Gully erosion management [Ethiopia]

Borebore lemat (Amharic)

technologies_1597 - Ethiopia

Completeness: 82%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.


SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Bekure Melese


Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Water and Land Resource Centre Project (WLRC)

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Community Organizations and Mobilization for Soil and Water Conservation Work (COM-SWC)

Community Organizations and Mobilization for Soil and Water ... [Ethiopia]

Community mobilization for soil and water conservation work in a watershed planning unit is an approach for collective action by organizing all active labor forces living in the kebele/peasant association into development group of 20-30 members and further divide into 1:5 work force to implement construction of soil and water ...

  • Compilador/a: Gizaw Desta Gessesse
'Cut and Carry' Grazing system or 'Zero Grazing' (CCG)

'Cut and Carry' Grazing system or 'Zero Grazing' ... [Ethiopia]

Cut and carry grazing system (alternatively called zero grazing) is an approach where the community is consulted to identify and agree on areas to be closed and protected from free grazing; establish user groups are established to share the fodder biomass harvested from communal closed areas equitably; they utilize tree/shrub ...

  • Compilador/a: Gizaw Desta Gessesse

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Gully erosion management is the application of combination of practices to control excess or concentrated runoff generation in the gully upstream catchment area, divert excess runoff upstream of gully heads and control further development of gully using appropriate structural and vegetative measures in the head, bed and sides of the gully and eventually convert into productive land through the consultation and involvement of local community.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia


Gully erosion occurs on cultivated and grazing/pasture lands. Gully erosion management is a practice aimed to rehabilitate and protect further development of gullies and change into productive land. It involves both runoff management and erosion control activities. Gully management and treatment is different at upstream catchment area, gully head and gully section. Proper land management practices and slope treatment measures such as terraces, infiltration ditches and grass or shrub hedgerows are taking place on upstream catchment of the gully in order to reduce the rate of surface runoff. The excess runoff above the gully head is safely drained using cutoff drains into natural or properly vegetated waterways in order to reduce the surface water entering into the gully and protect the constructed physical and biological measures being washed away. Before treating gully sections, for the purpose of stability of structures and quick healing, the gully should be reshaped and planted with grass sod. Gully wall reshaping is cutting off steep slopes of active gully flanks in to gentle slope of minimum at 45% slope, up to two-third of the total depth of the gully and constructing small trenches along contours for re-vegetating slanted part of the gully walls and beds. If the gully is wide and has meandering nature with huge accumulation of runoff flowing down, it requires constructing of retaining walls, to protect displaced (not yet stabilized) soils and soil materials and the sidewalls of the reshaped gully. Stabilization of gully sections involves the use of structural and vegetative measures in the head, floor and side of the gully. The construction of physical structures inside the gully section is followed by establishment of biological measures.

Purposes of gully erosion management are: 1) rehabilitate the land damaged due to gully erosion, 2) prevent further expansion and development of gully erosion, and 3) convert the land lost by gully erosion to productive land.

Gully erosion management begins with assessment and mapping of gully erosion that helps to have an overview of erosion, to document extent of damage, to identify the nature and causes of gully formation, and gives relevant information to design appropriate measures. At establishment stage, gully management requires: catchment treatment using different land treatment measures; runoff diversion by cutoff drain; and stabilization of gully sections by physical structures and vegetative measures. Stones for the construction of terraces, cutoff drains and waterways are required. Depending on the nature of gully and available material for construction, either stones, sand bags, brush woods, bamboo mat, gabion or concrete (sand, gravel and cement) are needed for constructing check-dams in a gully section. Different tree/shrub seedlings, grass cuttings, and seedlings of fruit trees are required to reinforce and stabilize the gully sections. The respective labor requirement for stone collection, construction of retaining wall, and gully reshaping is 0.5m3/person day, 5m/person day, and 1m3/person day. Approximately 0.25, 0.50, 0.50, 0.50 , and 1.0 m3/person day is required to construct gabion, loose stone, arc weir, sand bag, and bamboo mat check-dams respectively. About 3.0 m/person day is needed to construct brushwood check dams. The treated gullies should be checked regularly. The maintenance requirement is closely monitored and immediate repair is essential to avoid further damage and eventual collapse of structures. The inputs important for maintenance include stones or other materials for check dams, seedlings to replant areas covered with non-survived seedlings.

Gully erosion is prevalent in areas where excess runoff occurs in high rainfall areas associated with moderate to high erodible soils. It occurs in range of wet highland to moist Kolla areas where annual rainfall exceeds 900mm. Its occurrence is more frequent in heavy clay soils (Vertisols) characterized by low infiltration and in clay soils (like Nitosols) characterized by low organic matter. Often, gully formation occurs on overgrazed pasture lands and inappropriately managed crop lands. Gully erosion control requires mobilization of high input or materials and labor. Larger gullies need to be rehabilitated and treated through community labor mobilization. Subsequent maintenance activities, monitoring and benefit sharing should be made by the user groups who are entitled to utilize the benefits.

The living condition depends on subsistence crop-livestock mixed farming. On average households have 5-6 family size. Crop production is meant for home consumption with small surplus for local market. The services related to water supply, energy supply, and infrastructure are low. Besides it is an asset, animals often used to cope shocks during drought periods.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação



Region/ State/ Province:

Amhara National Regional State (ANRS)

Further specification of location:

Dembecha/Mecha/Yilmana Densa

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 10-100 km2

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • durante experiências/pesquisa
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

Since gully erosion management requires combination of practices, many actors mainly research, local development actors, community, and project are involved in the development of the technology

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Reduz, previne, recupera a degradação do solo

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
  • Cultura perene (não lenhosa)
  • Elphant grass, Sudan grass
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 1

Longest growing period in days: 220, Longest growing period from month to month: May to December; Second longest growing period in days: 180, Second longest growing period from month to month: June to November



Extensive grazing:
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism
Pastagem intensiva/produção de forragem:
  • Semiestabulação/sem pastagem
  • free grazing


  • Susbania sesban, Acacia decurrence, treelucern, Acacia saligna
Produtos e serviços:
  • Madeira
  • Lenha

Livestock density (if relevant):
> 100 LU /km2

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Land degradation due to different forms of soil erosion and nutrient depletion, overgrazing, shortage of pasture lands and its low productivity, excessive and inappropriate construction of traditional ditches, and increased pressure on trees for the purpose of fuel wood and timber.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Soil erosion and soil nutrient depletion, shortage of cultivated land, shortage of grazing land and wood for fuel wood
The type of grazing is often free grazing on communal grazing lands/pasture, supplemented with crop residues and zero grazing combined with improved forages

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Reserva ( suspensão do uso, apoio à recuperação)

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas vegetativas

Medidas vegetativas

  • V1: cobertura de árvores/arbustos
  • V2: gramíneas e plantas herbáceas perenes
Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S2: Barragens, bancos
  • S3: Valas graduadas, canais, vias navegáveis
  • S4: Valas de nível, fossos
  • S6: Muros, barreiras, paliçadas, cercas
  • S11: Outros

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -contour, aligned: -along boundary

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wg: Erosão por ravinas/ravinamento
  • Wo: efeitos de degradação externa
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bc: redução da cobertura vegetal

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use, overgrazing, Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts), population pressure
Secondary causes of degradation: soil management, crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub), urbanisation and infrastructure development (Urbanization and infrastructure development induced excessive compaction, unprotected drainage systems and lead to gully formation), floods, land tenure (Land under undefined or communal use of grazing lands are subject to mismanagement that result in gully formation), poverty / wealth

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo
  • Recuperar/reabilitar solo severamente degradado

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

A reshaped gully section treated with an integrated gully control measures including check dams made of loose stone and wooden and vegetative tree/shrub and grass hedgerows planted on the sides of gullies.
Location: Debre Mewi Learning Watershed. Yilmana Densa/West Gojam/Amhara Region
Date: 6/27/2016

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high (It requires knowledge of peak runoff and runoff management and skills to integrate different measures)
Technical knowledge required for land users: high (It needs skills to construct physical measures, and regular monitoring and maintenance of practices. The users must know and understand the growth nature and harvesting stage tree/shrub, grass species)

Main technical functions: control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: drain / divert, reduction of slope angle
Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover, stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase of infiltration

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 2600
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2-3
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5-1.0
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5

Aligned: -graded strips
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Aligned: -along boundary
Number of plants per (ha): 200
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 1

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Alinged along side wall of gully
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 6800
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2-3.0
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5-1.0
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5

Vegetative measure: Aligned along side wall of gully
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 4800
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2-3.0
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.5
Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Trees/ shrubs species: Susbania sesban, Acacia decurrence, treelucern, Acacia saligna
Grass species: Elphant grass, Sudan grass
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 20-30%%
If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 18-25%%
Gradient along the rows / strips: 0.5%

Diversion ditch/ drainage
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3-0.7
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1.2-2.8
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 100-250

Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 1.5-2.0

Structural measure: Check dams
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 10-15
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 1-1.5
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1.5-3.5

Construction material (earth): Excavated soil
Construction material (stone): Loose stones for check dam
Construction material (wood): Brush wood for check dam
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 10-18%
If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 8-12%
Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.


MOA, 2005, Water and Land Resource Center

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:


4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Seedling preparation January-June
2. Seedling Transportation June-July
3. Grass split transportation June -July
4. Plantation of biological measures inside the gully July
5. Surveying Dry season
6. Reshaping of gully Dry season
7. Construction of cutoff drains Dry season
8. Construction of waterways Dry season
9. Construction of stone check dams Dry season

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra labour ha 1,0 8319,0 8319,0 99,0
Equipamento animal traction ha 1,0 9,0 9,0 100,0
Equipamento tools ha 1,0 901,8 901,8 50,0
Material vegetal grass ha 1,0 20,0 20,0
Material vegetal seeds ha 1,0 24,0 24,0
Material vegetal seedlings ha 1,0 63,45 63,45
Fertilizantes e biocidas compost/manure ha 1,0 15,86 15,86
Material de construção stone ha 1,0 1405,0 1405,0 91,0
Material de construção wood ha 1,0 27,6 27,6
Material de construção earth ha 1,0 91,2 91,2
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 10876,91
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 543,85

Duration of establishment phase: 15 month(s)

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Seedling preparation January-June
2. Seedling and grass split transportation July
3. Replanting seedlings and grass splits July
4. Maintenance of cutoff drains/waterways Dry season (Jan-Apr)
5. Maintenance of check dams Dry season (Jan-Apr)

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra labour ha 1,0 902,0 902,0 67,0
Equipamento animal traction ha 1,0 4,5 4,5
Material vegetal grass ha 1,0 10,3 10,3
Material vegetal seedlings ha 1,0 33,0 33,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas compost/manure ha 1,0 8,5 8,5
Material de construção stone ha 1,0 50,0 50,0 41,0
Material de construção wood ha 1,0 14,4 14,4
Material de construção earth ha 1,0 45,6 45,6
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 1068,3
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 53,41

The costs are calculated on hectare basis

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

The costs for gully erosion management is dependent upon labor, material and transport costs, workability of the soil and maintenance costs.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

Monsoon, 5-6 months rain and 6-7 dry months

Zona agroclimática
  • Subúmido

Thermal climate class: subtropics. The lowest temperature is above 5°C but below 18°C between November to January

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
  • Fino/pesado (argila)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)
  • Baixo (<1%)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

5-50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:


Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável precária (tratamento necessário)

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • low

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • Menos de 10% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Média
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Grupos/comunidade
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
  • Tração animal
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: Women are involved in collecting stones and assisting men on heavy works
Population density: 200-500 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
80% of the land users are average wealthy.
20% of the land users are poor.
Some land users involve in seasonal labor in towns and sell charcoal

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Estado
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Comunitário (organizado)

Land use rights on crop land is individual while on grazing lands it is communal either unorganized or organized in some cases. Water is open accessible in most cases except organized communal utilization for some developed drinking water sources.

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos


Produção de forragens


Gullies are treated for purpose of improved grass and legume fodder production like napier, susbania, local grasses

Diversidade de produtos


Honey, fruits can be diversified under intensive gully development

Renda e custos

Diversidade de fontes de rendimento


High fodder biomass provide an opportunity to do fattening; sometimes used to grow fruits;

Carga de trabalho


Under low productive soil where recovery rate is slow, establishment and maintenance cost of labor is high

Impactos socioculturais

Instituições comunitárias


Watershed committee and user groups are established

Conhecimento de gestão sustentável da terra/degradação da terra


Awareness of the community on gully management increased

Atenuação de conflitos


Gullies are stabilized and no more conflict

contribution to human well-being


Land users are organized into user groups and harvest the biomass (grass and fodder) for livestock feed which result in increased livestock productivity. Some land users attempt to fatten cattle and gain benefit.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Escoamento superficial


Significant reduction of damage due to runoff

Drenagem de excesso de água


Cutoff drains used to drain excess runoff upstream

Lençol freático/aquífero


Cobertura do solo


Plantation of gullies increase cover and biomass production

Perda de solo


Check dams significantly reduce the soil loss from gullies

Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo


6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Caudal confiável e estável em período seco


Stream size and duration has improved

Sedimentação a jusante


Danos na infraestrutura pública/privada


Reduction of damage on houses

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local não bem
Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Seca bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) não bem

Gully erosion management involves combination of biological and physical measures. Strong structural measures and upstream runoff management practices should be applied to tolerate flooding.

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

ligeiramente positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:


Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:


Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo


The short term economic benefits of management of gully erosion include grass and fodder production for livestock feed. While the long term benefits may include product diversification like fruit, fodder, and grass production.

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia


About 3-5% of the total area of watersheds are treated with gully management. Gullies formed on crop lands and communal grazing lands are management collectively by the community labor with external material support such as gabion and seedlings
Gully management is beyond the capacity of land users. So, they are often supported with seedlings and gabions for large gullies
There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Land users show interest and motivation by delineating gully damage areas and control free grazing. They also do fencing with external support for nails and seedlings.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
It increases fodder production
It protects further expansion and damage of settlement areas and infrastructures
It increases the flow of streams
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Gully erosion management provides an immediate fodder for cut-and-carry grazing system and encourages zero grazing
It controls erosion and sediment transport as well it increases stream flows to downstream and subsequently changed to productive area
It reduces conflict among adjacent land holders due to formation of gullies
It does not only reduce degradation but also stabilize the soil, water and vegetation system in the area
It increases the awareness level of farmers about land degradation and its causes

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
It is labor intensive and sometimes harbor rodents and pests Apply traditional collective action mechanisms
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
It requires high labor for regular monitoring and maintenance of structures and protect from damage by excessive runoff Establish by laws and procedures for collective actions among the user groups

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Gully Rehabilitation: What Does it Costs to Heal Gullies and Make Productive? WLRC Brief No. 3. June 2015

Available from where? Costs?

Links and modules

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