Technologies

Improved livestock shed for better health and productivity [Afghanistan]

Tabela; Oghil

technologies_673 - Afghanistan

État complet: 84%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de la Technologie

Personne(s)-ressource(s) clé(s)

Spécialiste GDT:
Researcher:
exploitant des terres:

Alti Boy Sherogha

Natural Resources Management Committee (NRMC)

Sari Joy village, Rustaq District

Afghanistan

Nom du projet qui a facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar, Afghanistan (LIPT)
Nom du projet qui a facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
Potential and limitations for improved natural resource management (NRM) in mountain communities in the Rustaq district, Afghanistan (Rustaq NRM Study)
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
Terre des Hommes (Terre des Hommes) - Suisse
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (DEZA / COSUDE / DDC / SDC) - Suisse
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Suisse

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:

Oui

1.4 Déclaration sur la durabilité de la Technologie décrite

Est-ce que la Technologie décrite ici pose problème par rapport à la dégradation des terres, de telle sorte qu'elle ne peut pas être déclarée comme étant une technologie de gestion durable des terres?

Non

Commentaires:

SLM practices documented in the frame of the Rustaq NRM study were established only recently (1-3 years ago). It is too early for a final judgment on the sustainability of these technologies within the human and natural environment of Chokar watershed.

1.5 Référence au(x) questionnaire(s) sur les Approches de GDT

Watershed Associations (WSA) and Natural Resource Management Committees (NRMC)
approaches

Watershed Associations (WSA) and Natural Resource Management Committees ... [Afghanistan]

Two Watershed Associations (WSA), in Chaker and Nahristan watershed areas respectively, are registered at the national level with the Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) and at the regional level with the Department of Agriculture. Both associations are strong, active, dynamic, and have the capacity to coordinate and support ...

  • Compilateur: Bettina Wolfgramm

2. Description de la Technologie de GDT

2.1 Courte description de la Technologie

Définition de la Technologie:

Existing livestock sheds can be improved through interior and exterior refurbishing, and door and window installation. More favourable indoor conditions benefit animal health and the quality of animal products.

2.2 Description détaillée de la Technologie

Description:

Livestock keeping is one of the key livelihood strategies in rural Rustaq - in addition to cultivation of agricultural crops. Families rely on their livestock not only for consumption of meat and dairy products, but also as means of transportation (donkeys), labour force in agriculture (oxen, donkeys) and as a source of cash income. When crops fail to produce enough, families sell their livestock to survive until the next season. The pressure to sell livestock is more acute during winter months, when cases of livestock loss increases - from diseases, lack of fodder and the harsh cold winter. These factors, along with poor conditions for livestock keeping, expose the animals to various negative impacts, affecting health, productivity and low quality/ quantity of meat and milk.

This situation is observed mainly in Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai villages, although Dasthi Mirzai has limited grazing land and livestock keeping is not as prevalent as in the two other villages. All three villages were selected to demonstrate improved livestock sheds, which are among the key factors for productive livestock keeping, along with stable supplies of quality fodder. Improved livestock sheds are part of the chain of activities introduced in the three villages to support livestock production, and at the same time improve the availability and quality of fodder, and restore the degraded and overgrazed pastures.

The Natural Resources Management Committee in the respective villages select a farmer, who is active in livestock keeping and already has a livestock shed. The farmer agrees to provide his livestock shed to serve as a demonstration. The farmer is supported technically and financially to renovate his shed in accordance with the defined requirements. The internal and external walls of the shed are covered with plaster made from a clay mixture to block all holes and protect the building from wind and rain. The roof is renovated to prevent leaking from snow and rain. Windows, a door and a ventilator are installed to ensure air circulation, decrease humidity levels, and protect the animals from cold and heat. A water trough and feeding racks are installed inside the shed. All the costs for the material are covered by the project. The farmer contributes with his labour.

The improved shed is vital for keeping livestock healthy. It also contributes to lowering livestock loss through decreasing the risks of diseases and cold stress during winter. The overall benefit towards livelihoods is significant, since animals are an important household asset and a coping strategy for the majority of households in the villages. The wives of the farmers benefit particularly from the renovated livestock sheds, because they are the ones who feed and water the animals, and they clean the shed of manure.

However, the costs for carrying out renovation of livestock sheds are perceived too high by the farmers. Many are unwilling to make such investments, despite the benefits.

2.3 Photos de la Technologie

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où la Technologie a été appliquée et qui sont couverts par cette évaluation

Pays:

Afghanistan

Région/ Etat/ Province:

Takhar Province, Rustaq District

Autres spécifications du lieu:

Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana, Dashti Mirzai villages

Commentaires:

Coordinates of SLM plots owned by SLM implementers who participated in the FGD derived through the Rustaq NRM study QGIS database.
This documentation is based on the experiences of SLM implementers from Sari Joy (1 Livestock shed), Jawaz Khana (1 Livestock shed) and Dashti Mirzai (1 Livestock shed).

2.6 Date de mise en œuvre de la Technologie

Indiquez l'année de mise en œuvre:

2014

Si l'année précise est inconnue, indiquez la date approximative: :
  • il y a moins de 10 ans (récemment)

2.7 Introduction de la Technologie

Spécifiez comment la Technologie a été introduite: :
  • par le biais de projets/ d'interventions extérieures
Commentaires (type de projet, etc.) :

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) supported by Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) from 2012-17

3. Classification de la Technologie de GDT

3.1 Principal(aux) objectif(s) de la Technologie

  • improve animal health

3.2 Type(s) actuel(s) d'utilisation des terres, là où la Technologie est appliquée

Implantations, infrastructures

Implantations, infrastructures

  • Habitats, buildings
Remarques:

Livestock shed, cows, sheep, goats

3.4 Groupe de GDT auquel appartient la Technologie

  • pastoralisme et gestion des pâturages
  • Livestock management

3.5 Diffusion de la Technologie

Spécifiez la diffusion de la Technologie:
  • appliquée en des points spécifiques ou concentrée sur une petite surface

3.6 Mesures de GDT constituant la Technologie

structures physiques

structures physiques

  • S9: Abris pour plantes et animaux

3.8 Prévention, réduction de la dégradation ou réhabilitation des terres dégradées

Spécifiez l'objectif de la Technologie au regard de la dégradation des terres:
  • non applicable

4. Spécifications techniques, activités, intrants et coûts de mise en œuvre

4.2 Spécification/ explications techniques du dessin technique

The size of an improved livestock shed is 5 m x 3 m. The internal and external walls of the shed are covered with plaster made from a clay mixture to block all the holes and protect the building from the external elements of rain and wind. The roof is renovated to prevent leaking from snow and rain. Two windows, sized 60 cm x 30 cm and an entrance door 1.5 m x 2 m are installed. 3 ventilation pipes are installed on the roof. The installation of windows, entrance door and ventilators ensure air circulation, decrease humidity levels and protect the animals from cold winters and hot summers. A water trough and feeding racks are installed inside the shed. All the costs for the material are covered by the project. The farmer contributes through labour.

4.3 Informations générales sur le calcul des intrants et des coûts

Spécifiez la manière dont les coûts et les intrants ont été calculés:
  • par entité de la Technologie
Précisez l'unité:

Building of the livestock shed

Spécifiez le volume, la longueur, etc. (si pertinent):

5m x 3m

Indiquez la monnaie utilisée pour le calcul des coûts:
  • dollars US
Indiquer le taux de change du dollars en monnaie locale (si pertinent): 1 USD= :

67,0

Indiquez le coût salarial moyen de la main d'œuvre par jour:

5.2-5.3 USD

4.4 Activités de mise en place/ d'établissement

Activité Type de mesures Calendrier
1. Selection and inspection of the livestock shed for referbishing Modes de gestion
2. Design of measures for referbishment Modes de gestion
3. Transportation of construction materials Autres mesures
4. Covering the internal and external walls with plaster Structurel
5. Installation of doors and windows Structurel
6. Installation of feed racks, water trough and ventilator Structurel

4.5 Coûts et intrants nécessaires à la mise en place

Spécifiez les intrants Unité Quantité Coûts par unité Coût total par intrant % du coût supporté par les exploitants des terres
Main d'œuvre Transportation of construction materials person-day 1,0 52,0 52,0
Main d'œuvre Preparation works person-day 2,0 5,3 10,6
Main d'œuvre Rennovation works (doors, windows, water tanker and feed slot) person-day 14,0 5,3 74,2 100,0
Matériaux de construction Pipe for air ventilation piece 3,0 7,4 22,2
Matériaux de construction Lime Bag 1,0 14,0 14,0
Matériaux de construction Cement Bag 10,0 5,2 52,0
Matériaux de construction Door piece 1,0 59,0 59,0
Matériaux de construction Window piece 2,0 22,0 44,0
Matériaux de construction Cloth Meter 12,0 1,8 21,6
Autre Water tank for animals piece 2,0 8,9 17,8
Coût total de mise en place de la Technologie 367,4
Si le coût n'est pas pris en charge à 100% par l'exploitant des terres, indiquez qui a financé le coût restant:

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des hommes (Tdh) Switzerland

4.6 Activités d'entretien/ récurrentes

Activité Type de mesures Calendrier/ fréquence
1. Repair of the roof with clay Structurel Autumn

4.7 Coûts et intrants nécessaires aux activités d'entretien/ récurrentes (par an)

Spécifiez les intrants Unité Quantité Coûts par unité Coût total par intrant % du coût supporté par les exploitants des terres
Main d'œuvre Repair of the roof person day 2,0 5,3 10,6 100,0
Coût total d'entretien de la Technologie 10,6

4.8 Facteurs les plus importants affectant les coûts

Décrivez les facteurs les plus importants affectant les coûts :

Due to the remoteness of the villages where the technology has been implemented, all the inputs for establishment, such as agricultural equipment, plant material, fertilizers, etc., are purchased in Rustaq town. The expenses for traveling and delivering the inputs affect the establishment costs.

5. Environnement naturel et humain

5.1 Climat

Précipitations annuelles
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1000 mm
  • 1001-1500 mm
  • 1501-2000 mm
  • 2001-3000 mm
  • 3001-4000 mm
  • > 4000 mm
Spécifiez la pluviométrie moyenne annuelle (si connue), en mm:

580,00

Spécifications/ commentaires sur les précipitations:

Average annual precipitation for the area was calculated as 580 mm, with minimum in dry years (2000 and 2001) of 270 mm and maximum in wet years (2009/2010) of 830 mm. The absolute maximum rainfall was calculated for 1986 as 1024 mm. The data series covers the period from 1979 to 2014.

Indiquez le nom de la station météorologique de référence considérée:

Reference meteorological station considered: Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), http://rda.ucar.edu/pub/cfsr.html

Zone agro-climatique
  • semi-aride

Derived from the publicly available data set on length of growing period (LGP) (Fischer 2009 / IIASA-FAO). Internet link: http://tiles.arcgis.com/tiles/P8Cok4qAP1sTVE59/arcgis/rest/services/Length_of_growing_period/MapServer

5.2 Topographie

Pentes moyennes:
  • plat (0-2 %)
  • faible (3-5%)
  • modéré (6-10%)
  • onduleux (11-15%)
  • vallonné (16-30%)
  • raide (31-60%)
  • très raide (>60%)
Reliefs:
  • plateaux/ plaines
  • crêtes
  • flancs/ pentes de montagne
  • flancs/ pentes de colline
  • piémonts/ glacis (bas de pente)
  • fonds de vallée/bas-fonds
Zones altitudinales:
  • 0-100 m
  • 101-500 m
  • 501-1000 m
  • 1001-1500 m
  • 1501-2000 m
  • 2001-2500 m
  • 2501-3000 m
  • 3001-4000 m
  • > 4000 m

5.4 Disponibilité et qualité de l'eau

Profondeur estimée de l’eau dans le sol:

5-50 m

Disponibilité de l’eau de surface:

moyenne

Qualité de l’eau (non traitée):

eau potable

La salinité de l'eau est-elle un problème? :

Non

La zone est-elle inondée?

Oui

Régularité:

épisodiquement

Commentaires et précisions supplémentaires sur la qualité et la quantité d'eau:

Floods occur mainly during the rainy seasons in spring and autumn. Availability of surface water differs for the three study villages Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana, and Dashti Mirzai. Sari Joy has sources and good surface water availability. Jawaz Khana has poor water availability as water has to be fetched from a low lying stream. Dashti Mirzai has good water availability also from an irrigation channel.

5.5 Biodiversité

Diversité des espèces:
  • faible
Diversité des habitats:
  • faible

5.6 Caractéristiques des exploitants des terres appliquant la Technologie

Sédentaire ou nomade:
  • Semi-nomade
Orientation du système de production:
  • mixte (de subsistance/ commercial)
Revenus hors exploitation:
  • 10-50% de tous les revenus
Niveau relatif de richesse:
  • riche
Individus ou groupes:
  • individu/ ménage
Niveau de mécanisation:
  • travail manuel
Genre:
  • femmes
  • hommes
Age des exploitants des terres:
  • personnes d'âge moyen
  • personnes âgées
Indiquez toute autre caractéristique pertinente des exploitants des terres:

Source: Based on the data collected by CDE and HAFL.
Technology is applied belong to the Uzbek ethnic minority group Qarluq.
Although the men are generally the main land users, , women and children also take active part in the related work. The functions of men and women are clearly distinguished within the Afghan society. At the same time within the family this division of work and functions also results in men and women working hand-in-hand. An improvement of the family’s livelihood situation is expected to positively affect all family members. While, it is recognized that the involvement of women is key in order to secure basic human rights for everyone, to achieve good governance, sustainable development, and to efficiently contribute to poverty reduction (SDC 2004), it is also clear that a context sensitive approach is of great importance.
Women in rural Afghanistan are involved in many production and income generating activities that contribute to the overall household income. However, very few women own resources such as land and livestock, and their income generating options are fewer in comparison to that of men.

5.7 Superficie moyenne des terres détenues ou louées par les exploitants appliquant la Technologie

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1 000 ha
  • 1 000-10 000 ha
  • > 10 000 ha
Cette superficie est-elle considérée comme de petite, moyenne ou grande dimension (en se référant au contexte local)?
  • moyenne dimension

5.8 Propriété foncière, droits d’utilisation des terres et de l'eau

Propriété foncière:
  • individu, sans titre de propriété
Droits d’utilisation des terres:
  • individuel
Droits d’utilisation de l’eau:
  • communautaire (organisé)
Commentaires:

Those who own land and use water for irrigation are obliged to pay for the water. The payment is made both in kind and in cash to the Mirob, the person in charge of distributing water in the community. The amount of the payment varies from village to village.

5.9 Accès aux services et aux infrastructures

santé:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
éducation:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
assistance technique:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
emploi (par ex. hors exploitation):
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
marchés:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
énergie:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
routes et transports:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
eau potable et assainissement:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne
services financiers:
  • pauvre
  • modéré
  • bonne

6. Impacts et conclusions

6.1 Impacts sur site que la Technologie a montrés

Impacts socio-économiques

Production

production fourragère

en baisse
en augmentation

production animale

en baisse
en augmentation

production forestière non ligneuse

en baisse
en augmentation

diversité des produits

en baisse
en augmentation

surface de production

en baisse
en augmentation

Impacts socioculturels

connaissances sur la GDT/ dégradation des terres

réduit
amélioré
Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Land users learned how to implement SLM practices.

situation des groupes socialement et économiquement désavantagés

détérioré
amélioré
Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Female headed households are not included. Technology is implemented on private land, therefore people without land are excluded. However, they have the opportunity to earn income as a hired worker for the SLM implementers.

6.2 Impacts hors site que la Technologie a montrés

Commentaires concernant l'évaluation des impacts:

These comments apply to 6.1:
- Socio-economic impacts: Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the benefits from the technology. They were asked to indicate production increase of crops; fodder; animals; wood; non-wood forest products; increase in product diversity; or production area. The most important increase they rated with 3, the second most with 2, others with 1 point. Averages of the points given by all terrace implementers are reflected here.
Ecological impacts and off-site impacts: Based on the Land User Protocols: Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the on-site and off-site impacts of the Technology on water; soil; and vegetation. They were asked to indicate the strength of impacts with three, two or one points. Averages of the points given by all implementers are reflected here.

6.3 Exposition et sensibilité de la Technologie aux changements progressifs et aux évènements extrêmes/catastrophes liés au climat (telles que perçues par les exploitants des terres)

Extrêmes climatiques (catastrophes)

Catastrophes météorologiques
Comment la Technologie fait-elle face à cela?
pluie torrentielle locale très bien
Catastrophes climatiques
Comment la Technologie fait-elle face à cela?
sécheresse très bien
Commentaires:

SLM implementers from three villages were asked to jointly discuss and rate how much the SLM technology reduced the lands vulnerability to drought and local rainstorms. Only vulnerability to the most prevalent climate extremes (drought and local rainstorms) was discussed. SLM technologies were rated as reducing vulnerability poorly , well, or very well. The average points reflected here are from multi-criteria matrices compiled in three villages where the SLM technology had been implemented.

6.4 Analyse coûts-bénéfices

Quels sont les bénéfices comparativement aux coûts de mise en place (du point de vue des exploitants des terres)?
Rentabilité à court terme:

très positive

Rentabilité à long terme:

très positive

Commentaires:

Based on the multi-criteria matrix: During the FGD with SLM implementers, a multi-criteria matrix was elaborated, and different SLM practices were rated. In the frame of this exercise, SLM implementers were asked to jointly discuss and rate short term (1-3 years) and long-term (10 years) returns. As the SLM technology was only implemented 1-2 years ago, it is too early to compare benefits to maintenance costs. Farmers have little experience so far on the actual benefits of the SLM technology. The ratings are mostly based on expected benefits and not on actual benefits.

6.5 Adoption de la Technologie

  • cas isolés/ expérimentaux
Si disponible, quantifiez (nombre de ménages et/ou superficie couverte):

3 households took part in implementing the Technology

Commentaires:

Based on the Land User Protocol: Individual SLM implementers were asked whether they received support for implementing the Technology. Each indicated the type of support he received from the proposed options: "Full Support 100%, Some Support, No Support 0%".

6.6 Adaptation

La Technologie a-t-elle été récemment modifiée pour s'adapter à l'évolution des conditions?

Non

6.7 Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités de la Technologie

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue de l'exploitant des terres
The animals are protected from severe cold weather during the winter. The ventilation is good for keeping the air clean inside the livestock shelter.
Lower risks of animal diseases.
Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
Improved facility, proper feeding and and watering could reduce diseases and enhance the quality of meat and milk.
The survival of livestock may increase potentially, particularly losses may decrease during winter.

6.8 Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques de la Technologie et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue de l’exploitant des terres Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Renovation works are too costly and many farmers cannot afford to purchase all the construction material
Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Due to high establishment costs the practice is less likely to spread among the land users and will remain experimental.

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • interviews/entretiens avec les exploitants des terres

Focus group discussions (FGD) were organized to collect information from SLM implementers in Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai.

  • interviews/ entretiens avec les spécialistes/ experts de GDT

Close collaboration took place during the compilation of this material with the technical staff of the LIPT project in Rustaq.

  • compilation à partir de rapports et d'autres documents existants

Information provided in the reports of Tdh LIPT Project in Rustaq served as an initial source of information during the preparatory phase and also solidifying the description of the technology and area of implementation. Other background papers on Afghanistan were referred to for general information on agriculture and natural resource management in Afghanistan.

7.2 Références des publications disponibles

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

Guidelines for Focus Group Discussions

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

Methods section of the Rustaq NRM study

Modules