Tecnologías

Gully erosion management [Etiopía]

Borebore lemat (Amharic)

technologies_1597 - Etiopía

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación de la Tecnología

Persona(s) de referencia clave

Especialista MST:
Especialista MST:

Bekure Melese

WLRC

Nombre del proyecto que financió la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Water and Land Resource Centre Project (WLRC)

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT:

1.4 Declaración de la sostenibilidad de la Tecnología descrita

¿La Tecnología aquí descrita resulta problemática en relación a la degradación de la tierra, de tal forma que no puede considerársela una tecnología sostenible para el manejo de la tierra?

No

1.5 Referencia al (los) Cuestionario(s) de Enfoques MST (documentados usando WOCAT)

Community Organizations and Mobilization for Soil and Water Conservation Work (COM-SWC)
approaches

Community Organizations and Mobilization for Soil and Water ... [Etiopía]

Community mobilization for soil and water conservation work in a watershed planning unit is an approach for collective action by organizing all active labor forces living in the kebele/peasant association into development group of 20-30 members and further divide into 1:5 work force to implement construction of soil and water ...

  • Compilador: Gizaw Desta Gessesse
'Cut and Carry' Grazing system or 'Zero Grazing' (CCG)
approaches

'Cut and Carry' Grazing system or 'Zero Grazing' ... [Etiopía]

Cut and carry grazing system (alternatively called zero grazing) is an approach where the community is consulted to identify and agree on areas to be closed and protected from free grazing; establish user groups are established to share the fodder biomass harvested from communal closed areas equitably; they utilize tree/shrub ...

  • Compilador: Gizaw Desta Gessesse

2. Descripción de la Tecnología MST

2.1 Breve descripción de la Tecnología

Definición de la Tecnología:

Gully erosion management is the application of combination of practices to control excess or concentrated runoff generation in the gully upstream catchment area, divert excess runoff upstream of gully heads and control further development of gully using appropriate structural and vegetative measures in the head, bed and sides of the gully and eventually convert into productive land through the consultation and involvement of local community.

2.2 Descripción detallada de la Tecnología

Descripción:

Gully erosion occurs on cultivated and grazing/pasture lands. Gully erosion management is a practice aimed to rehabilitate and protect further development of gullies and change into productive land. It involves both runoff management and erosion control activities. Gully management and treatment is different at upstream catchment area, gully head and gully section. Proper land management practices and slope treatment measures such as terraces, infiltration ditches and grass or shrub hedgerows are taking place on upstream catchment of the gully in order to reduce the rate of surface runoff. The excess runoff above the gully head is safely drained using cutoff drains into natural or properly vegetated waterways in order to reduce the surface water entering into the gully and protect the constructed physical and biological measures being washed away. Before treating gully sections, for the purpose of stability of structures and quick healing, the gully should be reshaped and planted with grass sod. Gully wall reshaping is cutting off steep slopes of active gully flanks in to gentle slope of minimum at 45% slope, up to two-third of the total depth of the gully and constructing small trenches along contours for re-vegetating slanted part of the gully walls and beds. If the gully is wide and has meandering nature with huge accumulation of runoff flowing down, it requires constructing of retaining walls, to protect displaced (not yet stabilized) soils and soil materials and the sidewalls of the reshaped gully. Stabilization of gully sections involves the use of structural and vegetative measures in the head, floor and side of the gully. The construction of physical structures inside the gully section is followed by establishment of biological measures.

Purposes of gully erosion management are: 1) rehabilitate the land damaged due to gully erosion, 2) prevent further expansion and development of gully erosion, and 3) convert the land lost by gully erosion to productive land.

Gully erosion management begins with assessment and mapping of gully erosion that helps to have an overview of erosion, to document extent of damage, to identify the nature and causes of gully formation, and gives relevant information to design appropriate measures. At establishment stage, gully management requires: catchment treatment using different land treatment measures; runoff diversion by cutoff drain; and stabilization of gully sections by physical structures and vegetative measures. Stones for the construction of terraces, cutoff drains and waterways are required. Depending on the nature of gully and available material for construction, either stones, sand bags, brush woods, bamboo mat, gabion or concrete (sand, gravel and cement) are needed for constructing check-dams in a gully section. Different tree/shrub seedlings, grass cuttings, and seedlings of fruit trees are required to reinforce and stabilize the gully sections. The respective labor requirement for stone collection, construction of retaining wall, and gully reshaping is 0.5m3/person day, 5m/person day, and 1m3/person day. Approximately 0.25, 0.50, 0.50, 0.50 , and 1.0 m3/person day is required to construct gabion, loose stone, arc weir, sand bag, and bamboo mat check-dams respectively. About 3.0 m/person day is needed to construct brushwood check dams. The treated gullies should be checked regularly. The maintenance requirement is closely monitored and immediate repair is essential to avoid further damage and eventual collapse of structures. The inputs important for maintenance include stones or other materials for check dams, seedlings to replant areas covered with non-survived seedlings.

Gully erosion is prevalent in areas where excess runoff occurs in high rainfall areas associated with moderate to high erodible soils. It occurs in range of wet highland to moist Kolla areas where annual rainfall exceeds 900mm. Its occurrence is more frequent in heavy clay soils (Vertisols) characterized by low infiltration and in clay soils (like Nitosols) characterized by low organic matter. Often, gully formation occurs on overgrazed pasture lands and inappropriately managed crop lands. Gully erosion control requires mobilization of high input or materials and labor. Larger gullies need to be rehabilitated and treated through community labor mobilization. Subsequent maintenance activities, monitoring and benefit sharing should be made by the user groups who are entitled to utilize the benefits.

The living condition depends on subsistence crop-livestock mixed farming. On average households have 5-6 family size. Crop production is meant for home consumption with small surplus for local market. The services related to water supply, energy supply, and infrastructure are low. Besides it is an asset, animals often used to cope shocks during drought periods.

2.3 Fotografías de la Tecnología

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde la Tecnología fue aplicada y que se hallan comprendidos por esta evaluación

País:

Etiopía

Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

Amhara National Regional State (ANRS)

Especifique más el lugar :

Dembecha/Mecha/Yilmana Densa

Especifique la difusión de la Tecnología:
  • distribuida parejamente sobre un área
Si se desconoce el área precisa, indique el área aproximada cubierta:
  • 10-100 km2

2.6 Fecha de la implementación

Si no se conoce el año preciso, indique la fecha aproximada:
  • hace menos de 10 años (recientemente)

2.7 Introducción de la Tecnología

Especifique cómo se introdujo la Tecnología:
  • durante experimentos/ investigación
  • mediante proyectos/ intervenciones externas
Comentarios (tipo de proyecto, etc.):

Since gully erosion management requires combination of practices, many actors mainly research, local development actors, community, and project are involved in the development of the technology

3. Clasificación de la Tecnología MST

3.1 Propósito(s) principal(es) de la Tecnología MST

  • reducir, prevenir, restaurar la degradación del suelo

3.2 Tipo(s) actuales de uso de la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología

Tierras cultivadas

Tierras cultivadas

  • Cosecha anual
  • Cultivos perennes (no leñosos)
  • Elphant grass, Sudan grass
Número de temporadas de cultivo por año:
  • 1
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 220, Longest growing period from month to month: May to December; Second longest growing period in days: 180, Second longest growing period from month to month: June to November

Tierra de pastoreo

Tierra de pastoreo

Pastoreo extenso:
  • Pastoralismo semi-nómada
Pastoreo intensivo/ producción de forraje:
  • Cortar y llevar/ cero pastoreo
  • free grazing
Bosques

Bosques

  • Susbania sesban, Acacia decurrence, treelucern, Acacia saligna
Productos y servicios:
  • Madera
  • Leña
Comentarios:

Livestock density (if relevant):
> 100 LU /km2

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Land degradation due to different forms of soil erosion and nutrient depletion, overgrazing, shortage of pasture lands and its low productivity, excessive and inappropriate construction of traditional ditches, and increased pressure on trees for the purpose of fuel wood and timber.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Soil erosion and soil nutrient depletion, shortage of cultivated land, shortage of grazing land and wood for fuel wood
The type of grazing is often free grazing on communal grazing lands/pasture, supplemented with crop residues and zero grazing combined with improved forages

3.4 Provisión de agua

Provisión de agua para la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología:
  • de secano

3.5 Grupo MST al que pertenece la Tecnología

  • veda de zona (detener uso, apoyar la restauración)

3.6 Medidas MST que componen la Tecnología

medidas vegetativas

medidas vegetativas

  • V1: Cubierta de árboles y arbustos
  • V2: Pastos y plantas herbáceas perennes
medidas estructurales

medidas estructurales

  • S2: Taludes, bancos
  • S3: Acequias graduadas, canales, vías fluviales
  • S4: Acequias niveladas, fosas
  • S6: Muros, barreras, vallas, cercas
  • S11: Otros
Comentarios:

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -contour, aligned: -along boundary

3.7 Principales tipos de degradación del suelo encarados con la Tecnología

erosión de suelos por agua

erosión de suelos por agua

  • Wg: erosión en cárcavas
  • Wo: efectos de degradación fuera del sitio
degradación biológica

degradación biológica

  • Bc: reducción de la cobertura vegetal del suelo
Comentarios:

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use, overgrazing, Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts), population pressure
Secondary causes of degradation: soil management, crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub), urbanisation and infrastructure development (Urbanization and infrastructure development induced excessive compaction, unprotected drainage systems and lead to gully formation), floods, land tenure (Land under undefined or communal use of grazing lands are subject to mismanagement that result in gully formation), poverty / wealth

3.8 Prevención, reducción o restauración de la degradación del suelo

Especifique la meta de la Tecnología con relación a la degradación de la tierra:
  • reducir la degradación del suelo
  • restaurar/ rehabilitar tierra severamente degradada

4. Especificaciones técnicas, actividades de implementación, insumos y costos

4.1 Dibujo técnico de la Tecnología

Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

A reshaped gully section treated with an integrated gully control measures including check dams made of loose stone and wooden and vegetative tree/shrub and grass hedgerows planted on the sides of gullies.
Location: Debre Mewi Learning Watershed. Yilmana Densa/West Gojam/Amhara Region
Date: 6/27/2016

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high (It requires knowledge of peak runoff and runoff management and skills to integrate different measures)
Technical knowledge required for land users: high (It needs skills to construct physical measures, and regular monitoring and maintenance of practices. The users must know and understand the growth nature and harvesting stage tree/shrub, grass species)

Main technical functions: control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: drain / divert, reduction of slope angle
Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover, stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase of infiltration

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 2600
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2-3
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5-1.0
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5

Aligned: -graded strips
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Aligned: -along boundary
Number of plants per (ha): 200
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 1

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Alinged along side wall of gully
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 6800
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2-3.0
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5-1.0
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5

Vegetative measure: Aligned along side wall of gully
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 4800
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2-3.0
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5
Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Trees/ shrubs species: Susbania sesban, Acacia decurrence, treelucern, Acacia saligna
Grass species: Elphant grass, Sudan grass
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 20-30%%
If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 18-25%%
Gradient along the rows / strips: 0.5%

Diversion ditch/ drainage
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3-0.7
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1.2-2.8
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 100-250

Waterway
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1.5-2.0

Structural measure: Check dams
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 10-15
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 1-1.5
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1.5-3.5

Construction material (earth): Excavated soil
Construction material (stone): Loose stones for check dam
Construction material (wood): Brush wood for check dam
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 10-18%
If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 8-12%
Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Autor:

MOA, 2005, Water and Land Resource Center

4.2 Información general sobre el cálculo de insumos y costos

otra / moneda nacional (especifique):

ETB

Si fuera relevante, indique la tasa de cambio de dólares americanos a la moneda local (ej. 1 U$ = 79.9 Reales Brasileros): 1 U$ =:

20,0

Indique el costo promedio del salario de trabajo contratado por día:

2.50

4.3 Actividades de establecimiento

Actividad Momento (estación)
1. Seedling preparation January-June
2. Seedling Transportation June-July
3. Grass split transportation June -July
4. Plantation of biological measures inside the gully July
5. Surveying Dry season
6. Reshaping of gully Dry season
7. Construction of cutoff drains Dry season
8. Construction of waterways Dry season
9. Construction of stone check dams Dry season

4.4 Costos e insumos necesarios para el establecimiento

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra labour ha 1,0 8319,0 8319,0 99,0
Equipo animal traction ha 1,0 9,0 9,0 100,0
Equipo tools ha 1,0 901,8 901,8 50,0
Material para plantas grass ha 1,0 20,0 20,0
Material para plantas seeds ha 1,0 24,0 24,0
Material para plantas seedlings ha 1,0 63,45 63,45
Fertilizantes y biocidas compost/manure ha 1,0 15,86 15,86
Material de construcción stone ha 1,0 1405,0 1405,0 91,0
Material de construcción wood ha 1,0 27,6 27,6
Material de construcción earth ha 1,0 91,2 91,2
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología 10876,91
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología en USD 543,85
Comentarios:

Duration of establishment phase: 15 month(s)

4.5 Actividades de establecimiento/ recurrentes

Actividad Momento/ frequencia
1. Seedling preparation January-June
2. Seedling and grass split transportation July
3. Replanting seedlings and grass splits July
4. Maintenance of cutoff drains/waterways Dry season (Jan-Apr)
5. Maintenance of check dams Dry season (Jan-Apr)

4.6 Costos e insumos necesarios para actividades de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (por año)

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra labour ha 1,0 902,0 902,0 67,0
Equipo animal traction ha 1,0 4,5 4,5
Material para plantas grass ha 1,0 10,3 10,3
Material para plantas seedlings ha 1,0 33,0 33,0
Fertilizantes y biocidas compost/manure ha 1,0 8,5 8,5
Material de construcción stone ha 1,0 50,0 50,0 41,0
Material de construcción wood ha 1,0 14,4 14,4
Material de construcción earth ha 1,0 45,6 45,6
Indique los costos totales para mantenecer la Tecnología 1068,3
Costos totales para mantener la Tecnología en USD 53,41
Comentarios:

The costs are calculated on hectare basis

4.7 Factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

Describa los factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

The costs for gully erosion management is dependent upon labor, material and transport costs, workability of the soil and maintenance costs.

5. Entorno natural y humano

5.1 Clima

Lluvia anual
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Especificaciones/ comentarios sobre la cantidad de lluvia:

Monsoon, 5-6 months rain and 6-7 dry months

Zona agroclimática
  • Sub-húmeda

Thermal climate class: subtropics. The lowest temperature is above 5°C but below 18°C between November to January

5.2 Topografía

Pendientes en promedio:
  • plana (0-2 %)
  • ligera (3-5%)
  • moderada (6-10%)
  • ondulada (11-15%)
  • accidentada (16-30%)
  • empinada (31-60%)
  • muy empinada (>60%)
Formaciones telúricas:
  • meseta/ planicies
  • cordilleras
  • laderas montañosas
  • laderas de cerro
  • pies de monte
  • fondo del valle
Zona altitudinal:
  • 0-100 m s.n.m.
  • 101-500 m s.n.m.
  • 501-1,000 m s.n.m
  • 1,001-1,500 m s.n.m
  • 1,501-2,000 m s.n.m
  • 2,001-2,500 m s.n.m
  • 2,501-3,000 m s.n.m
  • 3,001-4,000 m s.n.m
  • > 4,000 m s.n.m

5.3 Suelos

Profundidad promedio del suelo:
  • muy superficial (0-20 cm)
  • superficial (21-50 cm)
  • moderadamente profunda (51-80 cm)
  • profunda (81-120 cm)
  • muy profunda (>120 cm)
Textura del suelo (capa arable):
  • mediana (limosa)
  • fina/ pesada (arcilla)
Materia orgánica de capa arable:
  • media (1-3%)
  • baja (<1%)

5.4 Disponibilidad y calidad de agua

Agua subterránea:

5-50 m

Disponibilidad de aguas superficiales:

mediana

Calidad de agua (sin tratar):

agua potable de mala calidad (requiere tratamiento)

5.5 Biodiversidad

Diversidad de especies:
  • baja

5.6 Las características de los usuarios de la tierra que aplican la Tecnología

Orientación del mercado del sistema de producción:
  • subsistencia (autoprovisionamiento)
Ingresos no agrarios:
  • menos del 10% de todos los ingresos
Nivel relativo de riqueza:
  • promedio
Individuos o grupos:
  • grupos/ comunal
Nivel de mecanización:
  • trabajo manual
  • tracción animal
Género:
  • mujeres
  • hombres
Indique otras características relevantes de los usuarios de las tierras:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: Women are involved in collecting stones and assisting men on heavy works
Population density: 200-500 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
80% of the land users are average wealthy.
20% of the land users are poor.
Some land users involve in seasonal labor in towns and sell charcoal

5.7 Área promedio de la tierra usada por usuarios de tierra que aplican la Tecnología

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
¿Esto se considera de pequeña, mediana o gran escala (refiriéndose al contexto local)?
  • pequeña escala

5.8 Tenencia de tierra, uso de tierra y derechos de uso de agua

Tenencia de tierra:
  • estado
Derechos de uso de agua:
  • acceso abierto (no organizado)
  • comunitarios (organizado)
Comentarios:

Land use rights on crop land is individual while on grazing lands it is communal either unorganized or organized in some cases. Water is open accessible in most cases except organized communal utilization for some developed drinking water sources.

5.9 Acceso a servicios e infraestructura

salud:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
educación:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
asistencia técnica:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
empleo (ej. fuera de la granja):
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
mercados:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
energía:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
caminos y transporte:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
agua potable y saneamiento:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
servicios financieros:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno

6. Impactos y comentarios para concluir

6.1 Impactos in situ demostrados por la Tecnología

Impactos socioeconómicos

Producción

producción de forraje

disminuyó
incrementó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Gullies are treated for purpose of improved grass and legume fodder production like napier, susbania, local grasses

diversidad de producto

disminuyó
incrementó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Honey, fruits can be diversified under intensive gully development

Ingreso y costos

diversidad de fuentes de ingreso

disminuyó
incrementó
Comentarios/ especifique:

High fodder biomass provide an opportunity to do fattening; sometimes used to grow fruits;

carga de trabajo

incrementó
disminuyó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Under low productive soil where recovery rate is slow, establishment and maintenance cost of labor is high

Impactos socioculturales

instituciones comunitarias

se debilitaron
se fortalecieron
Comentarios/ especifique:

Watershed committee and user groups are established

MST/ conocimiento de la degradación del suelo

disminuyó
mejoró
Comentarios/ especifique:

Awareness of the community on gully management increased

mitigación de conflicto

empeoró
mejoró
Comentarios/ especifique:

Gullies are stabilized and no more conflict

contribution to human well-being

decreased
increased
Comentarios/ especifique:

Land users are organized into user groups and harvest the biomass (grass and fodder) for livestock feed which result in increased livestock productivity. Some land users attempt to fatten cattle and gain benefit.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo de agua/ escurrimiento de sedimento

escurrimiento superficial

incrementó
disminuyó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Significant reduction of damage due to runoff

drenaje de agua en exceso

disminuyó
mejoró
Comentarios/ especifique:

Cutoff drains used to drain excess runoff upstream

nivel freático/ acuífero

disminuyó
recargó
Suelo

cubierta del suelo

disminuyó
mejoró
Comentarios/ especifique:

Plantation of gullies increase cover and biomass production

pérdida de suelo

incrementó
disminuyó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Check dams significantly reduce the soil loss from gullies

Biodiversidad: vegetación, animales

biomasa/ sobre suelo C

disminuyó
incrementó

6.2 Impactos fuera del sitio demostrados por la Tecnología

corriente confiable y estable fluye en estación seca

disminuyó
incrementó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Stream size and duration has improved

colmatación río abajo

incrementó
disminuyó

daños a infraestructura pública / privada

incrementó
disminuyó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Reduction of damage on houses

6.3 Exposición y sensibilidad de la Tecnología al cambio climático gradual y a extremos relacionados al clima/ desastres (desde la percepción de los usuarios de tierras)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados al clima

Desastres climatológicos:
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
tormenta de lluvia local no muy bien
Desastres climatológicos
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
sequía bien
Desastres hidrológicos
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
inundación general (río) no muy bien
Comentarios:

Gully erosion management involves combination of biological and physical measures. Strong structural measures and upstream runoff management practices should be applied to tolerate flooding.

6.4 Análisis costo-beneficio

¿Cómo se comparan los beneficios con los costos de establecimiento (desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de tierra)?
Ingresos a corto plazo:

ligeramente positivo

Ingresos a largo plazo:

positivo

¿Cómo se comparan los beneficios con los costos de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de tierra)?
Ingresos a corto plazo:

positivo

Ingresos a largo plazo:

muy positivo

Comentarios:

The short term economic benefits of management of gully erosion include grass and fodder production for livestock feed. While the long term benefits may include product diversification like fruit, fodder, and grass production.

6.5 Adopción de la Tecnología

Comentarios:

About 3-5% of the total area of watersheds are treated with gully management. Gullies formed on crop lands and communal grazing lands are management collectively by the community labor with external material support such as gabion and seedlings
Gully management is beyond the capacity of land users. So, they are often supported with seedlings and gabions for large gullies
There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Land users show interest and motivation by delineating gully damage areas and control free grazing. They also do fencing with external support for nails and seedlings.

6.7 Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades de la Tecnología

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
It increases fodder production
It protects further expansion and damage of settlement areas and infrastructures
It increases the flow of streams
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
Gully erosion management provides an immediate fodder for cut-and-carry grazing system and encourages zero grazing
It controls erosion and sediment transport as well it increases stream flows to downstream and subsequently changed to productive area
It reduces conflict among adjacent land holders due to formation of gullies
It does not only reduce degradation but also stabilize the soil, water and vegetation system in the area
It increases the awareness level of farmers about land degradation and its causes

6.8 Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos de la Tecnología y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
It is labor intensive and sometimes harbor rodents and pests Apply traditional collective action mechanisms
Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
It requires high labor for regular monitoring and maintenance of structures and protect from damage by excessive runoff Establish by laws and procedures for collective actions among the user groups

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo
  • entrevistas con usuarios de tierras

7.2 Vínculos a las publicaciones disponibles

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Gully Rehabilitation: What Does it Costs to Heal Gullies and Make Productive? WLRC Brief No. 3. June 2015

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?

www.wlrc-eth.org

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