Stakeholders participation in the project activities [Индия]

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1. Общая информация

1.2 Контактные данные специалистов и организаций, участвующих в описании и оценке Подхода

Ответственный (-ые) специалист (-ы)

Специалист по УЗП:
Название организации (-ий), содействовавших документированию/оценке Подхода (если применимо)
Danida assisted Karnataka Watershed Development Project, Bijapur (Danida assisted Karnataka Watershed Development Project, Bijapur) - Индия

1.3 Условия, регламентирующие использование собранных ВОКАТ данных

Составитель и ответственный/-ые специалист(-ы) согласны с условиями, регламентирующими использование собранных ВОКАТ данных:


1.4 Ссылка (-и) на Анкету (-ы) по Технологиям УЗП

Farm pond

Farm pond [Индия]

A sunken structure (12 x 12 x 3 m, more suiable), constructed by escavation in arable land with a view of temporary runoff storage tapped for protective irrigation, and to increase percolation for recharge of ground water (to convert surface to subsurface flow)

  • Составитель: Channabasappa Metri

2. Описание Подхода УЗП

2.1 Краткое описание Подхода

SWC approach is a participatory methodology to empower the community to plan, implement, monitor, evaluate and manage the SWC technology to bring about sustainability

2.2 Подробное описание Подхода

Подробное описание Подхода:

Aims / objectives: (1) to develop a feeling of ownership, (2) to compare the management of assets created during and after the project in the sustainable manner, (3) to develop capacity amongst the weeker section of the community especially women and resource person, (4) to involve the community at every stage of implementation of the project.

Methods: (1) Participatory Rural Appriasal (PRA), (2) village resourse mapping, (3) training and exposure visits, (4) formation of self help groups, users groups, cattle brreders association, (5) sharing of costs and responsibility (6) partnership with other NGOs, (6) establishment of linkages and networking (7) empowering the coimmnunity throough the livelihood support programs

Stages of implementation: (1) creating awareness, (2) PRA excercises, (3) formation of village level institutions, (4) microplanning, (5) capacity building measures, (6) sharing of cost and responsibilities of management of common property resorses, (7) associating with NGOs and other institutions in rural development (example MANAGE, ICRISAT, University of Agricultural Sciences etc)

Role of stakeholders: (A) participants are of four category (1) project staff (government), (2) members of village level institutions, (3) NGOs and other link organizations and other institutions, (4) international donors (B) Roles :- (1) providing technical support and guidance at every stage of implementation, (2) participation at every stage of implementation, sharing of cost and responsibilities (3) Providing additional technical support (4) providing financial support, guidance, monitoring & evaluation at every stage of implementation.

2.3 Фотографии, иллюстрирующие Подход

2.5 Страна/ регион/ место, где применялся Подход



Административная единица (Район/Область):

Krnataka state

2.6 Даты начала и окончания реализации Подхода

Год начала реализации:


Год окончания (Если Подход больше не применяется):


2.7 Тип Подхода

  • в рамках проекта/ программы

2.8 Каковы цели/ задачи Подхода

The Approach focused on SLM only (farm pond, waterharvesting, holistic demonstration)

(1) to develop a feeling of ownership, (2) to compare the management of assets created during and after the project in the sustainable manner, (3) to develop capacity amongst the weeker section of the community, especially women and resource poors, (4) to involve the community at every stage of implementation of the project

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: (1) The problem addressed include non involvement of the community at different stages of implementation of the project. (2) Lack of empowerment and capacity for the deprived class of the community

2.9 Условия содействующие применению Технологии/ Технологий в рамках Подхода или затрудняющие его

Социальные/ культурные/ религиозные нормы и ценности
  • затрудняют

coming together of different community in the village, (2)over exploitation of natural resources

Treatment through the SLM Approach: organizing the village community into different village level institutions based on their ideology and background, (2) creating awareness about the equitable distribution and organized the users groups

Наличие/ доступность финансовых ресурсов и услуг
  • затрудняют

lack of funds to carry out the activities (2) lack of feeling of ownership

Treatment through the SLM Approach: offered financial support using the cost, benefit and responsibility sharing concept

Институциональные условия
  • затрудняют

lack of village level institutions to take effective implementations

Treatment through the SLM Approach: organised in the village community and establishing an authoritative body to plan, implement the structure

Нормативно-правовая база (землевладение, права на земле- и водопользование)
  • затрудняют

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights moderately hindered the approach implementation The land use rights did not hinder in private land treatments but because of the encroachment of the common land the SWC technology cannot be effectively implemented.

Осведомленность в области УЗП, доступность технической поддержки
  • затрудняют

use of high cost structure for SWC technology

Treatment through the SLM Approach: demonstration of low cost technical structures

3. Участие и распределение ролей заинтересованных сторон

3.1 Заинтересованные стороны, участвующие в реализации Подхода и их роли

  • местные землепользователи/ местные сообщества

Village level institutiosn like SHG, UG, CBA, VWDC etc. Specific ethnic groups: Labmani community

Men participation is more in VWDC and CBA while women participation is more in SHGs. the long lasting culture that women remain back and the men lead. The same thing was observed during the initial stages hwever there was considerable change in their understanding and attitude in the following years. Small land holders being part of the VWDC having authority to make decision about the activity to be implemented, they come from different SHGs, who are basically resource poor land users

  • общественные организации
  • государственные власти (отвечающие за планирование или принятие решений)

Government of India/ Govt. of Karnataka, Department of Agriculture and watershed development department

  • международные организации


3.2 Участие местных землепользователей/ местных сообществ на разных стадиях реализации Подхода
Участие местных землепользователей/ местных сообществ Перечислите участников и опишите их вовлеченность
инициирование/ мотивация пассивное Mainly:rapid/participatory rural appraisal; partly: interviews/questionnaires; There were the village meeting (gram sabha), group discussions, participatory rural appriasal tools were implemented.
планирование интерактивное Mainly: interviews/questionnaires; partly: public meetings; The transect walks with farmers to their individual survey fields during preparation of action plans.
выполнение внешняя поддержка Mainly: casual labour; partly: responsibility for major steps; The members of various village level institutions like VWDC used to be present while implementation of CWS activities on common land while those on their individual lands were taken care by respective farmers. Here the cost sharing was t
мониторинг/ оценка самоорганизация Mainly: measurements/observations; partly: reporting; As and when needed evaluation and status of the structures were taken care by both members and also individually.
Research нет

3.3 Схема реализации (если имеется)


Project Level Organogram of the KWDP Danida Bijapur (India)

3.4 Принятие решений по выбору Технологии/ Технологий УЗП

Укажите, кто принимал решение по выбору применяемой Технологии/ Технологий:
  • в основном землепользователи при поддержке специалистов по УЗП

the land users want ot implement the activity in consultation with SWC specialists

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by land users supported by SLM specialists

4. Техническая поддержка, повышение компетенций и управление знаниями

4.1 Повышение компетенций/ обучение

Проводилось ли обучение землепользователей/ других заинтересованных лиц?


Укажите, кто проходил обучение:
  • землепользователи
  • planners
Тип обучения:
  • обмен опытом между фермерами
  • опытные участки
  • общие собрания
Тип обучения:
  • exposure visits, subject matter trainings
Рассматриваемые темы:

Regular training were conducted on the subject matter and other technical aspects of various SWC to be implemented in the upper reach, middle reach and in the lower reach etc, for the farmers and other members of VLI, along with the regular other trainings on accounting & book keeping, capacity building etc.

4.2 Консультационные услуги

Есть ли у землепользователей возможность получать консультации?


Укажите, где именно оказываются консультационные услуги:
  • в постоянно функционирующих центрах
Описание/ комментарий:

Name of method used for advisory service: group discussion, interaction, exposure visits; Key elements: group discussion, interaction, exposure visits; 1) Advisory service was carried out through: projects own extension structure and agents; Extension staff: mainly government employees 3) Target groups for extension: land users; Activities: subject matter trainings, orientation trainings etc

Advisory service is quite adequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; Since the project staff has complete responsibility of the watershed and since all the staff is government staff, it is adequate for one watershed area.

4.3 Институциональная (организационная) поддержка

В ходе реализации Подхода были ли организованы новые институциональные структуры или поддержаны уже существующие?
  • да, умеренно
Укажите уровень, на котором структуры были укреплены или вновь созданы:
  • местные
Укажите тип поддержки:
  • повышение компетенций/ обучение

4.4 Мониторинг и оценка

Являются ли мониторинг и оценка частью Подхода?



bio-physical aspects were regular monitored through observations

technical aspects were regular monitored through measurements

socio-cultural aspects were regular monitored through observations

economic / production aspects were regular monitored through measurements

area treated aspects were regular monitored through observations

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored through measurements

management of Approach aspects were regular monitored through observations

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Like involving the people since day one of the project. First capacity development of the stakeholders and then implementing the activities etc. This would increase the sustainability of the project interventions.

4.5 Научные исследования

Были ли научные исследования частью Подхода?


Напишите подробнее и назовите тех, кто выполнял исследования:

Not applicable

5. Финансирование и внешняя материальная поддержка

5.1 Годовой бюджет мероприятий по УЗП в рамках Подхода

Комментарий (например, основные источники финансирования/ ключевые доноры):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international (donation by the donor agency DANIDA): 90.0%; local community / land user(s) (cost sharing): 10.0%

5.3 Субсидии на отдельные затраты (включая оплату труда)

  • оборудование
Укажите, какие ресурсы были субсидированы В какой степени Опишите субсидии подробнее
техника профинансированы полностью
  • сельскохозяйственные
Укажите, какие ресурсы были субсидированы В какой степени Опишите субсидии подробнее
семена профинансированы полностью
Seedlings and biocides профинансированы частично
  • инфраструктура
Укажите, какие ресурсы были субсидированы В какой степени Опишите субсидии подробнее
Community infrastructure профинансированы частично

5.4 Кредитование

Предоставлялись ли в рамках Подхода кредиты на мероприятия УЗП?


6. Анализ влияния и заключительные положения

6.1 Влияние Подхода

Сумел ли Подход помочь землепользователям внедрить и поддерживать технологии УЗП?
  • Нет
  • Да, немного
  • Да, умеренно
  • Да, существенно

Improvement in the farm development, orchard, silvi pasture etc., replication of the SWC technology etc.

Сумел ли Подход разрешить правовые проблемы землевладения/ землепользования, препятствующие использованию технологий УЗП?
  • Нет
  • Да, немного
  • Да, умеренно
  • Да, существенно

The participatory approach used by the project helped the community to come closure and understand each other problems and work for the village development. The problem is likely to be overcome in the near future.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Нет
  • Да, немного
  • Да, умеренно
  • Да, существенно

The other watershed development project in neighbourinng villages undertaken by KAWAD has also initiated the formationof cattle breeders association.

6.3 Долгосрочная устойчивость мероприятий в рамках Подхода

Могут ли землепользователи самостоятельно (без внешней поддержки) продолжать применение того, что было реализовано в рамках Подхода?
  • нет уверенности
Если нет или нет уверенности, объясните почему:

At present due to the continuous support and maintenance of the project staff the lnd users are enthusiastic to use the approach to carry out the acivities but it will be premature to comment at this stage whether they continue to use the approach once no one visits them and make a follow up.

6.4 Сильные стороны/ преимущества Подхода

Сильные стороны/ преимущества/ возможности по мнению землепользователей
it has helped them to learn new technology by involving themselves (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: other project/ programs should involve these)
they have developed feeling of ownership (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: other projects/ programs should allow them to make decisions)
learnt te importance of living in harmony and resolving the conflicts (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: conflict resolution should be top most priority while implementing other projects/ programs)
they feel that their capacity and skills are enhanced by organizing the village level institutions. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: on going support in terms of training and exposure visits should be continued.)
Сильные стороны/ преимущества/ возможности по мнению составителя или других ключевых специалистов
Participatory approaches involves all the staeholders (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: in every other projects or programs the approach whould be continued.)
The land users should feel the ownership (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: feeling should be continue even after the withdrwal of the project for 1 or 2 years)
there will conntribution from all the stake holders (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: other government project should also develop the procedure of contribution)
it is te best tool to introduce the new technology (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: whenever the new technology is introduced all the stakeholders should be involved.)
Oppressed class of the people are also involved in the project activities (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: government projects/ programs should develop a system wherein the oppressed class in the community have a say over the decision making)

6.5 Слабые стороны/ недостатки Подхода и пути их преодоления

Слабые стороны/ недостатки/ риски по мнению землепользователей Возможные пути их преодоления/снижения?
treatment of land with one of the forest activities and then SWC measures more focus on the SWC approach
ridge line approach taking up acivities in the lands which have been leftover during previous years
language problem when interacting with the people from the hamlets better facilitating and involving the educated people of the hamlets while interacting
formation of the users group focusig activities after the planting work is over organising the stakeholders in to UG before undertaking the activities.
not much imortance is given to the land users demands during the initial period especially regardnign field bunds before planting and implementing the activities, landusers demands should be taken into consideration
Слабые стороны/ недостатки/ риски по мнению составителя или ответственных специалистов Возможные пути их преодоления/снижения?
Low level of literacy Regular training and capacity building trainings
shortage of women staff in the project restricting the interaction with the women land owners Regular gender sensitization training to the project staff.

7. Справочные материалы и ссылки

7.1 Методы сбора/источники информации

  • выезды на места, полевые обследования
  • опросы землепользователей