Incentive-based catchment treatment [Bolivie]

approaches_2404 - Bolivie

État complet : 89%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de l'Approche

Personne(s) ressource(s) clé(s)

Spécialiste GDT:
Spécialiste GDT:
Nom du projet qui a facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)
Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:


1.4 Références au(x) questionnaire(s) sur les Technologies de GDT

Diques de piedras

Diques de piedras [Bolivie]

Se trata de diques de piedras que se ubican en el lecho de los arroyos, acompañados por plantaciones alrededor de las construcciones.

  • Compilateur : Unknown User
Zanjas de Coronación

Zanjas de Coronación [Bolivie]

Las zanjas de coronación impiden la entrada del escurrimiento superficial a las cárcavas

  • Compilateur : Unknown User
Estabilización de taludes (biotrampas)

Estabilización de taludes (biotrampas) [Bolivie]

La tecnología consiste en la práctica de reforestación en combinación con el establecimiento de trampas de sedimentos (biotrampas) para consolidar los taludes.

  • Compilateur : Georg Heim
Gully control and catchment protection

Gully control and catchment protection [Bolivie]

Integrated gully treatment consisting of several simple practices including stone and wooden check dams, cut-off drains and reforestation in sediment traps (biotrampas).

  • Compilateur : Georg Heim
Diques de madera (tipo Krainer)

Diques de madera (tipo Krainer) [Bolivie]

Se trata de diques de madera que se ubican en el lecho de los arroyos, acompañados por plantaciones alrededor de las construcciones.

  • Compilateur : Georg Heim

2. Description de l'Approche de GDT

2.1 Courte description de l'Approche

A project supported, incentive-based approach: farmers are sensitised about erosion, and involved in gully control and other measures to protect catchments.

2.2 Description détaillée de l'Approche

Description détaillée de l'Approche:

Aims / objectives: The objective of the locally-based organisation Programa de Manejo Integral de Cuencas (PROMIC) is to involve land users in the control of soil erosion in the catchments above Cochabamba city. While erosion here is largely a natural process, it is aggravated by inappropriate agricultural practices. PROMIC receives funds from national and international governments, and works in an interactive manner. Together with local farmers, erosion processes in the context of the human environment were analysed to identify the needs of the agriculture population - and to plan a conservation and development programme. The aim was to convince farmers of the necessity to protect their agricultural land and stabilise the gullies below, and of the overall importance of implementing technologies to combat erosion.

Role of stakeholders: The farmers were involved in the process through regular community meetings organised by PROMIC, in which they could adjust PROMIC's catchment intervention plans to their own requirements through an interactive process. PROMIC considered that the sensitisation work and the interactive process were essential to ensure long-term sustainable land use. In the short term, however, it will be mainly the city downstream - Cochabamba - that benefits from the implementation of the erosion control technologies. For that reason, the farmers were paid to carry out construction of the measures (through 'cash-for-work'). The farmers should, however, profit from the technologies in the long term. They were taught how to build and maintain check dams, cut-off drains and biotrampas. The implementation in the watershed started in 1996 and took six years: when the implementation phase was over, farmers no longer received financial subsidies. The long period of sensitisation should help to ensure that farmers incorporate erosion prevention technologies into their cropland above the gullies. PROMIC still monitors the state of the structures from time to time, but most of the maintenance is left to the farmers themselves. PROMIC continues, however, to provide technical support and some transport of materials. Both internal and external evaluation followed the end of the implementation phase.

2.3 Photos de l'approche

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où l'Approche a été appliquée



Région/ Etat/ Province:

Cochabamba district

2.6 Dates de début et de fin de l'Approche

Indiquez l'année de démarrage:


2.7 Type d'Approche

  • fondé sur un projet/ programme

2.8 Principaux objectifs de l'Approche

- teach farmers about sustainable land use, - build up skills amongst farmers to enable them to treat gullies without outside help, - reduce flooding and sedimentation in the valley of Cochabamba and general soil loss in the area through collaboration with farmers in the watershed, - improve traditional agriculture with a package of conservation-related practices, - indirectly support farmers by cash-for-work incentives which enables them to implement SWC technologies on their own fields

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: - lack of knowledge about damage caused by erosion and benefits of various possible conservation technologies, - lack of financial resources: shortage of funds prevents farmers investing in technologies, even if these bring benefits to them (as well as to the downstream population), - persistence of detrimental traditional agricultural practices, leading to accelerated degradation

2.9 Conditions favorisant ou entravant la mise en œuvre de la(des) Technologie(s) appliquée(s) sous l'Approche

disponibilité/ accès aux ressources et services financiers
  • entrave

Few direct short-term profits from SWC technologies in gullies for the farmers in the watershed (the main beneficiary is the city of Cochabamba downstream).

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Search for national and international subsidies to help the farmers to implement the technologies during the initial period.

cadre institutionnel
  • entrave

The local farmers' association is insufficiently organised to ensure the independent continuation of activities post-project.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Local farmers' association should be included in the sensitisation and implementation process.

  • entrave

Climate: Climatic extremes such as strong winds and excess or deficit of rain.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Plant trees at close spacing, and plant trees/ shrubs that can tolerate climatic extremes.

3. Participation et rôles des parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche

3.1 Parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche et rôles

  • exploitants locaux des terres / communautés locales

There were no women working in the gully rehabilitation. The reason is a cultural taboo against women working with heavy materials; women are responsible for looking after cattle, and for the household.

  • organisations communautaires

Local farmers association

  • Specialised engineers of PROMIC
3.2 Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales aux différentes phases de l'Approche
Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales Spécifiez qui était impliqué et décrivez les activités
initiation/ motivation passive interviews/questionnaires, information during regular meetings, entrevistas / cuestionarios
planification interactive results of the socio-economic diagnosis defined the planning; farmers were involved through regular meetings: interactive planning at individual and community level
mise en œuvre soutien extérieur None
suivi/ évaluation passive interviews/questionnaires; internal and external evaluations where farmers were interviewed
Research passive socio-economic diagnosis; collection and analysis of bio-physical baseline data

3.3 Diagramme/ organigramme (si disponible)


General assembly: National and international public and private institutions, members, foundation
Directory: Prefecture, general agent, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC), private enterpreneurs
Consulting council: Municipalities, projects, universities
Advisors: General agent, marketing, SSU1, SSU2 (see below), administration
SSU: Strategic service unit
Services: Executive body for technology extension and implementation: PROMIC field technicians

3.4 Prises de décision pour la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies

Les décisions concernant la sélection de la(des) Technologie(s) ont elles été prises:
  • Made by specialised engineers of PROMIC

farmers were involved by modifying initially proposed technologies.

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by Made by specialised engineers of PROMIC

4. Soutien technique, renforcement des capacités et gestion des connaissances

4.1 Renforcement des capacités/ formation

Une formation a-t-elle été dispensée aux exploitants des terres/ autres parties prenantes?


Formats de la formation:
  • sur le tas
Thèmes abordés:

The approach included training on technical aspects and on long-term planning for sustainable land use. Some farmers were trained to become foremen - who in turn instructed other farmers. During the construction period PROMIC project staff trained farmers on the job in soil conservation practices.

4.2 Service de conseils

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils accès à un service de conseils?


Spécifiez si le service de conseils est fourni:
  • dans les champs des exploitants?
Décrivez/ commentez:

Name of method used for advisory service: participatory planning of gully treatment; Key elements: making farmers aware of the environmental and economic necessity for the technology, interactive planning of technology implementation at individual and community levels

4.3 Renforcement des institutions (développement organisationnel)

Des institutions ont elles été mises en place ou renforcées par le biais de l'Approche?
  • oui, modérément
Spécifiez à quel(s) niveau(x), ces institutions ont été renforcées ou mises en place:
  • local
Précisez le type de soutien:
  • renforcement des capacités/ formation

4.4 Suivi et évaluation

Le suivi et l'évaluation font ils partie de l'Approche? :



There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: The approach was to initially target groups. Later, individuals were included (with individual farmer-family visits) to improve the effectiveness of the awareness raising and the implementation.

4.5 Recherche

La recherche a-t-elle fait partie intégrante de l’Approche?


Spécifiez les thèmes:
  • sociologie
  • écologie
  • technologie
  • S
Donnez plus de détails et indiquez qui a mené ces recherches:

Research was done on 1)SWC (testing different measures), 2)various soil parameters, and 3) a socio-economic survey. Research was an important part, not only for planning (based on biophysical and socio-economic data), but also to stay in contact with the rural population and to obtain their confidence. Thanks to the research, the technology is well adapted to the biophysical conditions.

5. Financement et soutien matériel externe

5.1 Budget annuel de la composante GDT de l'Approche

Commentez (par ex. principales sources de financement/ principaux bailleurs de fonds):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: government (national): 20.0%; international non-government: 80.0%

5.2 Soutiens financiers/ matériels fournis aux exploitants des terres

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils reçu un soutien financier/ matériel pour la mise en œuvre de la Technologie/ des Technologies?


5.3 Subventions pour des intrants spécifiques (incluant la main d'œuvre)

  • main d'œuvre
Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
entièrement financé labour for the rehabilitation of the gully area
  • équipement
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
machines entièrement financé
outils entièrement financé
  • intrants agricoles
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
seedlings entièrement financé
  • infrastructures
Spécifiez les intrants subventionnés Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
routes entièrement financé community infrastructure
technical support entièrement financé
  • autre
Autre (spécifiez) Dans quelle mesure Spécifiez les subventions
transport for further technology implementation entièrement financé
Si la main d'œuvre fournie par les exploitants des terres était un intrant substantiel, elle était:
  • payée en espèces

100% of the implementation was subsidised. Farmers were contracted to build the structures

5.4 Crédits

Des crédits ont-ils été alloués à travers l'Approche pour les activités de GDT?


6. Analyses d'impact et conclusions

6.1 Impacts de l'Approche

Est-ce que l'Approche a aidé les exploitants des terres à mettre en œuvre et entretenir les Technologies de GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

The approach resulted in a considerable improvement in SWC. However, despite new knowledge about erosion, the farmers themselves hardly carry out any new gully conservation work without payment, and in the long term maintenance is not ensured.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Some other projects in Bolivia have copied parts of PROMIC's approach.

6.3 Durabilité des activités de l'Approche

Les exploitants des terres peuvent-ils poursuivre ce qui a été mis en œuvre par le biais de l'Approche (sans soutien extérieur)?
  • incertain

6.4 Points forts/ avantages de l'Approche

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
Good technical support during and after conclusion of the implementation phase (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Technical support not enough on its own - needs to be complemented by further sensitisation.)
Sensitisation of the farmers to erosion and degradation processes, and awareness creation about the impact and necessity of SWC in the hills to protect the valleys (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Continued sensitisation work after the implementation phase.)
Transparent process during research, planning and implementation phases; incorporation of farmers' ideas (thus: good acceptance of PROMIC by the rural population).
Integration of farmers in the process of implementation of soil conservation. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Farmers need to be even more integrated in the process of monitoring to guarantee the maintenance of the soil conservation achieved.)

6.5 Faiblesses/ inconvénients de l'Approche et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Farmers implementing SWC are not those benefiting most from the impact in the short term; even though the city of Cochabamba benefits considerably, financial support for implementation has stopped Seek financial support from Cochabamba; implement a system of payment for environmental services
Lack of money for replication and long-term maintenance of SWC measures Guarantee financial support in the threatened area, by the local government and international organisations.
Sensitisation phase (for farmers and government) was too short to ensure sustained application of the technology without external support and supply. Established structures are often neglected and thus deteriorate Find new donors to continue the training/awareness raising on SWC technologies. Include the farmers in the monitoring visits and demonstrate examples of successful SWC (positive stimuli).

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • visites de terrain, enquêtes sur le terrain
  • interviews/entretiens avec les exploitants des terres

7.2 Références des publications disponibles

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

PROMIC documentation

Disponible à partir d'où? Coût?

Mooseggstrasse 9, 3550 Langnau, Switzerland;