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Technologies
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Biological pest control through promoting habitats for native fauna [Brazil]

Controle biológico de pragas pela fauna nativa: manter ou restabelecer habitats respectivos (Portuguese)

technologies_1293 - Brazil

Completeness: 76%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Biologist:

Ernst Raffale

Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden

Koenigsbruecker Landstr. 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany

Germany

SLM specialist:

Hagel Heinrich

heinrich.hagel@uni-hohenheim.de

Universit of Hohenheim

Wollgrasweg 43, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany

Germany

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: Making sense of research for sustainable land management (GLUES)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Universität Hohenheim - Germany
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden - Germany
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Technische Universität Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) - Germany
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB) - Germany
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Potsdam-Institut für Klimaforschung (PIK) - Germany

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

01/01/2014

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Reducing the use of common agrochemicals by supporting preferred habitats of biological pest control agents like amphibians and by using alternative self-made organic pesticides.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

Irrigated crops attract various pest species. Farmers usually address crop pest and disease problems through the use of agrochemicals. Especially bees, birds, and amphibians, which fulfil important functions in agroecosystems, are affected by high use of agrochemicals. The combination of inappropriate irrigation practices, incorrect application rates of agrochemicals, and low producer prices often lead, however, to poor income from smallholder irrigated agriculture and to further problems such as poor health, loss of biodiversity, and soil and water contamination. Amphibians are themselves proven biological pest control agents of arthropod pest species (predators of e.g. larvae of butterflies, beetles, termites, bugs and others) and the incorrect use of agrochemicals, as well as the removal of vegetation along field margins hampers this useful function. The technology described here aims to support and utilise the potential of amphibians (such as frogs and toads) as biocontrol agents –as an alternative to agrochemicals in crops.

Purpose of the Technology: Establishing habitats for amphibians is crucial in order to increase and secure their numbers: for example encouraging shrubby vegetation next to water bodies for arboreal frogs, and installing additional water ponds inside and around plantations for ground-living frogs. First, the local species pool of amphibians needs to be determined by visual and acoustic observations. Amphibian species do not need to be determined precisely, but it is important to detect whether they are arboreal and/or ground-living amphibians, as these two groups have different roles as biocontrol agents. Pests that feed on the main cultivated species should be characterized by (a) collecting plant material to determine the type and quantity of pests and (b) by comparing observations with neighbouring farmers and extension agents. Pest species can be determined also by installing traps and using nets. Inspection should be done at least every 15 days to once a month during the whole rainy season to detect possible mass reproduction of arthropods after rainfall events. Once amphibians and pest species are detected, decisions on management strategies can be made. Such a strategy is to create habitats for amphibians with additional sources of income, e.g. by planting pomegranate or guavas as shrubby vegetation structure for arboreal frogs. If pest species can't be reduced solely by amphibian species, the use of agrochemicals has to be reconsidered. Preference shall be given to chemicals which do not harm amphibians. Organic, self-made pesticides based on the extract of manioc roots (manipoera) seem promising. Twenty litres of manipoera, the bark of manicoba tree (Manihot pseudoglaziovii), a cup of American wormseed (Dysphania ambrosioides), a cup of yellow tagetes (Tagetes sp.), a cup of malagueta pepper (Capsicum sp.), garlic and a little bit of bleach have to be chopped, mixed and fermented for 10 days. Application of the final product (25 ml of organic pesticide diluted in 20 l of water) should be done every 8 to 15 days depending on crop species.

Natural / human environment: Increasing habitat heterogeneity stimulates the diversity of amphibians and so a greater number of pest types will be controlled. Combined control by safeguarding natural amphibian habitats and application of organic pesticides is an innovative alternative to the overuse of toxic agrochemicals.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Brazil

Region/ State/ Province:

Floresta, Itacuruba, Petrolandia

Further specification of location:

Brazil, Pernambuco

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • durante experiências/pesquisa

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
  • Cultura perene (não lenhosa)
  • Cultura de árvores e arbustos
Principais plantações (colheitas para venda e consumo próprio):

Major cash crop annual cropping: Watermelone, onion, beans, parsley, tomato, manioc
Major food crop annual cropping: Watermelone, onion, beans, parsley, tomato, manioc
Major cash crop perennial cropping: passion fruit, grape
Major food crop perennial cropping: passion fruit, grape
Major cash crop tree/shrub cropping: mango, coconut, pomegranat, guava, banana
Major food crop tree/shrub cropping: mango, coconut, pomegranat, guava, banana

Misto (plantação, pastagem, árvores) inclusive agrofloresta

Misto (plantação, pastagem, árvores) inclusive agrofloresta

  • Agrossilvipecuária
Principais produtos/serviços:

Main species: Goat and sheep
Types of forest: Selective felling of (semi-) natural forests, clear felling of (semi-) natural forests, plantation forestry and shifting cultivation.

Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Intensive livestock grazing pressure, agriculture and logging of native vegetation are the driving factors behind loss of the Caatinga dry forest. The high use of agrochemicals additionally pollutes soils and watersheds, and probably also decreases local biodiversity. Droughts seem to occur more frequently and these decrease water and food availability for livestock, as well as affecting the local fauna.

Example for establishment of technology within study region: In the irrigation schemes of Petrolândia, Pernambuco, Brazil, the most important arthropod pest species in banana plantation was a weevil (Curculionidae, Coleoptera). The weevil (so called “moleque da bananeira”) attacked the roots of the banana plants, in consequence the plant tumbled down and was lost. As the weevil stays during the day in the ground and only starts moving during the night, it is difficult to combat this pest species by agrochemicals. With an increase of small water ponds with a shore vegetation structure (for example at 2 corners of the plantation) the abundance of ground-living amphibians increases and so the presence of amphibians in the banana plantation which feed on the weevil during the night.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Droughts and consequently problems of feeding livestock on natural vegetation (lack of fodder and grazing grounds), deforestation, extensive and inappropriate use of agrochemicals, low producer prices.

Nomadism: goat, sheep, cattle

Semi-nomadism / pastoralism: goat, sheep, cattle

Ranching: goat, sheep, cattle

Cut-and-carry/ zero grazing: goat, sheep, cattle

Improved pasture: goat, sheep, cattle

Mixed: (eg agro-pastoralism, silvo-pastoralism): goat, sheep, cattle

Selective felling of (semi-) natural forests: Yes

Clear felling of (semi-)natural forests: Yes

Shifting cultivation: Yes

Plantation forestry: Yes

Forest products and services: timber, fuelwood, fruits and nuts, grazing / browsing, other forest products / uses (honey, medical, etc.), nature conservation / protection

Livestock is grazing on crop residues

3.3 Mais informações sobre o uso da terra

Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 1
Especifique:

Longest growing period from month to month: January to May

3.4 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Gestão integrada de pragas e doenças (inclusive agricultura orgânica)
  • Biological pest control

3.5 Difusão da tecnologia

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
Caso a tecnologia seja uniformemente difundida numa área, indique a área coberta aproximada :
  • 0,1-1 km2
Comentários:

The technology was carried out both in a forest system as well as in agricultural areas. An incrasing SLM Technology area is linked to an increasing sampling number.

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A1: cobertura vegetal/do solo
Medidas vegetativas

Medidas vegetativas

  • V1: cobertura de árvores/arbustos
  • V2: gramíneas e plantas herbáceas perenes
Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S3: Valas graduadas, canais, vias navegáveis
  • S5: Represa, bacia, lago
Medidas de gestão

Medidas de gestão

  • M2: Mudança de gestão/nível de intensidade
Comentários:

Main measures: agronomic measures, vegetative measures, structural measures, management measures

Type of agronomic measures: retaining more vegetation cover

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bc: redução da cobertura vegetal
  • Bh: perda dos habitats
  • Bs: Qualidade e composição de espécies/declínio de diversidade
  • Bp: aumento de pragas/doenças, perda de predadores
Degradação da água

Degradação da água

  • Hs: mudança na quantidade de água de superfície
Comentários:

Main type of degradation addressed: Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bh: loss of habitats, Bs: quality and species composition /diversity decline, Bp: increase of pests / diseases, loss of predators, Hs: change in quantity of surface water

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

Main causes of degradation: crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (high use of agrochemicals, degradation of natural habitats), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (high logging and grazing intensity, no forest area without grazing!), overgrazing (high logging and grazing intensity, no forest area without grazing!), change in temperature (droughts become more frequently), change of seasonal rainfall (droughts become more frequently), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (less rainfall intensity), droughts (droughts become more frequently)

Secondary causes of degradation: urbanisation and infrastructure development (extending farmlands), population pressure (extending farmlands), poverty / wealth (farmers need to use natural resources as livestock fodder), education, access to knowledge and support services (less environmental awareness)

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Comentários:

Main goals: prevention of land degradation, mitigation / reduction of land degradation

Secondary goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Autor:

M. Guschal & L. Steinmetz

4.2 Especificações técnicas/ explicações do desenho técnico

Vegetation structures surrounding plantations beside waterbodies guarantee the occurrence of arboreal and ground-living amphibians. Arboreal frogs prefer shrubby vegetation. Since mowing or application of herbicides often eliminates shrubs, moderate livestock grazing might be a better option. The additional water bodies outside the plantation can thereby be used for livestock watering, as long as the surrounding vegetation structure is not eliminated through grazing. Fruit trees such as Guava or Pomegranate as shrub structure provide an additional source of income. To ensure the presence of ground-living frogs, smaller water bodies must be promoted within the plantation. Here puddles from leaky irrigation systems seem to be sufficient already.
Only agrochemicals and organic pesticides that are harmless to amphibians should be used as additional chemical pest control.

Date: 2016

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (kowledge of habitat preference of important species and management issues)

Technical knowledge required for land users: low (kowledge of habitat preference of important species and management issues)

Main technical functions: increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of biomass (quantity), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)

Secondary technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: drain / divert, increase of surface roughness, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in organic matter

Retaining more vegetation cover
Material/ species: herbs in planation of coconut, banana, guave, pomegranat etc.
Quantity/ density: dense

Change of land use practices / intensity level: less grazing in forest areas, less grazing at water ponds (fencing of a certain part of the pond), less cutting of shrubs and herbs in crop plantations (near to natural cutting by livestock)

4.4 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Tipo de medida Calendarização
1. Installing of additional small and large water bodies: a. large ponds outside the plantation (~100 m²/pond, ~ 4 ponds/plantation, one working day per pond) b. smaller ponds for ground-living frogs inside the plantation (one working day/ 5 ha). c. drainages can be installed instead of ponds outside the plantation for sustainable water use (machine rent) Estrutural
2. Planting shrubby vegetation or fruit trees outside and inside the plantation. Planting of Guava trees as shrubby vegetation: 25% density compared to Guava monoculture (e.g. 1.25 working days for exclusive Guava plantation) Estrutural
3. As irrigation was free in the study region, there were no costs calculated Estrutural
4. Knapsack sprayer for application of pesticides Estrutural

4.5 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 49,05 49,05 100,0
Equipamento Machine rent ha 1,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
Equipamento Knapsack sprayer ha 1,0 90,0 90,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seedlings ha 1,0 75,0 75,0 100,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 314,05

4.6 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Tipo de medida Calendarização/frequência
1. Monitoring amphibian species at least 3 nights in the rainy season (can be done by the farmer himself) Estrutural
2. Monitoring of pest species (1 hour/ha) at least every 15 days in the rainy season (5 month/year) and once a month in dry season (7 month/year) (can be done by the farmer himself) Estrutural
3. Production and application of organic pesticides (25 ml of organic pesticide diluted in 20 l of water and applied every 8 to 15 days). Note: for commercial pesticides the application costs are the same. Estrutural
4. Application of fertilizer (1 working day/ year) Estrutural
5. Pruning of trees (5.25 working days(/year) Estrutural

4.7 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 821,75 821,75 100,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 821,75
Comentários:

To calculate the above example a scenario with maximum activities was taken. Any other scenario will be cheaper. Prices are from the year 2013. Real 1 = USD 0.3.. A total of 6 liters of concentrated organic pesticides per hectare per year are needed. This applies for both self-made and commercial pesticides. As commercial organic pesticides cost about USD 36 per liter, farmers spend USD 216 less per year for self-produced organic pesticides. Similarly commercial non-organic pesticides are more expensive compared to self-made organic pesticides. An additional income of USD 120 / ha / harvest were estimated for guava trees even under possible poor conditions like shadow and extensive management. Other additional sources of income are from the sale of self-produced organic pesticides and livestock grazing instead of using herbicides.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

8 month of drought , 4 months of rain

Zona agroclimática
  • Semiárido

Thermal climate class: tropics

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Comentários e outras especificações sobre a topografia:

Slopes on average: gentle (3-5%), moderate (6-10%), rolling (11-15%), hilly (16-30%)

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)
  • Baixo (<1%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

Soil fertility is: Very low-low
Soil drainage/infiltration is: Poor-medium
Soil water storage capacity: Very low-low

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

> 50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Precário/nenhum

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável precária (tratamento necessário)

5.5 Biodiversidade

Comentários e outras especificações sobre biodiversidade:

Species diversity: medium, low
Species richness of the study region depended strongly on habitat heterogeneity.

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Média
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
  • Tração animal
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 1% - 2%

Off-farm income specification: the same, there are just single farmers who use the technology till now

Market orientation of production system: subsistence (self-supply), subsistence (self-supply), subsistence (self-supply), mixed (subsistence/ commercial, mixed (subsistence/ commercial, commercial/ market, commercial/ market

5.7 Média da área de terra própria ou arrendada por usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Média escala
Comentários:

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: < 0.5 ha, 0.5-1 ha, 1-2 ha, 2-5 ha

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Estado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Indivíduo
  • official registration and permission
  • official registration and permission

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Produção de forragens

Diminuído
Elevado

Produção animal

Diminuído
Elevado

Área de produção

Diminuído
Elevado
Renda e custos

Despesas com insumos agrícolas

Elevado
Diminuído

Diversidade de fontes de rendimento

Diminuído
Elevado

Impactos socioculturais

Estado de saúde

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Reduced pesticide toxic effect on human health

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
Comentários/especificar:

Less use of agrochemicals

Impactos ecológicos

Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Diversidade vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado

Diversidade animal

Diminuído
Elevado

Diversidade de habitat

Diminuído
Elevado

Controle de praga/doença

Diminuído
Elevado

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Cheias de jusante

Elevado
Reduzido

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Mudança climática gradual

Mudança climática gradual
Estação do ano Tipo de mudança climática/extremo Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temperatura anual increase bem

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local não bem
Tempestade de vento local bem
Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Seca não bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) bem

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Período de crescimento reduzido bem
Comentários:

As amphibians depend in their abundance and species composition on the rainfall amount and intensity the technology is sensitive for changing rainfall events by increasing abundance of amphibians with higher rainfall amount and so probably a better pest control.
In case of frequent droughts, reptiles like lizards get more important as they do not depend so strong on rainfall events like amphibians.

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

ligeiramente negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

Comentários:

There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Technology is still in the testing phase and it is too early to give any data on acceptance or adoption

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
A strong advantage is the low cost of this ecosystem service which is provided almost freely to farmers, especially when the potential for pest control (abundancy of useful amphibians) is high enough to eliminate the need for agrochemicals.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Establish adequate habitats to maintain high diversity of the relevant reptiles and amphibians.
Less use of agrochemicals results in a healthier environment for producers and consumers

How can they be sustained / enhanced? If the potential of the reptiles and amphibians is not high enough to combat all pest species, organic chemicals or alternative biocontrol species could be used (for example horntails etc.).
Changing monoculture to mixed systems - or even agropastoral systems - offers additional income sources, while diversification often as a buffer to sudden drops in the price of a particular crop

How can they be sustained / enhanced? The crop mixture needs to be well designed, to ensure that the harvests of important crops are not affected too much, and the reduction compensated for by the others.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Droughts and limited water availability influence species richness of amphibians. Providing sufficient water bodies for amphibians to outwear heavy droughts is recommended.

7. Referências e links

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

): Guschal & Hagel et al. Benefits of site-adapted management (pest-control) innovations in northeastern Brazil.

Available from where? Costs?

In preparation

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