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Biological pest control through promoting habitats for native fauna [巴西]

Controle biológico de pragas pela fauna nativa: manter ou restabelecer habitats respectivos (Portuguese)

technologies_1293 - 巴西

完整性: 76%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
Biologist:

Ernst Raffale

Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden

Koenigsbruecker Landstr. 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany

德国

SLM专业人员:

Hagel Heinrich

heinrich.hagel@uni-hohenheim.de

Universit of Hohenheim

Wollgrasweg 43, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany

德国

有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Book project: Making sense of research for sustainable land management (GLUES)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Universität Hohenheim - 德国
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden - 德国
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Technische Universität Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) - 德国
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB) - 德国
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Potsdam-Institut für Klimaforschung (PIK) - 德国

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

01/01/2014

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Reducing the use of common agrochemicals by supporting preferred habitats of biological pest control agents like amphibians and by using alternative self-made organic pesticides.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

Irrigated crops attract various pest species. Farmers usually address crop pest and disease problems through the use of agrochemicals. Especially bees, birds, and amphibians, which fulfil important functions in agroecosystems, are affected by high use of agrochemicals. The combination of inappropriate irrigation practices, incorrect application rates of agrochemicals, and low producer prices often lead, however, to poor income from smallholder irrigated agriculture and to further problems such as poor health, loss of biodiversity, and soil and water contamination. Amphibians are themselves proven biological pest control agents of arthropod pest species (predators of e.g. larvae of butterflies, beetles, termites, bugs and others) and the incorrect use of agrochemicals, as well as the removal of vegetation along field margins hampers this useful function. The technology described here aims to support and utilise the potential of amphibians (such as frogs and toads) as biocontrol agents –as an alternative to agrochemicals in crops.

Purpose of the Technology: Establishing habitats for amphibians is crucial in order to increase and secure their numbers: for example encouraging shrubby vegetation next to water bodies for arboreal frogs, and installing additional water ponds inside and around plantations for ground-living frogs. First, the local species pool of amphibians needs to be determined by visual and acoustic observations. Amphibian species do not need to be determined precisely, but it is important to detect whether they are arboreal and/or ground-living amphibians, as these two groups have different roles as biocontrol agents. Pests that feed on the main cultivated species should be characterized by (a) collecting plant material to determine the type and quantity of pests and (b) by comparing observations with neighbouring farmers and extension agents. Pest species can be determined also by installing traps and using nets. Inspection should be done at least every 15 days to once a month during the whole rainy season to detect possible mass reproduction of arthropods after rainfall events. Once amphibians and pest species are detected, decisions on management strategies can be made. Such a strategy is to create habitats for amphibians with additional sources of income, e.g. by planting pomegranate or guavas as shrubby vegetation structure for arboreal frogs. If pest species can't be reduced solely by amphibian species, the use of agrochemicals has to be reconsidered. Preference shall be given to chemicals which do not harm amphibians. Organic, self-made pesticides based on the extract of manioc roots (manipoera) seem promising. Twenty litres of manipoera, the bark of manicoba tree (Manihot pseudoglaziovii), a cup of American wormseed (Dysphania ambrosioides), a cup of yellow tagetes (Tagetes sp.), a cup of malagueta pepper (Capsicum sp.), garlic and a little bit of bleach have to be chopped, mixed and fermented for 10 days. Application of the final product (25 ml of organic pesticide diluted in 20 l of water) should be done every 8 to 15 days depending on crop species.

Natural / human environment: Increasing habitat heterogeneity stimulates the diversity of amphibians and so a greater number of pest types will be controlled. Combined control by safeguarding natural amphibian habitats and application of organic pesticides is an innovative alternative to the overuse of toxic agrochemicals.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

巴西

区域/州/省:

Floresta, Itacuruba, Petrolandia

有关地点的进一步说明:

Brazil, Pernambuco

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 50多年前(传统)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 在实验/研究期间

3. SLM技术的分类

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

农田

农田

  • 一年一作
  • 多年一作(非木材)
  • 乔木与灌木的种植
主要农作物(经济作物及粮食作物):

Major cash crop annual cropping: Watermelone, onion, beans, parsley, tomato, manioc
Major food crop annual cropping: Watermelone, onion, beans, parsley, tomato, manioc
Major cash crop perennial cropping: passion fruit, grape
Major food crop perennial cropping: passion fruit, grape
Major cash crop tree/shrub cropping: mango, coconut, pomegranat, guava, banana
Major food crop tree/shrub cropping: mango, coconut, pomegranat, guava, banana

混合(作物/放牧/树木),包括农林

混合(作物/放牧/树木),包括农林

  • 农林牧业
主要产品/服务:

Main species: Goat and sheep
Types of forest: Selective felling of (semi-) natural forests, clear felling of (semi-) natural forests, plantation forestry and shifting cultivation.

注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Intensive livestock grazing pressure, agriculture and logging of native vegetation are the driving factors behind loss of the Caatinga dry forest. The high use of agrochemicals additionally pollutes soils and watersheds, and probably also decreases local biodiversity. Droughts seem to occur more frequently and these decrease water and food availability for livestock, as well as affecting the local fauna.

Example for establishment of technology within study region: In the irrigation schemes of Petrolândia, Pernambuco, Brazil, the most important arthropod pest species in banana plantation was a weevil (Curculionidae, Coleoptera). The weevil (so called “moleque da bananeira”) attacked the roots of the banana plants, in consequence the plant tumbled down and was lost. As the weevil stays during the day in the ground and only starts moving during the night, it is difficult to combat this pest species by agrochemicals. With an increase of small water ponds with a shore vegetation structure (for example at 2 corners of the plantation) the abundance of ground-living amphibians increases and so the presence of amphibians in the banana plantation which feed on the weevil during the night.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Droughts and consequently problems of feeding livestock on natural vegetation (lack of fodder and grazing grounds), deforestation, extensive and inappropriate use of agrochemicals, low producer prices.

Nomadism: goat, sheep, cattle

Semi-nomadism / pastoralism: goat, sheep, cattle

Ranching: goat, sheep, cattle

Cut-and-carry/ zero grazing: goat, sheep, cattle

Improved pasture: goat, sheep, cattle

Mixed: (eg agro-pastoralism, silvo-pastoralism): goat, sheep, cattle

Selective felling of (semi-) natural forests: Yes

Clear felling of (semi-)natural forests: Yes

Shifting cultivation: Yes

Plantation forestry: Yes

Forest products and services: timber, fuelwood, fruits and nuts, grazing / browsing, other forest products / uses (honey, medical, etc.), nature conservation / protection

Livestock is grazing on crop residues

3.3 有关土地利用的更多信息

每年的生长季节数:
  • 1
具体说明:

Longest growing period from month to month: January to May

3.4 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 病虫害综合管理(包括有机农业)
  • Biological pest control

3.5 技术传播

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果该技术均匀地分布在一个区域上,请注明覆盖的大致区域。:
  • 0.1-1 平方千米
注释:

The technology was carried out both in a forest system as well as in agricultural areas. An incrasing SLM Technology area is linked to an increasing sampling number.

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

农艺措施

农艺措施

  • A1:植被和土壤覆盖层
植物措施

植物措施

  • V1:乔木和灌木覆盖层
  • V2:草和多年生草本植物
结构措施

结构措施

  • S3:分级沟渠、渠道、水道
  • S5:大坝、集水斗、水池
管理措施

管理措施

  • M2:改变管理/强度级别
注释:

Main measures: agronomic measures, vegetative measures, structural measures, management measures

Type of agronomic measures: retaining more vegetation cover

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

化学性土壤退化

化学性土壤退化

  • Cn:肥力下降和有机质含量下降(非侵蚀所致)
生物性退化

生物性退化

  • Bc:植被覆盖的减少
  • Bh:栖息地丧失
  • Bs:质量和物种组成/多样性的下降
  • Bp:害虫/疾病增加,捕食者减少
水质恶化

水质恶化

  • Hs:地表水良变化
注释:

Main type of degradation addressed: Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bh: loss of habitats, Bs: quality and species composition /diversity decline, Bp: increase of pests / diseases, loss of predators, Hs: change in quantity of surface water

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

Main causes of degradation: crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (high use of agrochemicals, degradation of natural habitats), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (high logging and grazing intensity, no forest area without grazing!), overgrazing (high logging and grazing intensity, no forest area without grazing!), change in temperature (droughts become more frequently), change of seasonal rainfall (droughts become more frequently), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (less rainfall intensity), droughts (droughts become more frequently)

Secondary causes of degradation: urbanisation and infrastructure development (extending farmlands), population pressure (extending farmlands), poverty / wealth (farmers need to use natural resources as livestock fodder), education, access to knowledge and support services (less environmental awareness)

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

注释:

Main goals: prevention of land degradation, mitigation / reduction of land degradation

Secondary goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

作者:

M. Guschal & L. Steinmetz

4.2 技术规范/技术图纸说明

Vegetation structures surrounding plantations beside waterbodies guarantee the occurrence of arboreal and ground-living amphibians. Arboreal frogs prefer shrubby vegetation. Since mowing or application of herbicides often eliminates shrubs, moderate livestock grazing might be a better option. The additional water bodies outside the plantation can thereby be used for livestock watering, as long as the surrounding vegetation structure is not eliminated through grazing. Fruit trees such as Guava or Pomegranate as shrub structure provide an additional source of income. To ensure the presence of ground-living frogs, smaller water bodies must be promoted within the plantation. Here puddles from leaky irrigation systems seem to be sufficient already.
Only agrochemicals and organic pesticides that are harmless to amphibians should be used as additional chemical pest control.

Date: 2016

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (kowledge of habitat preference of important species and management issues)

Technical knowledge required for land users: low (kowledge of habitat preference of important species and management issues)

Main technical functions: increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of biomass (quantity), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)

Secondary technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: drain / divert, increase of surface roughness, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in organic matter

Retaining more vegetation cover
Material/ species: herbs in planation of coconut, banana, guave, pomegranat etc.
Quantity/ density: dense

Change of land use practices / intensity level: less grazing in forest areas, less grazing at water ponds (fencing of a certain part of the pond), less cutting of shrubs and herbs in crop plantations (near to natural cutting by livestock)

4.4 技术建立活动

活动 措施类型 时间
1. Installing of additional small and large water bodies: a. large ponds outside the plantation (~100 m²/pond, ~ 4 ponds/plantation, one working day per pond) b. smaller ponds for ground-living frogs inside the plantation (one working day/ 5 ha). c. drainages can be installed instead of ponds outside the plantation for sustainable water use (machine rent) 结构性的
2. Planting shrubby vegetation or fruit trees outside and inside the plantation. Planting of Guava trees as shrubby vegetation: 25% density compared to Guava monoculture (e.g. 1.25 working days for exclusive Guava plantation) 结构性的
3. As irrigation was free in the study region, there were no costs calculated 结构性的
4. Knapsack sprayer for application of pesticides 结构性的

4.5 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 49.05 49.05 100.0
设备 Machine rent ha 1.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
设备 Knapsack sprayer ha 1.0 90.0 90.0 100.0
植物材料 Seedlings ha 1.0 75.0 75.0 100.0
技术建立所需总成本 314.05

4.6 维护/经常性活动

活动 措施类型 时间/频率
1. Monitoring amphibian species at least 3 nights in the rainy season (can be done by the farmer himself) 结构性的
2. Monitoring of pest species (1 hour/ha) at least every 15 days in the rainy season (5 month/year) and once a month in dry season (7 month/year) (can be done by the farmer himself) 结构性的
3. Production and application of organic pesticides (25 ml of organic pesticide diluted in 20 l of water and applied every 8 to 15 days). Note: for commercial pesticides the application costs are the same. 结构性的
4. Application of fertilizer (1 working day/ year) 结构性的
5. Pruning of trees (5.25 working days(/year) 结构性的

4.7 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 821.75 821.75 100.0
技术维护所需总成本 821.75
注释:

To calculate the above example a scenario with maximum activities was taken. Any other scenario will be cheaper. Prices are from the year 2013. Real 1 = USD 0.3.. A total of 6 liters of concentrated organic pesticides per hectare per year are needed. This applies for both self-made and commercial pesticides. As commercial organic pesticides cost about USD 36 per liter, farmers spend USD 216 less per year for self-produced organic pesticides. Similarly commercial non-organic pesticides are more expensive compared to self-made organic pesticides. An additional income of USD 120 / ha / harvest were estimated for guava trees even under possible poor conditions like shadow and extensive management. Other additional sources of income are from the sale of self-produced organic pesticides and livestock grazing instead of using herbicides.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

8 month of drought , 4 months of rain

农业气候带
  • 半干旱

Thermal climate class: tropics

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
关于地形的注释和进一步规范:

Slopes on average: gentle (3-5%), moderate (6-10%), rolling (11-15%), hilly (16-30%)

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 粗粒/轻(砂质)
表土有机质:
  • 中(1-3%)
  • 低(<1%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

Soil fertility is: Very low-low
Soil drainage/infiltration is: Poor-medium
Soil water storage capacity: Very low-low

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

> 50米

地表水的可用性:

匮乏/没有

水质(未处理):

不良饮用水(需要处理)

5.5 生物多样性

关于生物多样性的注释和进一步规范:

Species diversity: medium, low
Species richness of the study region depended strongly on habitat heterogeneity.

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

非农收入:
  • 收入的10-50%
相对财富水平:
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 个人/家庭
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
  • 畜力牵引
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 1% - 2%

Off-farm income specification: the same, there are just single farmers who use the technology till now

Market orientation of production system: subsistence (self-supply), subsistence (self-supply), subsistence (self-supply), mixed (subsistence/ commercial, mixed (subsistence/ commercial, commercial/ market, commercial/ market

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者拥有或租用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 中等规模的
注释:

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: < 0.5 ha, 0.5-1 ha, 1-2 ha, 2-5 ha

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
土地使用权:
  • 个人
  • official registration and permission
  • official registration and permission

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

作物生产

降低
增加

饲料生产

降低
增加

畜牧生产

降低
增加

生产区域

降低
增加
收入和成本

农业投入费用

增加
降低

收入来源的多样性

降低
增加

社会文化影响

健康状况

恶化
改良
注释/具体说明:

Reduced pesticide toxic effect on human health

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
注释/具体说明:

Less use of agrochemicals

生态影响

生物多样性:植被、动物

植物多样性

降低
增加

动物多样性

降低
增加

栖息地多样性

降低
增加

害虫/疾病控制

降低
增加

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

下游洪水

增加
减少

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

渐变气候

渐变气候
季节 气候变化/极端天气的类型 该技术是如何应对的?
年温度 增加

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地暴雨 不好
局地风暴
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱 不好
水文灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
比较和缓的(河道)洪水

其他气候相关的后果

其他气候相关的后果
该技术是如何应对的?
缩短生长期
注释:

As amphibians depend in their abundance and species composition on the rainfall amount and intensity the technology is sensitive for changing rainfall events by increasing abundance of amphibians with higher rainfall amount and so probably a better pest control.
In case of frequent droughts, reptiles like lizards get more important as they do not depend so strong on rainfall events like amphibians.

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

消极

长期回报:

积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

轻度消极

长期回报:

积极

6.5 技术采用

注释:

There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Technology is still in the testing phase and it is too early to give any data on acceptance or adoption

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
A strong advantage is the low cost of this ecosystem service which is provided almost freely to farmers, especially when the potential for pest control (abundancy of useful amphibians) is high enough to eliminate the need for agrochemicals.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Establish adequate habitats to maintain high diversity of the relevant reptiles and amphibians.
Less use of agrochemicals results in a healthier environment for producers and consumers

How can they be sustained / enhanced? If the potential of the reptiles and amphibians is not high enough to combat all pest species, organic chemicals or alternative biocontrol species could be used (for example horntails etc.).
Changing monoculture to mixed systems - or even agropastoral systems - offers additional income sources, while diversification often as a buffer to sudden drops in the price of a particular crop

How can they be sustained / enhanced? The crop mixture needs to be well designed, to ensure that the harvests of important crops are not affected too much, and the reduction compensated for by the others.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Droughts and limited water availability influence species richness of amphibians. Providing sufficient water bodies for amphibians to outwear heavy droughts is recommended.

7. 参考和链接

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

): Guschal & Hagel et al. Benefits of site-adapted management (pest-control) innovations in northeastern Brazil.

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

In preparation

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