Подходы

Rural Biogas Development- One Digester with Three Facilities [Китай]

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approaches_2658 - Китай

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1. Общая информация

1.2 Контактные данные специалистов и организаций, участвующих в описании и оценке Подхода

Ответственный (-ые) специалист (-ы)

Специалист по УЗП:

Wang Yaolin

0931-8412816

wangylgs@126.com

GEF/OP12 Gansu Project Implementation Office (Gansu Sand Control Institute)

Китай

Название организации (-ий), содействовавших документированию/оценке Подхода (если применимо)
GEF/OP12 Gansu Project (GEF/OP12 Gansu Project) - Китай
Название организации (-ий), содействовавших документированию/оценке Подхода (если применимо)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Швейцария

1.3 Условия, регламентирующие использование собранных ВОКАТ данных

Составитель и ответственный/-ые специалист(-ы) согласны с условиями, регламентирующими использование собранных ВОКАТ данных:

Да

2. Описание Подхода УЗП

2.1 Краткое описание Подхода

A campaign of “One digester with three facilities”, launched by the government and promoted by demonstration, is going on Jingyuan County of Gansu Province. This campaign is aimed at improving biogas digester and three facilities used in the kitchen, animal house and toilet.

2.2 Подробное описание Подхода

Подробное описание Подхода:

The demonstration project is located in Jingyuan County of Gansu Province. Historically, Jingyuan is a naturally harsh region, where shortage of "three materials” (materials for fuel, fodder and building) are felt. Furthermore, ecological degradation has led to poverty of the rural community. In the 1970s the government encouraged people to use biogas digesters, and in the 1980s the government called people to use firewood saving stoves and solar cookers, which to a certain extent alleviated the rural shortage of fuel material. However, due to financial and technical constraints the biogas application had a very limited progress.
In May 1979 the National Biogas Application Conference was convened. After this conference a Biogas Office was set up in Jingyuan County dealing with the promotion of the biogas technology. During the period of the Five-year Plan the entire Gansu Province implemented a pilot village program entitled “Ecological Homestead and Enriching People”, sponsored by the Ministry of Agriculture, in addition to the National Programme of Conversion of Farmland to Forest and of the Program of Poverty Reduction. Some farmers spontaneously made investment to build biogas digesters. Since 2003 the government has launched a series of programs, including a program of rural biogas digesters (financed by treasure bonds) and large/medium-sized biogas engineering program (financed by Ministry of Agriculture). Powered by these programs, more households were using biogas, and the scope of use was expanded to cover integrated uses in addition to lighting, cooking and boiling etc. In 2003, Jingyuan county had 121 certified biogas workers, and over 2100 sets of biogas digesters, including 1200 sets with advanced technology (lateral hydraulic automatic rotational-flowed digester). Four pilot villages were arranged. At present total of 6000 households are using biogas in the county.
The extension of biogas digesters is made mainly through project demonstration under the leadership of the county energy office. The extension approaches are: training, village meetings, on-the-spot explanations, handouts distribution. Trainees are the rural biogas technicians, administration staff as well as the farmers. Generally speaking, the village meeting is convened firstly for farmers to discuss and decide who should be financed by the project for biogas digester construction. In course of the publicity and construction, the county energy office staffs are responsible for answering the inquiries. The project or government will supply the building materials while farmers are responsible for transportation and labor input. The households which use 'one digester with three facilities' have an advanced digester with features of simple structure, reasonable layout and convenient operation. It also features more automatic operation, high gas production, easy cleaning and environment friendly.

2.5 Страна/ регион/ место, где применялся Подход

Страна:

Китай

Административная единица (Район/Область):

Gansu

Более точная привязка места:

Jingyuan County

2.8 Каковы цели/ задачи Подхода

Aims are to establish effective extension mechanism, raise community participation capability, alleviate soil erosion, provide energy to rural areas to meet daily needs; and improve rural living environment
The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: community lacks funds for biogas digester construction; community lacks biogas knowledge; community lacks effective organization; households lack fuel; farmers are extremely poor; arid climate, low rainfall, low land productivity;

2.9 Условия содействующие применению Технологии/ Технологий в рамках Подхода или затрудняющие его

Наличие/ доступность финансовых ресурсов и услуг
  • затрудняют

Short of Found: Current technological application is supported by the project. Those areas without a project have difficulties adopting it because of high initial investment.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Seek more social support and governmental special finances.

Осведомленность в области УЗП, доступность технической поддержки
  • затрудняют

Natural factor: Low temperature in late fall, early spring and winter has an influence on biogas output.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: To keep biogas digester warm by combining animal breeding in warm houses.

другие
  • затрудняют

Low knowledge level: Some farmers feel difficulties to learn and accept new technology, and can not manage and operate the biogas facilities correctly.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: Increase training intensity

3. Участие и распределение ролей заинтересованных сторон

3.1 Заинтересованные стороны, участвующие в реализации Подхода и их роли

  • местные землепользователи/ местные сообщества
  • государственные власти (отвечающие за планирование или принятие решений)
3.2 Участие местных землепользователей/ местных сообществ на разных стадиях реализации Подхода
Участие местных землепользователей/ местных сообществ Перечислите участников и опишите их вовлеченность
инициирование/ мотивация пассивное The departments at levels of Province, prefecture and county conduct surveys, convene meetings, carry out publicity to make villagers aware of the purpose of project.
планирование внешняя поддержка Villagers have consultations with design staff/technicians.
выполнение самоорганизация Farmers contribute labor and participate in the construction work.
мониторинг/ оценка внешняя поддержка Related departments explain the purpose of monitoring to the villagers and encourage them to participate in monitoring recording and reporting.
Research внешняя поддержка Join In the digester construction and analysis of socio-economic effect during process of introduction and research of new technologies.

3.4 Принятие решений по выбору Технологии/ Технологий УЗП

Было решение по выбору Технологии (-ий) принято:
  • Land users and the government
Поясните:

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by Government and farmers

4. Техническая поддержка, повышение компетенций и управление знаниями

4.1 Повышение компетенций/ обучение

Проводилось ли обучение землепользователей/ других заинтересованных лиц?

Да

Тип обучения:
  • опытные участки
Рассматриваемые темы:

The contents of training are: biogas digester construction, operation, maintenance and the use of dregs and residue liquid. The training forms are: demonstrations, meetings, wall newspaper, household visits and brochure distribution. Training is conducted mainly by county-level technicians. The training plays an extremely important role in technological application and improved knowledge of farmer

4.4 Мониторинг и оценка

Являются ли мониторинг и оценка частью Подхода?

Да

Комментарии:

bio-physical aspects were monitored by government through observations; indicators: Field vegetation cover, ratio change of coal consumption and firewood consumption, the temperature
technical aspects were monitored through observations; indicators: Gas production is obtained by observations and tests.

4.5 Научные исследования

Были ли научные исследования частью Подхода?

Да

Напишите подробнее и назовите тех, кто выполнял исследования:

Research work has been mainly conducted at national and provincial levels, with little participation by farmers.

5. Финансирование и внешняя материальная поддержка

5.1 Годовой бюджет мероприятий по УЗП в рамках Подхода

Комментарий (например, основные источники финансирования/ ключевые доноры):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: local community / land user(s) (Households): 23.0%; other (Project finance): 77.0%

5.3 Субсидии на отдельные затраты (включая оплату труда)

Комментарии:

Building material such as cement, brick, plastic pipe etc., are wholly or partially financed by the project while working tools such as shovels, tractor and pickaxe is supplied by farmer households.

5.4 Кредитование

Предоставлялись ли в рамках Подхода кредиты на мероприятия УЗП?

Нет

6. Анализ влияния и заключительные положения

6.1 Влияние Подхода

At the beginning, the extension was done by efforts of government cadres to mobilizing the farmers. Now it is the government-project- farmer integrated extension pattern. Most farmers now have strong wishes to build biogas digesters and the biogas digester have evolved from single energy use to the

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Нет
  • Да, немного
  • Да, умеренно
  • Да, существенно

The technology has been adopted in the county as well as the surrounding areas.

6.4 Сильные стороны/ преимущества Подхода

Сильные стороны/ преимущества/ возможности по мнению составителя или других ключевых специалистов
Governmental extension combined with farmer spontaneous adoption of the technology (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: reinforce propaganda, training )
Increase capability and knowledge level of farmers (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: access more projects to cover more biogas users)
Add income (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: reinforce integrated development )
Promote organic agriculture (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: further develop the uses of residues)

6.5 Слабые стороны/ недостатки Подхода и пути их преодоления

Слабые стороны/ недостатки/ риски по мнению составителя или ответственных специалистов Возможные пути их преодоления/снижения?
Relatively complicated technology reinforce training and propaganda
The inputs are higher obtain more external support

7. Справочные материалы и ссылки

7.1 Методы сбора/источники информации

  • выезды на места, полевые обследования
  • опросы землепользователей

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