El Enfoque facilitó la toma de decisiones basada en evidencia?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Decisions are being made at the local level by Dialogue Platform members who are in tune with the local realities

¿El Enfoque ayudó a los usuarios de tierras a implementar y mantener Tecnologías MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

An interesting and beneficial outcome of DPs has been the emergence of stronger integrated farming systems strengthening synergies between crop farmers and pastoralists known locally as Alliance Farming which is win-win for both crop farmers and pastoralists.

n.a

¿El Enfoque mejoró el conocimiento y capacidades de los usuarios para implementar MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

From the farming alliances that have developed as an outcome of the implementation of this approach, community members are engaging in more sustainable ways of growing crops as farmers make use of dung and urine from cattle and don't have to rely only on chemical fertilizers.

¿El Enfoque mejoró el conocimiento y capacidades de otras partes interesadas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Capacities were considerably improved through the courses and the various stakeholders received and the conflicts that the DPs in practice improved considerably their capacities

¿El Enfoque construyó/ fortaleció instituciones, colaboración entre partes interesadas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Conflicts between land users have decreased in numbers, frequency and intensity as community members have come to see the need for mutual co-existence of two farming or land use systems (crop farming and livestock production).

¿El Enfoque mitigó conflictos?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Conflicts have decreased considerably in project communities

¿El Enfoque empoderó a grupos en desventaja social y económica?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

The Mbororos who are the cattle rearers have come to gain in confidence and overcome the low self esteem they had of themselves and also the poor perception other communities had of them.

¿El Enfoque mejoró la equidad de género y empoderó a las mujeres y niñas?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

For inclusiveness, it is statutory that at least 3 members of the Dialogue Platform are women. This is particular important in Mbororo communities where women face a double marginalization - for being women and for living in predominantly patriarchal societies and also for being pastoralists who still live on the fringes of society.

¿El Enfoque alentó a jóvenes/ la siguiente generación de usuarios de tierras a involucrarse con MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

For inclusiveness, youths are statutory members of dialogue platforms

¿El Enfoque mejoró cuestiones de tenencia de tierra/ derechos de usuarios que obstaculizaron la implementación de la Tecnologías MST?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Pastoralists rights have been strengthened by this approach. The rights they have over the rangelands they inhabit and use for their livelihood were mostly usufruct rights but farmers increasingly through this approach and its related technology - the Alliance Farming, acknowledge other rights (such as right of management) pastoralists have over the rangelands they inhabit. They are no longer looked upon as 'strangers' by farming neighbours because of their late settlement in the North West Region of the country.

¿El Enfoque resultó en mejor seguridad alimentaria/ mejoró la nutrición?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

With the improved social climate between pastoralists and farmers, more time can be devoted to agriculture

n.a.

¿El Enfoque llevó a un acceso mejorado a tierra y saneamiento?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

The improved social climate has led to community members jointly engaging in projects such as catchment area protection for water supplies

¿El Enfoque llevó a un uso más sostenible/ fuentes de energía?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Biogas use by community members has increased as some of dung is used as digesta for the biogas plants which generate energy for domestic use.

¿El Enfoque llevó a oportunidades de empleo, ingresos?
  • No
  • Sí, un poco
  • Sí, moderadamente
  • Sí, mucho

Community members because of the reduced conflicts have time to gainfully engage themselves in their farm enterprises diversify their livelihood options as well such as engaging in other business activities.

6.2 Motivación principal del usuario de la tierra para implementar MST

  • producción incrementada

Stronger integrated farming systems strengthening synergies between crop farming and pastoralism.

  • mitigación de conflicto

Resolving conflicts which were preventing harmonious co-existence between the two land use forms, the farmers and pastoralists

6.3 Sostenibilidad de las actividades del Enfoque

¿Pueden los usuarios de tierras sostener lo que se implementó mediante el Enfoque (sin apoyo externo)?
Si respondió que sí, describa cómo:

A present trend observed is where farmers and pastoralists go ahead to resolve conflicts among themselves even without the intervention of DPs indicating that approach is sustainable.

6.4 Fortalezas/ ventajas del Enfoque

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
It has opened up dialogue between farming and pastoral communities who for the most part were always at daggers drawn. This has improved social cohesion between the two as seen in the emergence of mutual beneficial farming alliances between farmers and pastoralists.
In cases of compensation for crop damage or injury/death of animals, this is handed to the victim and not to administrative or judiciary authorities as is the case with the Agro-Pastoral Commissions, the statutory institution that arbitrates conflicts between farmers and pastoralists.
It has allowed them possibility of avoiding uncertainty, time, cost and stress in going through the Agro-Pastoral Commissions or the courts.
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
Low stake conflict prevention/ resolution mechanism compared to present one involving the intervention of administrative, judiciary or law enforcement officials which has proved to be ineffective and fraught with corruption. It is workable, affordable and adaptable to local realities.
It has created an enabling environment for the emergence of mutually beneficial farming relationships and considerably reduced the hostility between the two major land users - pastoralists and farmers.
Quite informal, voluntary and flexible

6.5 Debilidades/ desventajas del Enfoque y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
DP members will want some form of compensation for their time and effort. Putting in place a local mechanism to help compensate DP members for their time and effort.
Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Not yet recognized by law and so decisions taken by DPs are not legally binding. Recognition and or formalization will go a long way to make them legally binding.

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo

Observations during field visits.

  • entrevistas con usuarios de tierras

Collected the views of about 30 different farmers and pastoralists during field visits to DP sites in focus group interviews.

  • entrevistas con especialistas/ expertos en MST

Conducted interviews with 4 SRM specialists at MBOSCUDA on 5 different occasions.

  • compilación de informes y otra documentación existente

7.2 Referencias a publicaciones disponibles

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Breakthrough (A publication of MBOSCUDA vols 1,2,3 and 4

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?

Free from MBOSCUDA office

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Making Rangelands More Secure in Cameroon, ILC Rangelands Series, Issue Paper 8, by Blasius Azuhnwi

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?

Free from ILC Rome

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Mid Term Evaluation Report of 'In Search of Common Ground' for Farmer-Grazer Conflicts in the North West Region of Cameroon. August 2016 by Nchinda Valentine, Che Marcellus, Tata Precillia Ijang, Shidiki Abubakar & Chi Napoleon

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?

Free from MBOSCUDA

7.3 Vínculos a la información relevante disponible en línea

Título/ descripción:

Website of Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA)

URL:

http://www.mboscuda.org/

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