1. General information
1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology
Key resource person(s)
retired governement official:
Bureau of Soils and Water Management
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)Bureau of Soils and Water Management (Bureau of Soils and Water Management) - Philippines
1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:
2. Description of the SLM Technology
2.1 Short description of the Technology
Definition of the Technology:
Planting of herbaceous plants or trees along property boundaries to serve as windbreaks and as sources of fodder and fuel
2.2 Detailed description of the Technology
The main characteristic of the technology is the planting of herbaceous crops, grasses or trees along property boundaries. The grasses and herbs are occassionally cut and served as fodder or fuel. The trees are allowed to grow up to maturity which will then be felled for timber (construction) or for boat making. With time, especially when trees are used for boudary planting, individual fields look like boxes from the air. The choice of plants between two adjacent farms is agreed upon by the two landowner.
Purpose of the Technology: The boundary planting serves as windbreak to protect agricultural crops from wind damage. Other uses are fodder and fuelwood. The planting especially when done along the contours also trapped eroded soil from the upper portions of the field.
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Planting is done once. The herbs and grasses are regularly cut to serve as animal feed. Trees are allowed to grow to maturity. Dead branches are gathered to be used as fuel.
Natural / human environment: The area where the technology is applied is frequently visited by typhoons. The climate is maritime and even at times when there are no typhoons, wind speed is still strong enough to cause damage to crops. Susceptibility to wind damage is further agravated by the nature of the terrain which is mostly hilly.
2.3 Photos of the Technology
2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment
3. Classification of the SLM Technology
3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied
- Annual cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
- cereals - maize
- vegetables - root vegetables (carrots, onions, beet, other)
Longest growing period in days: 180Longest growing period from month to month: May - Dec
Major cash crop: None indicated; major food crop: corn, garlic; other crops; rootcrops
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Crop damage due to frequent typhoons and strong winds.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Low crop yield due to wind damage, poor crop quality and lack of market.
Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Corn, garlic or root crops are grown in separate fields. Corn is planted in December; garlic in September and rootcrops in July.
3.4 Water supply
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs
- windbreak/ shelterbelt
3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology
3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology
soil erosion by water
- Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
soil erosion by wind
- Et: loss of topsoil
Main type of degradation addressed: Et: loss of topsoil
Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion
4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs
4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate
Main technical functions: reduction in wind speed
Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, C : perennial crops, G : grass
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 3, 5, 0.5
Trees/ shrubs species: Mahogany, native shrubs
Perennial crops species: Coconut
Grass species: Napier
4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:
4.3 Establishment activities
|1.||Seedling/planting||beginning of rainy season|
4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment
Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)
4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities
|1.||Removal of dead branches (trees)||/twice a year|
|2.||Cutting (grass)||/every two months|
4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:
Perimeter length (m) of area to be treated/planted.
5. Natural and human environment
- < 250 mm
- 251-500 mm
- 501-750 mm
- 751-1,000 mm
- 1,001-1,500 mm
- 1,501-2,000 mm
- 2,001-3,000 mm
- 3,001-4,000 mm
- > 4,000 mm
Thermal climate class: tropics
rainy season lasts for 5 to 6 months
Slopes on average:
- flat (0-2%)
- gentle (3-5%)
- moderate (6-10%)
- rolling (11-15%)
- hilly (16-30%)
- steep (31-60%)
- very steep (>60%)
- mountain slopes
- hill slopes
- valley floors
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:
Altitudinal zones: 0-100m a.s.l. (hills range from 70 to 270 meters altitude)
Landforms: hill slopes (slopes are gentle and gradual )
Soil depth on average:
- very shallow (0-20 cm)
- shallow (21-50 cm)
- moderately deep (51-80 cm)
- deep (81-120 cm)
- very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
- medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
- medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.
Soil fertility is medium: (1 to 2 years fallow period improves soil fertility)
Topsoil organic matter: 1-3% (Average O.M. content is 2 .0 percent)
Soil drainage is good to medium: (Medium only in depressions)
Soil water sotrage is medium: (soil is deep)
5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology
Market orientation of production system:
- subsistence (self-supply)
- mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
- less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
Level of mechanization:
- manual work
- animal traction
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
10% of the land users are very rich and own 5% of the land.
20% of the land users are rich and own 5% of the land.
5% of the land users are average wealthy and own 8% of the land.
60% of the land users are poor and own 80% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: Fishing
Level of mechanization: animal traction: Plowing, harrowing, furrowing
Market orientation: Market is practically non-existent
5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology
- < 0.5 ha
- 0.5-1 ha
- 1-2 ha
- 2-5 ha
- 5-15 ha
- 15-50 ha
- 50-100 ha
- 100-500 ha
- 500-1,000 ha
- 1,000-10,000 ha
- > 10,000 ha
Average farm size is 1,200 sq.m.
6. Impacts and concluding statements
6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown
fodder source --> medium 20-50%
Income and costs
SLM/ land degradation knowledge
conservation / erosion knowledge medium (20-50%)
socio cultural conflicts - little (5-20%) - conflicts between two adjacent farms possible
Water cycle/ runoff
Quantity before SLM:
Quantity after SLM:
excess water drainage
Quantity before SLM:
Quantity after SLM:
Climate and disaster risk reduction
Other ecological impacts
increase in soil fertility
high 50-100% - dead branches, twigs
6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown
wind transported sediments
6.4 Cost-benefit analysis
How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
6.5 Adoption of the Technology
100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
200 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates
There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: Almost all the agricultural areas have adopted the technology
6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology
|Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view|
Low maintenance cost
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Frequent removal of unnecessary foliage
Protect crops from wind damage
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Maintenance of canopy and foliage
Improves soil fertility
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Use vegetative parts as mulch.
|Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view|
Easy to establish and maintain
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage adoption for other land users
Provides other benefits such as fodder and fuelwood.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Frequent cutting in the case of reeds/grasses to stimulate new growth.
Provides residue for organic matter build-up
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Frequent cutting and spreading of vegetative parts
Trap for eroded soil
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Close-spacing of trees and grass
Good for eco-tourism
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Aggressive promotion and marketing
6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them
|Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view||How can they be overcome?|
|Competition with crops for space||Use narrower strips for hedgerows|
|Shading effect of trees||Planting of "taro" in shaded area. Frequent cutting of branches|
|Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view||How can they be overcome?|
|Loss of space for crops||Use narrower strips for windbreaks|
|Possible sanctuary for pests||Practice integrated pest management|
|Shading effect in the case of tree windbreaks||Use of shade tolerant crops. Trees should be pruned regularly.|