Technologies

Keyhole Garden [Bangladesh]

PUSTI BAGAN ("Garden for nutrition")

technologies_779 - Bangladesh

Completeness: 94%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

WASH/DRR Advisor:
SLM specialist:

Varadi Daniel

Greendots

Switzerland

SLM specialist:

Taylor Sheila

Send a Cow UK & Greendots

WASH Advisor:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Terre des Hommes (Terre des Hommes) - Switzerland

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Peer to Peer Pass-on Approach with Women
approaches

Peer to Peer Pass-on Approach with Women [Bangladesh]

Terre des hommes and Greendots introduced the Peer to Peer pass-on system to enable women's groups in Bangladesh to spread the Keyhole Garden technique within their communities with the aim of enabling year-round homestead vegetable production despite the risk of flooding and tidal surge.

  • Compilador/a: John Brogan

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

The Keyhole Garden model of homestead vegetable cultivation enhances the resilience of families living in areas with climate-related hazards, such as flooding and drought. Keyhole gardens have been shown to increase vegetable production in all seasons, thereby improving household food autonomy and dietary diversity.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

First initiated in Ugandan communities by Send a Cow UK, the keyhole garden technique is widespread in Africa. In 2011, Terre des hommes (Tdh) and Greendots piloted Keyhole Gardens for the first time in Asia, effectively adapting the design and methodology in Africa to the conditions of flood prone areas of Bangladesh, and eventually India. The garden is a good way to enhance dietary diversity, especially for poor/landless families.

Keyhole gardens consist of a raised circular garden made of clay, shaped like a horseshoe or keyhole, with a maximum diameter of approximately three meters. For flood prone areas in Bangladesh and India, the plinth height depends on the location and is typically the same as the house plinth to resist flooding. A compost basket is built at the center of the garden. Organic matter (kitchen cuttings) and residual water are added on a regular basis through the compost pit. In some countries, bricks or stones are used to make the plinth.

The keyhole garden is a typical Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) approach that includes integrated composting, water retention, use of local materials, natural pest and disease control techniques, natural soil fertility measures, and proximity to the kitchen for both harvesting and care of the garden. In regions with mild conditions of flooding, tidal surge and drought, the garden increases the duration of gardening period during the year thus reducing the risk of disaster. In the aftermath of cyclone Mahasen, keyhole gardens demonstrated DRR utility: although many were partially damaged, none had to be rebuilt entirely. Where plants did not survive the storm, users were able to sow seeds immediately. On the other hand, the traditional ground-level plots used for pit and heap gardening were completely flooded / waterlogged and unusable.

Benefits of the technology include: compact size, proximity to the household for convenient maintenance and harvesting, composting of kitchen cuttings in the basket; and an ergonomic structure (raised, accessible). The small size is also ideal to facilitate training on vegetable growing, soil fertility and pest & disease management to first-time gardeners and students in schools. Keyhole gardens are highly productive—in Lesotho a typical garden can satisfy vegetable needs for a family of eight persons (FAO, 2008). Combined, these factors are scalable as an appropriate technology for landless and marginal farmers. In Bangladesh, the gardens enabled families to produce vegetables even during the monsoon period. As the keyhole garden normally does not need to be rebuilt every year it is a more efficient technique in the long-term than traditional methods such as pit and heap.

Users say that their garden produce tends to be larger and tastier than conventional gardens or market produce; and many indicated that they were able to meet their own vegetable consumption needs and to sell surplus or gift vegetables. For some women it was difficult to access sufficient amounts of soil, which meant that they needed to walk long distances to build the plinth. (Fortunately many received support from other villagers.) Secondly, during the monsoon, while most of the land is flooded, the keyhole garden remains dry. Consequently, it may provide shelter to certain animals (e.g. rats) and attract higher number of pests. Regardless of these two limitations users agree that the benefits greatly
outweigh any observed limitations.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.4 Vídeos da tecnologia

Comments, short description:

https://vimeo.com/44042261
The Keyhole garden was originally developed by African farmers to preserve their crops from the wind and the sand. Locally adapted in Bangladesh in Afzal’s vegetables garden with the help of Terre des hommes staff, the Keyhole garden can also protect the crops from the heavy monsoon rain and the salt water brought by flooding and storms. These literally destroy the crops. Widely adopted, it could help in preventing malnutrition by preserving the farmer's crops.

“Two days ago, my vegetable garden was wrecked by salt water and the monsoon rains”, says Afzal, who was the first person to test the new design proposed by Tdh and its technical partner Greendots. “The storm destroyed everything – except the keyhole garden, which is intact.”

Data:

14/06/2012

Location:

Patharghata, Barguna District, Barisal Division, Bangladesh

Name of videographer:

Julien Lambert, Image of Dignity

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Bangladesh

Region/ State/ Province:

Kurigram District / Rajshahi and Barguna District / Barisal

Further specification of location:

Kurigram municipality (Kurigram), Patharghata Union (Barguna)

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Aplicado em pontos específicos/concentrado numa pequena área
Comentários:

Kurigram and Pataharghata, Bangladesh
Applied in homesteads.

2.6 Data da implementação

Indique o ano de implementação:

2012

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • atráves de inovação dos usuários da terra
  • durante experiências/pesquisa
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Reduzir riscos de desastre
  • Adaptar a mudanças climáticas/extremos e seus impactos
  • Atenuar a mudanças climáticas e seus impactos

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
  • Cultura perene (não lenhosa)
  • Homestead Gardening
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - quinoa or amaranth
  • legumes and pulses - beans
  • vegetables - leafy vegetables (salads, cabbage, spinach, other)
  • vegetables - melon, pumpkin, squash or gourd
  • vegetables - other
  • vegetables - root vegetables (carrots, onions, beet, other)
  • tomatoes, cauliflower, brocoli, watercress, eggplant, cucumber
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • medicinal, aromatic, pesticidal plants - perennial
  • chili
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 3
Especifique:

In Bangladesh the gardens produced in all seasons, with most challenges coming in the dry season due to soil salinity in some areas.

Is intercropping practiced?

Sim

Is crop rotation practiced?

Sim

If yes, specify:

Winter/Summer seasons

Comentários:

Winter Season: red amaranth, spinach, green chilli, tomato, eggplant, carrot, radish, onion, garlic, country bean, pumpkin, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli.
Summer & Rainy Seasons: red amaranth, green amaranth, Indian spinach, Chinese watercress, green chili, okra, eggplant, yard long bean, bitter gourd, ash gourd, cucumber, pumpkin

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Vias navegáveis, corpo d'água, zonas úmidas

Vias navegáveis, corpo d'água, zonas úmidas

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Misto de precipitação natural-irrigado

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Gestão integrada de fertilidade do solo
  • Gestão integrada de pragas e doenças (inclusive agricultura orgânica)
  • Hortas familiares

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A1: cobertura vegetal/do solo
  • A2: Matéria orgânica/fertilidade do solo
Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S11: Outros

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Previnir degradação do solo
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo
Comentários:

See details in section 2.2

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Gardens should be built in close vicinity to the beneficiary’s house, because gardens that are easily accessible and clearly visible are visited more regularly and maintained better.

The design is highly adaptable to local conditions and availability of free construction materials. The radius of the garden is 150CM and the delineated radius of the circular compost basket (in the center of the garden) is 45cm. The diagrams show (1) the location is near to house as an entry point for maintaining the garden; (2) the plinth is built to the same level of the house and a step is included where the plinth is high; (3) mulching to conserve the moisture; (4) interplanting a diversity of vegetables for both good vegetable health and good family nutrition; (5) using interplanted natural repellent plants as pest control for vegetables; (6) covering the basket during times of high sun intensity or heavy rain; (7) using liquid manures and plant teas as top dressing fertilisers.

Establishing what is the best height for your plinth very much depends on the local climatological conditions. In Bangladesh, the plinth is built from subsurface clayey soil, typically 2-3 feet in height - dependent on the location and level of seasonal flooding. The house plinth is a good gauge for how high to build the garden plinth. If the plinth is built too high, the roots of the plant will not be able to access sufficient water; and if built too low the next flood during the monsoon season may destroy the garden. Depending on dryness or soil/groundwater salinity, daily maintenance usually includes irrigating the soil. The outer rim of the plinth is protected with mud (and plastic or cloth) or stones. On top of the plinth is a mixture of soil and compost/manure (ratio 2:1) sloped up to the basket at a 30 - 40 degree angle. The central compost basket is filled with layers of fresh and dried vegetable matter, manure and ash to ensure that the soil fertility of the garden.

Women devised a number of different solutions to protecting the wall of the plinth and garden: Plastic bags, a combination of rice sacks (around the plinth edge) and plastic entrance way because of wear and tear (rice sacks erode faster), palm matting and old cloth. Some women put extra manure in the plinth walls to protect against flooding.

Sam Rich (www.fourthway.co.uk) has produced other technical drawings in addition to "How to Make Liquid Manure" such as: "How to make a Natural Pesticide" and "How to Make Plant Tea". There is also a version of the "How to Make a Keyhole Garden" in English from the experience in Africa.

Autor:

Sam Rich: www.fourthway.co.uk

Data:

13/05/2012

Autor:

Sam Rich: www.fourthway.co.uk

Data:

13/05/2012

Autor:

BBC Media Action Bangladesh

Data:

09/06/2014

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique como custos e entradas foram calculados:
  • Por unidade de tecnologia
Especifique a unidade:

Keyhole Garden

Especifique a moeda utilizada para os cálculos de custo:
  • USD
Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

U.S.$2.50

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Clear land; mark out basket and external boundary using rope and stick pivoted from the centre) Anytime
2. Build plinth (highest monsoon flood level+30cm); Anytime
3. Construct basket at the centre from local materials. Fill basket with composting materials; Anytime
4. Bring soil and heap it around the central basket. Any available animal dung can also be added into the soil mix for greater initial productivity. Anytime
5. Plant vegetable seeds around the garden - a mix for good family nutrition and to stop the spread of pests and diseases; According to the seasonal varieties
6. Mulch between plants to protect the soil. Anytime
7. Protect the walls with rice sacks or other waterproof protection if neccessary. Anytime

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Building the garden person-days 3,0 2,5 7,5 100,0
Material de construção clay 20,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 7,5
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 7,5
Comentários:

Firstly, building the garden requires an initial investment in terms of labour and (locally available) inputs, such as soil and wood and clayey soil for the plinth (stones and bricks are frequently used for the plinth in Africa). These inputs are available on the homestead or in the community and generally free of cost. In rare cases families paid to have soil carted to their homestead, thus increasing the initial structural costs.

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Weeding, harvesting, watering Daily
2. Structural maintenance on the garden Annual

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Maintenance person-days 11,0 2,5 27,5 100,0
Mão-de-obra Structural maintenance on the garden person-days 1,0 2,5 2,5 100,0
Material de construção Earth Clay -depends on height: ex .4m plinth) cubic meter 11,0
Material de construção Manure (quantity depends on design) cubic meter 2,0
Material de construção Basket (sticks/bamboo with thin sticks to weave the basket Sticks 15,0
Material de construção Protective material, rice bags/stones/plastic Square meter 18,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 30,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 30,0
Comentários:

In Bangladesh, women referred to the time spent working on the keyhole garden as “leisure time” and that they do this work after they have completed their domestic chores. Women estimated 45 minutes daily of such activity to maintain the garden. Calling it "leisure time" is misleading, but it suggests that most women generally enjoy working in the garden and do not regard it as heavy labour. The daily wage of an agricultural labourer differs per region. In Tdh's project area, wages are relatively low, especially for women. While male labourers may earn 200 BDT ($2.50) per day, women usually earn only 90 to 150 BDT. For the calculation, we applied the principle of equal pay for equal work, taking 200BDT per day.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

Over the last few years, people in disaster-affecteed areas of Bangladesh have become familiar to receiving during humanitarian distributions; and expect “hand-outs” if they were to participate in a development project. The Keyhole garden project, however, follows the LEISA approach and does not rely on giving free inputs to the participants. (In a few cases where the local population was lacking seeds and experience in seed production, women's groups were given seeds and training.) A lack of reliance on external inputs or subsidies contributes to the sustainability of the project. The inputs (clay, manure, sticks, rocks, etc.) are locally available and usually do not require additional expenses. This may not be the case in all contexts.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especifique a média pluviométrica anual em mm (se conhecida):

2666,00

Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

Applied in areas with monsoon and drought like conditions in the project areas in Bangladesh.

Indique o nome da estação meteorológica de referência considerada:

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.PRCP.MM

Zona agroclimática
  • úmido
  • Subúmido
  • Semiárido

The technology is adapted to semi-arid areas/countries in Africa like Uganda and Tanzania.

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Indique se a tecnologia é aplicada especificamente em:
  • Não relevante

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Fino/pesado (argila)
Textura do solo (>20 cm abaixo da superfície):
  • Fino/pesado (argila)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

< 5 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Excesso

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável precária (tratamento necessário)

A salinidade da água é um problema?

Sim

Especifique:

In project sites along the Bay of Bengal

Ocorre inundação da área?

Sim

Regularidade:

Frequentemente

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • low
Diversidade de habitat:
  • Médio

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Sedentário ou nômade:
  • Sedentário
Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • Menos de 10% de toda renda
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Muito pobre
  • Pobre
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
  • Tração animal
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Idade dos usuários da terra:
  • meia-idade
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Using a methodology called the problem tree analysis it is understood that the people living in the two working areas regularly experience health-related problems, economic challenges, and agricultural difficulties.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala
Comentários:

The majority of the project beneficiaries are "landless" having access to small homestead areas and without cropland. Most households have access to small (< 16 decimal) or very small (< 6 decimal) homestead areas.

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Indivíduo, não intitulado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Indivíduo
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

<5% of pilot families growing vegetables in all 3 seasons

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

50% of the pilot families able to grow vegetables in 3 seasons

Comentários/especificar:

Before the project started, the majority of the participants were not able to produce vegetables year round. Especially during the monsoon months, people were dependent on produce available at the local market. The baseline survey indicated that in both regions more than 50% of the households would cultivate vegetables for a maximum of 3 months per year and in Kurigram 30% of the participants were not able to grow vegetables at all.
This situation has changed significantly after the introduction of the keyhole gardens. At least 50% of the households were able to produce vegetables during each season. Where in the past almost no one was able to cultivate during the monsoon period, now on average 63% of the households in Kurigram and 73% of the households in Patharghata were growing vegetables in the wet season.
The summer figures are actually lower than the monsoon figures. Seeds did not germinate well, because participants were not fully prepared to deal with the dry and saline conditions during this season. Learning from this experience, and with adequate support from Tdh, participants should be able to achieve higher cultivation rates in the future.

Diversidade de produtos

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Average of 2-4 types of vegetables grown.

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

Average of six types of vegetables grown

Comentários/especificar:

During the field visits and individual interviews in June 2013, the majority of the participants indicated that in the keyhole garden they usually grow 6 or more different types of vegetables at any given time. This is a marked difference from previous years, when the majority of people in Patharghata would only grow 2 types of vegetables. In Kurigram the baseline was somewhat higher (31% cultivated 4 types of vegetables per year on average), but still significantly lower than in 2013. By increasing the different types of vegetables grown, the families have access to a more diversified diet.

Área de produção

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

0

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

333

Comentários/especificar:

In addition to the 175 pilot keyhole gardens, an additional 158 gardens were started on homesteads either via peer to peer pass-along system or spontaneous copy/replication of the technology.

Impactos socioculturais

Estado de saúde

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

The Keyhole Garden supports a diversified diet by enabling year-round vegetable production; thus boosting the resilience of homesteads exposed to extreme weather patterns (drought or monsoon/flood seasons).

Situação de grupos social e economicamente desfavorecidos

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Gardens will quickly increase household vegetable production, easing economic burden and providing for the household consumption or surplus to sell or gift. The latter can increase social bonding and benefit peer to peer linkages.

Teaching

Reduced
Increased
Comentários/especificar:

Keyhole garden building and maintenance teaches lessons of good soil, water and vegetable management that can be transferred to field crops or plain large scale vegetable growing.

Impactos ecológicos

Solo

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Precious topsoil is not lost during flooding events.

Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Impactos da inundação

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Gardens that are not submerged by floods continue to produce in the monsoon season.

Outros impactos ecológicos

Surpluses can be used for selling or gifting; increased vegetables especially at times when they are not usually available enables families to save money on expensive purchases out of the normal vegetable season

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Teaching

Reduced
Increased
Comentários/especificar:

Keyhole garden building and maintenance teaches lessons of good soil, water and vegetable management that can be transferred to field crops or plain large scale vegetable growing.

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Tempestade tropical moderadamente
Trovoada local bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) muito bem
Maré de tempestade/inundação costeira bem

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Período de crescimento reduzido muito bem

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Comentários:

No long term study available.
In most cases no (or very low) investment cost in materials and a low investment cost in labor was necessary. Thus the establishment and maintenance costs are relatively low compared to the benefit of increased homestead vegetable production and access to produce for increasing dietary diversity. The benefit increases when the technology supports resilience to flooding as was the case from flooding (Kurigram), and partially from a cyclone (Patharghata).

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • > 50%
Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

333 from the pilot study. Subsequent projects by Tdh from 2013-2015 have seen over 3'500 keyhole gardens created in Bangladesh and India.

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%
Comentários:

All of the adopters did so with training but without inputs. Spontaneous adoption of the Keyhole Garden without training is not easy to measure, but Tdh's experience shows a conservative average of 11% (38 of 333 gardens).

6.6 Adaptação

A tecnologia foi recentemente modificada para adaptar-se as condições variáveis?

Sim

Caso afirmativo, indique as condições variáveis as quais ela foi adaptada:
  • Mudança climática/extremo
Especifique a adaptação da tecnologia (desenho, material/espécie, etc):

The technology was adapted from semi-arid zones in Africa (where soil amelioration and water conservation were priorities and materials such as stones and brick are available) to areas of South Asia prone to flood and tidal surge.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Seasonal local agriculturalists reported that gardens yielded high productivity with good vegetable quality and diversity; withstood heavy monsoon rains lasting for several days; and withstood a salt water tidal intrusion that destroyed adjacent traditional gardens. During the FGDs women clearly expressed a lot of enthusiasm for the project and all the participants indicated that they would continue with their garden, even if Tdh would no longer provide any support. One volunteer reported successfully harvesting five common vegetables usually impossible to grow in monsoon conditions:
- In plain land we can cultivate once in a year but in keyhole garden we can harvest vegetables in three seasons and they don't go underwater in the rainy season
- Save money for the family: don't need to buy fertilizers or vegetables and some people earn money by selling the garden product
- We can collect vegetables for the children’s requirements directly from the garden when they need them
- In a small space you can have lots of different vegetables and the taste is much better because the garden depends on compost – no chemicals
- The cost to make is it very low, but you need labour; by our own labour we can build it
- Because of composting the garden can always get nutrients
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The keyhole garden project has been very successful and has largely achieved its core objective to improve year-round access to nutritious food from the homestead area. These benefits are summarized again as:
- Appropriate size for landless homesteads, also ideal to facilitate training on LEISA techniques to first-time gardeners and students in schools.
- Proximity to the household for convenient maintenance and harvesting, composting of kitchen cuttings in the basket;
- Ergonomic structure (raised, accessible).
- Highly adaptable to local conditions that supports resilience to flood and drought conditions.
- Highly productive—families produced vegetables even during the monsoon period.
- As the keyhole garden normally does not need to be rebuilt every year it is a more efficient technique in the long-term than traditional methods such as pit and heap.

Therefore, the reviewer did not suggest any major changes to the technique or project; rather to focus on specific issues that could help making the project more efficient and that could help broaden its impact.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
No major weaknesses in the technology or design were expressed. However for some women it was difficult to access sufficient amounts of soil, which meant that they needed to walk long distances to bring soil to build the plinth.
In coastal areas where saline intrusion in groundwater and soils is on the rise, growing and irrigating crops is difficult in the dry season.
Some women received support from other family members or neighbours; identify a support network for families having challenges to access soil to build the plinths.
Continue to look for for alternative irrigation sources and/or groundwater recharge innovations as well as soil conservation techniques to protect against salinity. Likewise, saline resistant vegetable varieties may be available.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
More careful planning of the location for the keyhole garden is needed. In Patharghata 11 women decided to relocate their garden within the first year. This suggests that the women appreciate the benefits of the garden, but having to break down and move the garden is a rather laborious activity.
Not surprisingly, women who have less time to work in the homestead area, e.g. due to work or other out-of-home responsibilities, are not able to maintain their keyhole garden so well.
Spend more time to assist the participants with identifying the most suitable locations to construct the garden for a keyhole garden in the homestead area at the start of the project.
While maintaining a focus on women, involve the husband or other family members/ neighbours and ensure that they are also trained and ensure that the garden is clearly visible and can be accessed.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys

50: The project evaluation took place from 4 June to 12 June 2013 with field visits in the two project areas, Kurigram and Patharghata. In total 5 Focus Group Discussions (FGD), with approximately 10 participants per FGD, were organized during this period. The core objective of the FGDs was to assess whether keyhole gardens have contributed to increases in vegetable production throughout the year and if this has lead to improved consumption practices. The additional aim of the FGDs was to learn directly from the participants about their nutritional needs and their ideas to further improve the keyhole garden project.

  • interviews with land users

8: In addition to the FGDs the consultant carried out eight individual interviews with project
participants from the two regions. The individual interviews provided more detailed
information about production techniques and about the impact of the project at the
household level.

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

Al-Amin S, 2012 and 2013, Tdh Bangladesh, Monthly Situation Reports for Garden Projects (unpublished)
Taylor S, 2013, Discussion paper for the Agrobiodiversity Conference, Dhaka, 28 January
2013, “Keyhole Gardens – great potential for improving homestead crop diversity and
mother & child nutrition”
Taylor S, 2012, Tdh Bangladesh, Project Report Homestead Garden for Greendots (unpublished)
Van Hout, 2013, Keyhole Gardens: Improved Access to Homestead Vegetables and Dietary Diversification, External Evaluation and Capitalization of the Keyhole Garden Project in Bangladesh (unpublished)
Varadi D, 2011, Tdh Bangladesh Field Visit Report for Greendots (unpublished)

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

02/08/2012

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

"Keyhole Gardens: Improved Access to Homestead Vegetables and Dietary Diversification- External Evaluation and Capitalization of the Keyhole Garden Project in Bangladesh", Van Hout, R., 2013

Available from where? Costs?

Freely available: Terre des hommes Lausanne Asia Desk: info@tdh.ch

Title, author, year, ISBN:

“Keyhole Gardens – great potential for improving homestead crop diversity and mother & child nutrition”, Taylor S, 2013, Discussion paper for the Agrobiodiversity Conference, Dhaka, 28 January 2013

Available from where? Costs?

Freely available: Terre des hommes Lausanne Asia Desk: info@tdh.ch

Title, author, year, ISBN:

"Keyhole Gardens in Lesotho", FAO Nutrition and Consumer Protection Divis"ion (AGN), 2008 (with Send a Cow UK)

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/docs/FSNL%20Fact%20sheet_Keyhole%20gardens.pdf

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Greendots - Terre des hommes technical partner for Keyhole Gardens in South Asia

URL:

www.greendots.ch

Title/ description:

Send a Cow UK: How to make an African style raised bed (YouTube, ex. Uganda)

URL:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ykCXfjzfaco

Title/ description:

Send a Cow UK - Keyhole Garden resources (Learning from Africa: How to make a Keyhole Garden)

URL:

http://www.sendacow.org.uk/lessonsfromafrica/resources/keyhole-gardens

Title/ description:

Fourthway's posters online: Smallholder organic agriculture (Uganda, including Keyhole gardens)

URL:

http://www.fourthway.co.uk/posters/

Title/ description:

Fourthway's posters online: Smallholder organic agriculture (Bangladesh, including Keyhole gardens)

URL:

http://www.fourthway.co.uk/bangladesh/index.html

Title/ description:

Terre des hommes: First Keyhole Garden in Asia (to resist storm surge/floods in Bangladesh)

URL:

https://vimeo.com/44043929

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