Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden
Koenigsbruecker Landstr. 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany
Universit of Hohenheim
Wollgrasweg 43, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Book project: Making sense of research for sustainable land management (GLUES)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Universität Hohenheim - 德国
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden - 德国
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Technische Universität Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) - 德国
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB) - 德国
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Potsdam-Institut für Klimaforschung (PIK) - 德国
Reducing the use of common agrochemicals by supporting preferred habitats of biological pest control agents like amphibians and by using alternative self-made organic pesticides.
Irrigated crops attract various pest species. Farmers usually address crop pest and disease problems through the use of agrochemicals. Especially bees, birds, and amphibians, which fulfil important functions in agroecosystems, are affected by high use of agrochemicals. The combination of inappropriate irrigation practices, incorrect application rates of agrochemicals, and low producer prices often lead, however, to poor income from smallholder irrigated agriculture and to further problems such as poor health, loss of biodiversity, and soil and water contamination. Amphibians are themselves proven biological pest control agents of arthropod pest species (predators of e.g. larvae of butterflies, beetles, termites, bugs and others) and the incorrect use of agrochemicals, as well as the removal of vegetation along field margins hampers this useful function. The technology described here aims to support and utilise the potential of amphibians (such as frogs and toads) as biocontrol agents –as an alternative to agrochemicals in crops.
Purpose of the Technology: Establishing habitats for amphibians is crucial in order to increase and secure their numbers: for example encouraging shrubby vegetation next to water bodies for arboreal frogs, and installing additional water ponds inside and around plantations for ground-living frogs. First, the local species pool of amphibians needs to be determined by visual and acoustic observations. Amphibian species do not need to be determined precisely, but it is important to detect whether they are arboreal and/or ground-living amphibians, as these two groups have different roles as biocontrol agents. Pests that feed on the main cultivated species should be characterized by (a) collecting plant material to determine the type and quantity of pests and (b) by comparing observations with neighbouring farmers and extension agents. Pest species can be determined also by installing traps and using nets. Inspection should be done at least every 15 days to once a month during the whole rainy season to detect possible mass reproduction of arthropods after rainfall events. Once amphibians and pest species are detected, decisions on management strategies can be made. Such a strategy is to create habitats for amphibians with additional sources of income, e.g. by planting pomegranate or guavas as shrubby vegetation structure for arboreal frogs. If pest species can't be reduced solely by amphibian species, the use of agrochemicals has to be reconsidered. Preference shall be given to chemicals which do not harm amphibians. Organic, self-made pesticides based on the extract of manioc roots (manipoera) seem promising. Twenty litres of manipoera, the bark of manicoba tree (Manihot pseudoglaziovii), a cup of American wormseed (Dysphania ambrosioides), a cup of yellow tagetes (Tagetes sp.), a cup of malagueta pepper (Capsicum sp.), garlic and a little bit of bleach have to be chopped, mixed and fermented for 10 days. Application of the final product (25 ml of organic pesticide diluted in 20 l of water) should be done every 8 to 15 days depending on crop species.
Natural / human environment: Increasing habitat heterogeneity stimulates the diversity of amphibians and so a greater number of pest types will be controlled. Combined control by safeguarding natural amphibian habitats and application of organic pesticides is an innovative alternative to the overuse of toxic agrochemicals.
Major cash crop annual cropping: Watermelone, onion, beans, parsley, tomato, manioc
Major food crop annual cropping: Watermelone, onion, beans, parsley, tomato, manioc
Major cash crop perennial cropping: passion fruit, grape
Major food crop perennial cropping: passion fruit, grape
Major cash crop tree/shrub cropping: mango, coconut, pomegranat, guava, banana
Major food crop tree/shrub cropping: mango, coconut, pomegranat, guava, banana
Main species: Goat and sheep
Types of forest: Selective felling of (semi-) natural forests, clear felling of (semi-) natural forests, plantation forestry and shifting cultivation.
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Intensive livestock grazing pressure, agriculture and logging of native vegetation are the driving factors behind loss of the Caatinga dry forest. The high use of agrochemicals additionally pollutes soils and watersheds, and probably also decreases local biodiversity. Droughts seem to occur more frequently and these decrease water and food availability for livestock, as well as affecting the local fauna.
Example for establishment of technology within study region: In the irrigation schemes of Petrolândia, Pernambuco, Brazil, the most important arthropod pest species in banana plantation was a weevil (Curculionidae, Coleoptera). The weevil (so called “moleque da bananeira”) attacked the roots of the banana plants, in consequence the plant tumbled down and was lost. As the weevil stays during the day in the ground and only starts moving during the night, it is difficult to combat this pest species by agrochemicals. With an increase of small water ponds with a shore vegetation structure (for example at 2 corners of the plantation) the abundance of ground-living amphibians increases and so the presence of amphibians in the banana plantation which feed on the weevil during the night.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Droughts and consequently problems of feeding livestock on natural vegetation (lack of fodder and grazing grounds), deforestation, extensive and inappropriate use of agrochemicals, low producer prices.
Nomadism: goat, sheep, cattle
Semi-nomadism / pastoralism: goat, sheep, cattle
Ranching: goat, sheep, cattle
Cut-and-carry/ zero grazing: goat, sheep, cattle
Improved pasture: goat, sheep, cattle
Mixed: (eg agro-pastoralism, silvo-pastoralism): goat, sheep, cattle
Selective felling of (semi-) natural forests: Yes
Clear felling of (semi-)natural forests: Yes
Shifting cultivation: Yes
Plantation forestry: Yes
Forest products and services: timber, fuelwood, fruits and nuts, grazing / browsing, other forest products / uses (honey, medical, etc.), nature conservation / protection
Livestock is grazing on crop residues
Longest growing period from month to month: January to May
- Biological pest control
- 0.1-1 平方千米
The technology was carried out both in a forest system as well as in agricultural areas. An incrasing SLM Technology area is linked to an increasing sampling number.
Main measures: agronomic measures, vegetative measures, structural measures, management measures
Type of agronomic measures: retaining more vegetation cover
Main type of degradation addressed: Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bh: loss of habitats, Bs: quality and species composition /diversity decline, Bp: increase of pests / diseases, loss of predators, Hs: change in quantity of surface water
Secondary types of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content
Main causes of degradation: crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (high use of agrochemicals, degradation of natural habitats), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (high logging and grazing intensity, no forest area without grazing!), overgrazing (high logging and grazing intensity, no forest area without grazing!), change in temperature (droughts become more frequently), change of seasonal rainfall (droughts become more frequently), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (less rainfall intensity), droughts (droughts become more frequently)
Secondary causes of degradation: urbanisation and infrastructure development (extending farmlands), population pressure (extending farmlands), poverty / wealth (farmers need to use natural resources as livestock fodder), education, access to knowledge and support services (less environmental awareness)
Main goals: prevention of land degradation, mitigation / reduction of land degradation
Secondary goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land
Vegetation structures surrounding plantations beside waterbodies guarantee the occurrence of arboreal and ground-living amphibians. Arboreal frogs prefer shrubby vegetation. Since mowing or application of herbicides often eliminates shrubs, moderate livestock grazing might be a better option. The additional water bodies outside the plantation can thereby be used for livestock watering, as long as the surrounding vegetation structure is not eliminated through grazing. Fruit trees such as Guava or Pomegranate as shrub structure provide an additional source of income. To ensure the presence of ground-living frogs, smaller water bodies must be promoted within the plantation. Here puddles from leaky irrigation systems seem to be sufficient already.
Only agrochemicals and organic pesticides that are harmless to amphibians should be used as additional chemical pest control.
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (kowledge of habitat preference of important species and management issues)
Technical knowledge required for land users: low (kowledge of habitat preference of important species and management issues)
Main technical functions: increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of biomass (quantity), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)
Secondary technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: drain / divert, increase of surface roughness, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in organic matter
Retaining more vegetation cover
Material/ species: herbs in planation of coconut, banana, guave, pomegranat etc.
Quantity/ density: dense
Change of land use practices / intensity level: less grazing in forest areas, less grazing at water ponds (fencing of a certain part of the pond), less cutting of shrubs and herbs in crop plantations (near to natural cutting by livestock)
|1.||Installing of additional small and large water bodies: a. large ponds outside the plantation (~100 m²/pond, ~ 4 ponds/plantation, one working day per pond) b. smaller ponds for ground-living frogs inside the plantation (one working day/ 5 ha). c. drainages can be installed instead of ponds outside the plantation for sustainable water use (machine rent)||结构性的|
|2.||Planting shrubby vegetation or fruit trees outside and inside the plantation. Planting of Guava trees as shrubby vegetation: 25% density compared to Guava monoculture (e.g. 1.25 working days for exclusive Guava plantation)||结构性的|
|3.||As irrigation was free in the study region, there were no costs calculated||结构性的|
|4.||Knapsack sprayer for application of pesticides||结构性的|
|1.||Monitoring amphibian species at least 3 nights in the rainy season (can be done by the farmer himself)||结构性的|
|2.||Monitoring of pest species (1 hour/ha) at least every 15 days in the rainy season (5 month/year) and once a month in dry season (7 month/year) (can be done by the farmer himself)||结构性的|
|3.||Production and application of organic pesticides (25 ml of organic pesticide diluted in 20 l of water and applied every 8 to 15 days). Note: for commercial pesticides the application costs are the same.||结构性的|
|4.||Application of fertilizer (1 working day/ year)||结构性的|
|5.||Pruning of trees (5.25 working days(/year)||结构性的|
To calculate the above example a scenario with maximum activities was taken. Any other scenario will be cheaper. Prices are from the year 2013. Real 1 = USD 0.3.. A total of 6 liters of concentrated organic pesticides per hectare per year are needed. This applies for both self-made and commercial pesticides. As commercial organic pesticides cost about USD 36 per liter, farmers spend USD 216 less per year for self-produced organic pesticides. Similarly commercial non-organic pesticides are more expensive compared to self-made organic pesticides. An additional income of USD 120 / ha / harvest were estimated for guava trees even under possible poor conditions like shadow and extensive management. Other additional sources of income are from the sale of self-produced organic pesticides and livestock grazing instead of using herbicides.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
8 month of drought , 4 months of rain
Thermal climate class: tropics
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Slopes on average: gentle (3-5%), moderate (6-10%), rolling (11-15%), hilly (16-30%)
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil fertility is: Very low-low
Soil drainage/infiltration is: Poor-medium
Soil water storage capacity: Very low-low
Species diversity: medium, low
Species richness of the study region depended strongly on habitat heterogeneity.
Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 1% - 2%
Off-farm income specification: the same, there are just single farmers who use the technology till now
Market orientation of production system: subsistence (self-supply), subsistence (self-supply), subsistence (self-supply), mixed (subsistence/ commercial, mixed (subsistence/ commercial, commercial/ market, commercial/ market
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: < 0.5 ha, 0.5-1 ha, 1-2 ha, 2-5 ha
- official registration and permission
- official registration and permission
Reduced pesticide toxic effect on human health
Improved livelihoods and human well-being
Less use of agrochemicals
As amphibians depend in their abundance and species composition on the rainfall amount and intensity the technology is sensitive for changing rainfall events by increasing abundance of amphibians with higher rainfall amount and so probably a better pest control.
In case of frequent droughts, reptiles like lizards get more important as they do not depend so strong on rainfall events like amphibians.
There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: Technology is still in the testing phase and it is too early to give any data on acceptance or adoption
A strong advantage is the low cost of this ecosystem service which is provided almost freely to farmers, especially when the potential for pest control (abundancy of useful amphibians) is high enough to eliminate the need for agrochemicals.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Establish adequate habitats to maintain high diversity of the relevant reptiles and amphibians.
Less use of agrochemicals results in a healthier environment for producers and consumers
How can they be sustained / enhanced? If the potential of the reptiles and amphibians is not high enough to combat all pest species, organic chemicals or alternative biocontrol species could be used (for example horntails etc.).
Changing monoculture to mixed systems - or even agropastoral systems - offers additional income sources, while diversification often as a buffer to sudden drops in the price of a particular crop
How can they be sustained / enhanced? The crop mixture needs to be well designed, to ensure that the harvests of important crops are not affected too much, and the reduction compensated for by the others.
|Droughts and limited water availability influence species richness of amphibians.||Providing sufficient water bodies for amphibians to outwear heavy droughts is recommended.|
): Guschal & Hagel et al. Benefits of site-adapted management (pest-control) innovations in northeastern Brazil.