Dissemination of soil conservation technologies in dryland areas [Chili]

Cero labranza con subsolado (Spanish)

approaches_2577 - Chili

État complet : 89%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de l'Approche

Personne(s) ressource(s) clé(s)

Spécialiste GDT:
Nom du projet qui a facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)
Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) (Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA)) - Chili

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Quand les données ont-elles été compilées (sur le terrain)?


Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:


1.4 Références au(x) questionnaire(s) sur les Technologies de GDT

No tillage preceded by subsoiling

No tillage preceded by subsoiling [Chili]

No tillage preceded by subsoiling consists in the use of a subsoiler at a 50 cm depth every 5 years before performing no tillage agriculture.

  • Compilateur : Carlos Ovalle
Crop rotation with legumes

Crop rotation with legumes [Chili]

Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) of legumes as a source of N in crop rotations with cereals in Mediterranean Chile

  • Compilateur : Carlos Ovalle
Callejones de piñón con forrajes intercalados

Callejones de piñón con forrajes intercalados [Mexique]

La tecnología consiste en un sistema agrosilvopastoril con árboles de Pinus cembroides (pino piñonero) alineados een bordos ─en un terreno con suelos calizos previamente subsoleado─ conformando melgas (callejones) para con cultivos anuales para grano y forraje, con pastoreo libre eventual por períodos muy breves.


2. Description de l'Approche de GDT

2.1 Courte description de l'Approche

Dissemination of no tillage with subsoiling in the Municipality of Yumbel

2.2 Description détaillée de l'Approche

Description détaillée de l'Approche:

Aims / objectives: The Commune of Yumbel is a rural territory in the secano interior of central-south Chile, which has historically been an area of cereal crops and pulses. This has represented for many years the mainstay of the economy of small and medium farmers in the area. Owing to the sharp deterioration in the quality of the soil, caused by years of cultivation without respect for conservation, production potential was quickly fading and plunging farmers into an economic and social crisis caused by low yields and low income from agriculture. However, despite degradation, the commune still has abundant natural resources of soil and water, which will not be used by the forestry industry, and which can be recovered for productive and profitable agriculture. In May 2009, the team of researchers from INIA Quilamapu started this initiative based on promising results obtained in the EU DESIRE project for zero tillage, subsoiling and new crop rotations. The initiative was oriented towards transferring the technologies developed in DESIRE. The project received financial support from the Municipality of Yumbel.
The aim was to revitalise agriculture in the district of Yumbel, improve traditional crops using a conservation approach, which enables small- and medium-scale farmers to improve their incomes, create jobs and improve their quality of life.
Specific objectives:
• To develop new farming systems based on the application of soil conservation practices (no tillage and subsoiling) that prevent erosion, and allow the development of a more sustainable and economic agriculture.
• To improve crop rotations, introduce grain and pasture legumes to diversify production and use of nitrogen inputs for lower nitrogen fertilizer costs.
• To build-up again the production of grain legumes and cereals in the district of Yumbel
• To renew the genetic material of crop species and varieties currently available to farmers in the area, allowing access to improved varieties of higher yield potential and resistance to diseases.

Methods: We used a participatory approach, incorporating small producers in the extension programme from the beginning. Three representative areas were selected. Leader farmers were chosen in each sector who were responsible for field work. No tillage machinery was provided by INIA and acquired by a local farmer. The project directly involved 50 farmers and 250 ha of land. Further 400 farmers are being benefited by training on technologies of soil conservation and crop rotations and management.

Role of stakeholders: Municiplity of Yumbel: financing the project of technology transfer INIA and DESIRE project: human and material resources (machinery, transportation researchers, etc.). Ministry of Agriculture (INDAP, Institute of Agricultural Development): financing of management plans for soil conservation.
Technology transfer companies: technical assistance directly to the small farmers
Farmers: conducting field work and incorporating new technologies.

2.3 Photos de l'approche

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où l'Approche a été appliquée



Région/ Etat/ Province:

Bíobio and Maule region

Autres spécifications du lieu :

Cauquenes, Chile

2.6 Dates de début et de fin de l'Approche

Indiquez l'année de démarrage:


Date (année) de fin de l'Approche (si l'Approche n'est plus appliquée):


2.7 Type d'Approche

  • fondé sur un projet/ programme

2.8 Principaux objectifs de l'Approche

The Approach focused on SLM only

To revitalising agriculture in the district of Yumbel, improve traditional crops with a conservation approach, which enables small- and medium-scale farmers to improve their incomes, to create jobs and to improve their quality of life.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: 1. Lack of machinery in the area 2. Few service providers 3. Lack of technical knowledge 4. Lack of cash to invest in SLM
5. Failure to implement a subsidy programme for farmers so that they can be organized around the creation of small company of service providers of machinery for subsoiling and no-tillage sowing.

2.9 Conditions favorisant ou entravant la mise en œuvre de la(des) Technologie(s) appliquée(s) sous l'Approche

normes et valeurs sociales/ culturelles/ religieuses
  • entrave

The traditional farming system. Farmers have used the mouldboard plough as the primary tillage implement.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Showing in farm days, the excellent results obtained in the experimental sites with no tillage and new crop rotation.

disponibilité/ accès aux ressources et services financiers
  • entrave

Lack of capital and financial resources of the farmers.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: State instruments and aids to implement soil conservation plans in the fields of the producers.

cadre institutionnel
  • entrave

Absence or lack of coordination between institutions responsible for rural development.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Implementation of a participatory rural development project for soil conservation and improvement of agriculture, inspired by the methodologies and experience of the project.

connaissances sur la GDT, accès aux supports techniques
  • entrave

Lack of knowledge on sustainable farming practices.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Implementation of a soil conservation programme under the real conditions of the farmers with an environmental and economic sustainability approach.

3. Participation et rôles des parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche

3.1 Parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche et rôles

  • exploitants locaux des terres / communautés locales

Men are more involved in tillage activities. Men perform hard labour job in the land, while women participate in household tasks.

  • Spécialistes de la GDT/ conseillers agricoles


  • enseignants/ élèves/ étudiants

Universidad de Concepción, Universidad de Talca

  • gouvernement national (planificateurs, décideurs)


  • organisation internationale
3.2 Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales aux différentes phases de l'Approche
Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales Spécifiez qui était impliqué et décrivez les activités
initiation/ motivation auto-mobilisation The producers themselves and the municipality of Yumbel demanded the project implementation given the severe problems of rural poverty and the soil degradation
planification interactive The technologies are being applied and implementation has been made through interaction with farmers, municipalities, INIA and INDAP
mise en œuvre interactive The farmers implemented the conservation practice in their lands.
suivi/ évaluation interactive Researchers evaluated this results
Research interactive

3.4 Prises de décision pour la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies

Indiquez qui a décidé de la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies à mettre en œuvre:
  • principalement les spécialistes de la GDT, après consultation des exploitants des terres

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by SLM specialists with consultation of land users

4. Soutien technique, renforcement des capacités et gestion des connaissances

4.1 Renforcement des capacités/ formation

Une formation a-t-elle été dispensée aux exploitants des terres/ autres parties prenantes?


Spécifiez qui a été formé:
  • exploitants des terres
  • personnels/ conseillers de terrain
Formats de la formation:
  • sur le tas
  • entre agriculteurs (d'exploitants à exploitants)
  • zones de démonstration
  • réunions publiques
  • cours

4.2 Service de conseils

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils accès à un service de conseils?


Décrivez/ commentez:

Advisory service is very adequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities

4.3 Renforcement des institutions (développement organisationnel)

Des institutions ont elles été mises en place ou renforcées par le biais de l'Approche?
  • oui, modérément
Spécifiez à quel(s) niveau(x), ces institutions ont été renforcées ou mises en place:
  • local
Donnez plus de détails:

The Yumbel project has had permanent participation of INIA (project DESIRE) and INDAP.

4.4 Suivi et évaluation

Le suivi et l'évaluation font ils partie de l'Approche? :



bio-physical aspects were monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Soil fertility (soil nutrient content N, P, K, S), erosion (soil loss, loss of nutrients), quality of soil (compaction, bulk density, structure, aggregate stability)

economic / production aspects were monitored by project staff through observations; indicators: Crop production (yield, quality), gross margin, profitability

There were no changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation

There were no changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation

4.5 Recherche

La recherche a-t-elle fait partie intégrante de l’Approche?


Spécifiez les thèmes:
  • technologie
Donnez plus de détails et indiquez qui a mené ces recherches:

There are three experimental sites with evaluations to determine the best choice of conservation tillage systems and crop rotations. Different conservation tillage systems were evaluated and compared to conventional tillage. On these experimental sites, several indicators (chemical, physical and biological) were evaluated.

Research was carried out both on station and on-farm

5. Financement et soutien matériel externe

5.1 Budget annuel de la composante GDT de l'Approche

Si le budget annuel précis n'est pas connu, indiquez une fourchette:
  • 10 000-100 000
Commentez (par ex. principales sources de financement/ principaux bailleurs de fonds):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international: 30.0%; government: 70.0%

5.2 Soutiens financiers/ matériels fournis aux exploitants des terres

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils reçu un soutien financier/ matériel pour la mise en œuvre de la Technologie/ des Technologies?


Si oui, spécifiez le(s) type(s) de soutien, les conditions et les fournisseurs:

INDAP (Institute of Agricultural Development)

5.3 Subventions pour des intrants spécifiques (incluant la main d'œuvre)

Si la main d'œuvre fournie par les exploitants des terres était un intrant substantiel, elle était:
  • volontaire

Between INIA and Municipality of Yumbel a participative project wiht the local farmers was realized, to realize conservation tillage system.
The funding for the implementation of new technologies are 50% from the state (programme of recovery of degraded soils of the Government of Chile for soil conservation practices) and 50% of the producers themselves (materials, labour, etc.).

5.4 Crédits

Des crédits ont-ils été alloués à travers l'Approche pour les activités de GDT?


Spécifiez les conditions (taux d'intérêts, remboursements, etc.):

repayment conditions: The funding for the implementation of new technologies are 50% from the state (programme of recovery of degraded soils of the Government of Chile for soil conservation practices) and 50% of the producers themselves (materials, labour, etc.).

6. Analyses d'impact et conclusions

6.1 Impacts de l'Approche

Est-ce que l'Approche a aidé les exploitants des terres à mettre en œuvre et entretenir les Technologies de GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Mitigation of water erosion effects and better yields.

Est-ce que l'Approche a autonomisé les groupes socialement et économiquement défavorisés?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

This programme targets small farmers of the commune, who have no access to the technology or to State aid. The results are highly promising regarding the incorporation to the development of this sector.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Because of the great results obtained by few farmers, the approach is being adopted by others.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Farmers that perform conservation obtained better yields, less work on the sowing and more time to attend to other activities on the land.

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The improvement in yields and profitability of crops, the diversification of the production and the mitigation of land degradation are the strategies that are being implemented to alleviate poverty.

6.2 Principale motivation des exploitants des terres pour mettre en œuvre la GDT

  • augmenter la production
  • augmenter la rentabilité/ bénéfice, rapport coûts-bénéfices
  • réduire la charge de travail
  • paiements/ subventions
  • règles et règlements (amendes)/ application
  • prestige, pression sociale/ cohésion sociale
  • affiliation à un mouvement/ projet/ groupe/ réseaux
  • améliorer l'esthétique

6.3 Durabilité des activités de l'Approche

Les exploitants des terres peuvent-ils poursuivre ce qui a été mis en œuvre par le biais de l'Approche (sans soutien extérieur)?
  • incertain

6.4 Points forts/ avantages de l'Approche

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
Assistance programmes from the State oriented towards tackling soil degradation. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: This project has been sustained over time and will remain at least for 3 to 4 years.)
High rural population in this commune, involvement of young farmers (under 40 years)
A strong commitment from the local authorities with the project.
Great interest of farmers to improve their incomes and conditions of life.

6.5 Faiblesses/ inconvénients de l'Approche et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Lack of no-tillage machinery Organization of associative farmers enterprises for the purchase of machinery and agricultural implements.
Insufficient training on soil conservation for the farmers or for technical assistance companies. Training, field days, demonstrative sowings, explanatory publications, practical work with farmers and technicians.
Delay in allocation of resources of the instruments of the state. Synchronizing the availability of resources with the needs of the farmers for the execution of the work (supply purchases, rental equipment, etc.)

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • visites de terrain, enquêtes sur le terrain
  • interviews/entretiens avec les exploitants des terres

7.3 Liens vers les informations pertinentes disponibles en ligne

Titre/ description:

DESIRE site information