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Promoting farmers and pastoralists consultations in managing rangelands. [喀麦隆]

Dialogue platforms

approaches_3319 - 喀麦隆

完整性: 100%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与方法评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式


In Search of Common Ground
Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) - 喀麦隆

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件




1.4 SLM技术问卷的参考

2. SLM方法的描述

2.1 该方法的简要说明

These are multi stakeholder platforms bringing together rangeland users such as farmers, pastoralists/agro pastoralists to learn, discuss and implement low stake conflict mitigation strategies and mutually beneficial alliances.

2.2 该方法的详细说明


Dialogue Platforms (DP) are usually made up between 12 to 14 community members with a balance from both the pastoralist and farming communities. The members are selected from within the community on the basis of their tract records on peace building, objectivity and interest in the development of their community. The objectives of these platforms are: promote inter community dialogue in natural resources sharing and access, promote sensible resource management, and promote mutual beneficial relationships and constructive conflict resolution and mitigation. The Alternative Conflict Management (ACM) approach is usually promoted and this seeks to address the question of how people can make better decisions together, particularly on difficult, contentious issues. This is implemented as a complement or substitute to more adversarial or non-consensual strategies, such as judicial or legal recourse, unilaterally initiated public information campaigns or partisan political action.
The stages of this multi stakeholder dialogue process mostly facilitated by 'Paralegals' and 'Community Resource Volunteers' of the Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) include:
1. Identification of stakeholders who are mostly farmers, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists but can also include traditional authorities, local administration and technical services
2. Sensitization on approach
3. Setting up of DP and capacity building of members on conflict mediation techniques of Alternative Crisis Management (ACM) approach which privilege negotiation and mediation in resolving resource access/use conflicts
4. Monitoring of the functioning of DP
5. Promoting the emergence of beneficial farming relations between farmers and pastoralists

2.3 该方法的照片

2.4 该方法的视频


'Reaching the Unreached': https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gBUXSDnVLUM
A documentary showing some of MBOSCUDA's community development initiatives in North-West Cameroon.




North-West Cameroon


ISCG project of MBOSCUDA

2.5 采用该方法的国家/地区/地点




North West Region


This approach has been piloted in 23 communities in the North West Region

2.6 该方法的开始和终止日期






Project funding will end in 2018. Some aspects of this approach have been existing informally within the communities but through the facilitation efforts of development NGOs, it has gained in popularity and has even made its way in to the draft Pastoral Code of the country awaiting enactment by parliament.

2.7 方法的类型

  • 基于项目/方案

2.8 该方法的主要目的/目标

- Articulation and mediation of different interests in resource use and sharing.
- Promote beneficial relationships.
- Sustainable resource (land and water) management.
- Constructive conflict resolution.

2.9 推动或妨碍实施本办法所适用的技术的条件

  • 阻碍

Cultural differences between two main land user (pastoralists and crop farmers) may hinder smooth functioning of approach. Pastoralists are predominantly moslems while farmers are christians. So possibilities for a clash over religious values eg muslims don't take alcohol or eat pork which may be be served during gatherings may arise.

  • 阻碍

This approach does not depend on availability/access to financial resources and services

  • 阻碍

Presently the institution set up by law at the level of every sub division to adjudicate farmer-pastoralists' conflicts is the Agro Pastoral Commissions (APC) which have been dubbed as corrupt and inefficient in handling these conflicts. Some are even known to help perpetuate these conflicts for selfish ends. The members of these APCs may see in this new approach the end of their prerogatives since conflicts will no longer be brought to them as farmers and pastoralists try to settle their conflicts amongst themselves without recourse to third party.

  • 启动

The success of this approach is critically hinged on collaboration between main local actors especially farmers and pastoralists and also the facilitation skills of the 'Paralegals' and 'Community Resource Volunteers' of MBOSCUDA, the community based organization facilitating the emergence of this approach.

  • 阻碍

Absence of collaboration between the main local actors (farmers and pastoralists) will greatly hinder the smooth functioning of dialogue platforms.

  • 启动

This approach has yet to get formal backing from the state. This formal backing can come from recognising it in pastoral code.

  • 阻碍

To much reliance on animal health care to the detriment of rangelands science and governance in government policy. This predates independence and continues even up to recent times were efforts have been oriented towards the reinforcement of veterinary infrastructure with little concern on facilitating the emergence of structures at the local level for negotiating multiple and complementary uses of resources.

  • 启动

This decentralization of decision making, implementation and enforcement actually creates an enabling atmosphere for the emergence of community dialogue platforms.
Also, the land tenure system of the country is under review and it is hoped that the draft provisions creating and recognizing dialogue platforms will be maintained.

  • 启动

The presence of paralegals and 'community resource volunteers' from MBOSCUDA, a local community based organization, facilitates the emergence of dialogue platforms. They provide support in terms of training and backstopping and also do monitoring and evaluation.

  • 启动

n.a. since this is an institutional measure.

  • 阻碍

n.a. since this is an institutional measure.

  • 阻碍

The DP members render their services pro bono. This calls for extra effort and sacrifice on their part to do this. They can be hindered in offering these services if they also have their own own private and personal matters to attend to such as working in their own fields to tend their crops or animals.

3. 相关利益相关者的参与和角色

3.1 该方法涉及的利益相关者及其职责

  • 当地土地使用者/当地社区

Rangeland users: pastoralists and farmers.

Pastoralists and farmers drawn from the communities because of their integrity constitute members of dialogue platforms. They look in to conflicts presented to them by the locals to mediate and find low stake solutions to them.

  • 社区组织

Mbororo Social, Cultural and Development Association (MBOSCUDA).

Facilitated the emergence of this approach by organising and sponsoring capacity builiding workshops for DP members through their consultants and also parelegals and community resource volunteers who do close follow up of the functioning of DPs.

  • SLM专家/农业顾问

Consultants .

Consultants were brought in to train DP members on conflict management, leadership skills and group dynamics.

  • 研究人员


Compiling and documentation of practice.

  • 国家政府(规划者、决策者)

Cameroon government.

Called upon to recognize/formalize this low stake conflict mediation/resolution approach.

  • 国际组织

SNV Netherlands Development Organisation.
Village Aid - a UK based charity.
Comic Relief - UK based charity.
Department of International Development (DFID) UK.

Provision of funding for programme activities.

3.2 当地土地使用者/当地社区参与该方法的不同阶段
当地土地使用者/当地社区的参与 指定参与人员并描述活动
启动/动机 互动 Because of the endemic conflicts over resource use and access in the community, the locals saw the setting up of DP as a felt need. So local people together with MBOSCUDA operatives jointly analyzed the situation and came up with the need to create DPs as a low stake solution to resolving farmer-pastoralists conflicts without the involvement administrative, judiciary and law enforcement officials who were seen to instead be inefficient and corrupt resolving the conflicts.
计划 互动 Joint planning sessions between locals and MBOSCUDA operatives were held to map out activities. Locals then designated members from their communities to serve as DPs and these members were suppose to be of high standing in the communities.
实施 互动 Activities are implemented by DP members with support from MBOSCUDA operatives (paralegals and Community Resource Volunteers).
监测/评估 外部支持 For now the monitoring/evaluation of DPs is done by Community Resource Volunteers supported by MBOSCUDA with a fuel allowance to go round and backstop the functioning of DPs.

3.3 流程图(如可用)


During a village or quarter assembly convened by traditional authorities and facilitated by MBOSCUDA operatives, the conflicting relationship between farmers and pastoralists is discussed and participants take a firm commitment to work towards improving it. The idea of dialogue platform as a low stake measure in mitigating and resolving resource access/use is presented and community support and recognition is solicited. Community members are then called upon to designate members (between 12- 14 in number, and with at least 2 to 3 women and youths) to make up DP for the village/quarter. The DP members are then incapacitated to carry out their duties through short courses in conflict management and leadership skills, group dynamics and existing legal framework on land tenure. They go ahead to carry out their duties which are then monitored by MBOSCUDA operatives. The improved dialogue in the community especially between farmers and pastoralists then fosters the forming of farming alliances between the two groups


Blasius Azuhnwi

3.4 有关SLM技术选择的决策

  • 仅限土地使用者(自主)

The land users (farmers and pastoralists) spontaneously decide to form alliances among themselves based on their affinities, location etc

4. 技术支持、能力建设和知识管理

4.1 能力建设/培训


  • 土地使用者
  • 现场工作人员/顾问

Dialogue Platform members of both sexes who are generally adults of high and proven standing drawn from the community.

  • 在职
  • 课程

- Conflict Management.
- Mediation Skills.
- Leadership Skills
- Group Dynamics.
- Existing legal framework.


The capacity of field staff and advisers who basically are the paralegals and community resource volunteers were beefed up with these trainings as well.

4.2 咨询服务


  • 在土地使用者的土地上
  • 在固定中心

Follow up by MBOSCUDA operatives into the farmers' fields to see the effectiveness of conflict resolution outcomes done by DPs.

4.3 机构强化(组织发展)

  • 是,非常
  • 本地

The Dialogue Platform members capacities have been built on resolving conflicts.
MBOSCUDA's (Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association) capacity has been built to function as a better community grassroot support organisation.

  • 能力建设/培训

These refresher courses gave participants the opportunity to share best practices and identify key weaknesses in mediating farmer-herder conflicts.

4.4 监测和评估



A conflict database to ensure effective monitoring of the outcomes of the project and capture trends of conflicts in the Region has been put in place and runned by MBOSCUDA.



This database is updated on a trimester basis with information which DP members give paralegals and community resource volunteers. They intend collate and pass it on to Regional Agro-pastoral Officer at the MBOSCUDA's (Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association) regional office in Bamenda where the data base is hosted.

4.5 研究


5. 融资和外部物质支持

5.1 该方法中SLM组成部分的年度预算

  • 10,000-100,000

This has been mainly from international charities and donors such as:
mainly Big Lottery Fund through Village Aid but also other UK charities e.g. United Purpose; Front line Defenders; Comic Relief; Guernsey Overseas Aid Commission; Charles Heywood Foundation and Evan Cornish Foundation but also individuals e.g. Veronica Wigley and Oliver Maxwell Sawyer of the UK

5.2 为土地使用者提供财政/物质支援



This was mostly in terms of stationery (files, rim of papers, pen and papers) for the functioning of DPs provided by MBOSCUDA (Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association). This stationery is mostly used in documenting the proceedings and outcome of DPs mediation efforts.

5.3 对特定投入的补贴(包括劳动力)

  • 设备
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
工具 充分融资 Didactic material (files, rim of papers, pen and papers)
  • 自愿

The services of DP members is on pro bono basis. .

5.4 信用


5.5 其它激励或手段


6. 影响分析和结论性陈述

6.1 方法的影响

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

This approach has greatly empowered local land users who increasingly do not have to turn to third parties (traditional authorities, administrative and judicial authorities or law and enforcement officers) to adjudicate in land use conflicts but seek recourse in Dialogue Platforms.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Decisions are being made at the local level by Dialogue Platform members who are in tune with the local realities

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

An interesting and beneficial outcome of DPs has been the emergence of stronger integrated farming systems strengthening synergies between crop farmers and pastoralists known locally as Alliance Farming which is win-win for both crop farmers and pastoralists.


  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

From the farming alliances that have developed as an outcome of the implementation of this approach, community members are engaging in more sustainable ways of growing crops as farmers make use of dung and urine from cattle and don't have to rely only on chemical fertilizers.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Capacities were considerably improved through the courses and the various stakeholders received and the conflicts that the DPs in practice improved considerably their capacities

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Conflicts between land users have decreased in numbers, frequency and intensity as community members have come to see the need for mutual co-existence of two farming or land use systems (crop farming and livestock production).

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Conflicts have decreased considerably in project communities

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The Mbororos who are the cattle rearers have come to gain in confidence and overcome the low self esteem they had of themselves and also the poor perception other communities had of them.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

For inclusiveness, it is statutory that at least 3 members of the Dialogue Platform are women. This is particular important in Mbororo communities where women face a double marginalization - for being women and for living in predominantly patriarchal societies and also for being pastoralists who still live on the fringes of society.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

For inclusiveness, youths are statutory members of dialogue platforms

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Pastoralists rights have been strengthened by this approach. The rights they have over the rangelands they inhabit and use for their livelihood were mostly usufruct rights but farmers increasingly through this approach and its related technology - the Alliance Farming, acknowledge other rights (such as right of management) pastoralists have over the rangelands they inhabit. They are no longer looked upon as 'strangers' by farming neighbours because of their late settlement in the North West Region of the country.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

With the improved social climate between pastoralists and farmers, more time can be devoted to agriculture


  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The improved social climate has led to community members jointly engaging in projects such as catchment area protection for water supplies

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Biogas use by community members has increased as some of dung is used as digesta for the biogas plants which generate energy for domestic use.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Community members because of the reduced conflicts have time to gainfully engage themselves in their farm enterprises diversify their livelihood options as well such as engaging in other business activities.

6.2 土地使用者实施SLM的主要动机

  • 增加生产

Stronger integrated farming systems strengthening synergies between crop farming and pastoralism.

  • 冲突缓解

Resolving conflicts which were preventing harmonious co-existence between the two land use forms, the farmers and pastoralists

6.3 方法活动的可持续性


A present trend observed is where farmers and pastoralists go ahead to resolve conflicts among themselves even without the intervention of DPs indicating that approach is sustainable.

6.4 该方法的长处/优点

It has opened up dialogue between farming and pastoral communities who for the most part were always at daggers drawn. This has improved social cohesion between the two as seen in the emergence of mutual beneficial farming alliances between farmers and pastoralists.
In cases of compensation for crop damage or injury/death of animals, this is handed to the victim and not to administrative or judiciary authorities as is the case with the Agro-Pastoral Commissions, the statutory institution that arbitrates conflicts between farmers and pastoralists.
It has allowed them possibility of avoiding uncertainty, time, cost and stress in going through the Agro-Pastoral Commissions or the courts.
Low stake conflict prevention/ resolution mechanism compared to present one involving the intervention of administrative, judiciary or law enforcement officials which has proved to be ineffective and fraught with corruption. It is workable, affordable and adaptable to local realities.
It has created an enabling environment for the emergence of mutually beneficial farming relationships and considerably reduced the hostility between the two major land users - pastoralists and farmers.
Quite informal, voluntary and flexible

6.5 该方法的弱点/缺点以及克服它们的方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
DP members will want some form of compensation for their time and effort. Putting in place a local mechanism to help compensate DP members for their time and effort.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Not yet recognized by law and so decisions taken by DPs are not legally binding. Recognition and or formalization will go a long way to make them legally binding.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 方法/信息来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查

Observations during field visits.

  • 与土地使用者的访谈

Collected the views of about 30 different farmers and pastoralists during field visits to DP sites in focus group interviews.

  • 与SLM专业人员/专家的访谈

Conducted interviews with 4 SRM specialists at MBOSCUDA on 5 different occasions.

  • 根据报告和其他现有文档进行编译

7.2 参考可用出版物


Breakthrough (A publication of MBOSCUDA vols 1,2,3 and 4


Free from MBOSCUDA office


Making Rangelands More Secure in Cameroon, ILC Rangelands Series, Issue Paper 8, by Blasius Azuhnwi


Free from ILC Rome


Mid Term Evaluation Report of 'In Search of Common Ground' for Farmer-Grazer Conflicts in the North West Region of Cameroon. August 2016 by Nchinda Valentine, Che Marcellus, Tata Precillia Ijang, Shidiki Abubakar & Chi Napoleon


Free from MBOSCUDA

7.3 链接到网络上可用的相关信息


Website of Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA)