Технологии

Establishment of improved orchards and vineyards [Афганистан]

Bunyodi boghi va boghi anguri behbudyofta

technologies_669 - Афганистан

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1. Общая информация

1.2 Контактные данные специалистов и организаций, участвующих в описании и оценке Технологии

Ответственный (-ые) специалист (-ы)

землепользователь:

Mirza Bay Gholam Sakhi

Natural Resources Management Comittee (NRMC)

Sari Joy Village, Rustaq District

Афганистан

Специалист по УЗП:
Специалист по УЗП:
Researcher:
Название проекта, содействовавшего документированию/оценке Технологии (если применимо)
Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar, Afghanistan (LIPT)
Название проекта, содействовавшего документированию/оценке Технологии (если применимо)
Potential and limitations for improved natural resource management (NRM) in mountain communities in the Rustaq district, Afghanistan (Rustaq NRM Study)
Название организации (-ий), содействовавших документированию/оценке Технологии (если применимо)
Terre des Hommes (Terre des Hommes) - Швейцария
Название организации (-ий), содействовавших документированию/оценке Технологии (если применимо)
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (DEZA / COSUDE / DDC / SDC) - Швейцария
Название организации (-ий), содействовавших документированию/оценке Технологии (если применимо)
Bern University of Applied Sciences, School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (HAFL) - Швейцария
Название организации (-ий), содействовавших документированию/оценке Технологии (если применимо)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Швейцария

1.3 Условия, регламентирующие использование данных, собранных ВОКАТ

Когда были собраны данные (на местах)?

27/10/2016

Составитель и ответственный(-ые) специалист(-ы) согласны с условиями, регламентирующими использование собранных ВОКАТ данных:

Да

1.4 Декларация по устойчивости описываемой Технологии

Вызывает ли описанная здесь Технология проблемы деградации земель настолько, что ее нельзя назвать природосберегающей?

Нет

Пояснения:

SLM practices documented in the frame of the Rustaq NRM study were established only recently (1-3 years ago). It is too early for a final judgment on the sustainability of these technologies within the human and natural environment of Chokar watershed.

2. Описание Технологии УЗП

2.1 Краткое описание Технологии

Определение Технологии:

Local and new varieties of fruits are planted on degraded land in accordance with improved management practices. The established orchards and vineyards serve double purpose of soil protection and income generation for the rural households. The alfalfa under the trees supports tree growth and is used for livestock fodder.

2.2 Подробное описание Технологии

Описание:

Project supported implementation of improved orchards and vineyards has taken place in the villages Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai, located in Chokar watershed of Rustaq District in Northern Afghanistan. The Chokar watershed is a mountainous area situated between 600 - 2,500 m above sea level. The climate is semi-arid with harsh and cold weather in winter and hot and dry summers. The annual precipitation in average years is 580mm. Land degradation affects all forms of land use and includes low vegetation cover, heavy top soil erosion from water, and poor soil fertility. Unsustainable agricultural practices, over-exploitation and high pressure on the natural resources are adversely impacting on the socio-economic well-being of local communities as well as contributing to the risk for being adversely affected by drought as well as landslides and flash foods triggered by heavy rainfall. The data used for the documentation of the technology is based on field research conducted in Chokar watershed, namely in the villages: Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai. These villages represent the upper, the middle and the lower zone of Chokar watershed, respectively. They differ considerably in access to services and infrastructure, but in general are poorly served. The communities depend on land resources for sustaining their livelihoods. In a good year with high yields, wheat-self-sufficiency lasts about 5 months. The three villages are home to ethnic Qarluq communities. Since 2012 the Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des hommes (Tdh) Switzerland has initiated a range of NRM interventions.

The rural population in Rustaq district of Afghanistan traditionally grows local varieties of apples, pears and grapes. Mostly it is subsistence farming with a small-scale local marketing. Shortage of irrigation water and lack of specific knowledge about horticultural and viticulture practices, negatively affects fruit yields. Apart of providing diverse fruits for consumption, orchards are also important for providing fodder for the livestock, retaining soil moisture and protecting the soil from erosion.

The local land users interested in the establishment of improved orchards and vineyards were mobilized through the Natural Resources Management Committees (NRMC) in Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai villages. In addition to the local varieties of pears, apples and grapes, new improved varieties were used for orchards and vineyards on 6.5 ha of degraded land. Such orchards were established inside or close to the villages on mountain slopes with gentle (3-5%) and moderate (6 -15%) steepness. Fruit trees are planted on locally identified dark and light soils, which correspond to moderately deep and loamy soil of medium soil fertility. Considering the medium quality of the soil, the first step of tree plantation is application of organic fertilizer. Afterwards, the plot is designed according to 4m x 4 m spacing between the trees. Under such parameters, on 1 jirib (0.2 ha) of land 125 fruit tree (apple or pear) seedlings are planted. The depth of the planting pits is 60 x 50 cm. The planted tree is watered and the lower trunk is covered with lime and water solution. Alfalfa is sown under the trees to serve as a fodder for the livestock. The orchards are irrigated mostly during summer once a week. In areas where there is shortage of irrigation water the trees are rainfed. Other maintenance activities include pest and disease control provided by a trained local specialist.

The new orchards only recently started giving fruits. The actual fruit yields are expected in 2017-2018. Expected higher yields of improved verities of pears, apples and grapes serves as a strong incentive for the local land users and their families to establish and maintain the orchards. Orchards are very demanding, but their reward is very promising in terms of improved harvest and more opportunities to sell the produce. Some land users have successful experience on their plots and already have fruits in their gardens and plan to enlarge their garden and plant more varieties of fruit trees, such as persimmons. Alfalfa which grows under the trees has important production value, particularly during the early years after the establishment phase, when the trees are too young to give fruits.

Female members of the households, which implemented orchards are also involved in establishing and maintaining orchards and vineyards. They take part in planting trees, watering, hay making and protecting the trees from livestock and people. Their contribution, plays an important part for the successful implementation of improved orchards and vineyards in Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai.

2.3 Фотографии, иллюстрирующие Технологию

2.5 Страна/ регион/ места, где применяется Технология, информация о которых собрана в данной Анкете

Страна:

Афганистан

Административная единица (Район/Область):

Takhar Province, Rustaq District

Более точная привязка места:

Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana, Dashti Mirzai

Пояснения:

This documentation is based on the experiences of SLM implementers from Sari Joy (8 plots), Jawaz Khana, (6 plots), and Dashti Mirzai (3 plots). Additionally insights were gained through interviews with both SLM implementers and observers from all three villages.

2.6 Сколько лет применяется данная Технология

Если год начала применения Технологии достоверно неизвестен, дайте примерную оценку:
  • менее 10 лет назад (недавняя)

2.7 Внедрение Технологии

Укажите, как именно Технология УЗП была внедрена:
  • через проекты/ внешнее вмешательство
Пояснения (тип проекта и т.д.):

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) supported by Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) from 2012-17

3. Классификация Технологии УЗП

3.1 Основные цели и задачи реализации Технологии

  • повышение производства

3.2 Текущий(-ие) тип(-ы) землепользования на территории, где применяется Технология

Пахотные угодья и плантации

Пахотные угодья и плантации

  • Многолетние (недревесные) культуры
  • Древесные и кустарниковые культуры
Смешанное землепользование (пашня/ пастбища/ лес), включая агролесоводство

Смешанное землепользование (пашня/ пастбища/ лес), включая агролесоводство

  • Агро-пастбищное хозяйство
Основные виды продукции/ услуг:

Apple, pear, almond, grapes, alfalfa

Если использование земель изменилось с началом применения Технологии, укажите тип землепользования до применения Технологии:

About half of orchard plots are established on cropland.

3.3 Дополнительная информация о землепользовании

Обеспеченность водой участков, где реализуется Технология :
  • сочетание богарных и орошаемых земель
Пояснения:

Often the trees are watered with supplementary irrigation, from irrigation channels, or fetching the water in buckets.

Число урожаев за год:
  • 1

3.4 Категория УЗП, к которой относится Технология

  • агролесоводство

3.5 Распределение Технологии по площади

Охарактеризуйте пространственное распространение Технологии :
  • равномерно-однородное применение на определенной площади
Если Технология равномерно применяется на той или иной территории, укажите ее приблизительную общую площадь:
  • < 0,1 км2 (10 га)

3.6 Мероприятия УЗП, выполняемые в рамках Технологии

Мероприятия с использованием растительности

Мероприятия с использованием растительности

  • Р1: Древесный и кустарниковый покров
  • Р2: Злаковые и многолетние травянистые растения
управленческие мероприятия

управленческие мероприятия

  • У1: Смена типа землепользования
Пояснения:

Many land users establish a fence around their orchards to protect the trees from animal and the fruits from theft.

3.7 Основные проблемы деградации земель, на решение которых направлена Технология

водная эрозия почв

водная эрозия почв

  • ВЭп: поверхностная эрозия/смыв верхних почвенных горизонтов
ветровая эрозия почв

ветровая эрозия почв

  • Эп: утрата плодородного слоя почвы
биологическая деградация

биологическая деградация

  • Бр: сокращение растительного покрова
  • Бк: сокращение количества биомассы
деградация водных ресурсов

деградация водных ресурсов

  • Ва: почвенная засуха

3.8 Предотвращение и снижение деградации земель, или восстановление нарушенных земель

Укажите цель Технологии по отношению к деградации земель :
  • предотвращение деградации земель
  • снижение деградации земель

4. Технические характеристики, мероприятия по практической реализации, вложения и стоимость

4.1 Технический рисунок, иллюстрирующий Технологию

Автор:

Aslam Qadamov; Roziya Kirgizbekova

Дата:

03/04/2017

4.2 Спецификация / пояснения к техническому рисунку

Orchards are established on mountain slopes with gentle (3-5%) and moderate (6-10%) steepness. Considering the medium soil fertility, the first step of tree plantation is application of organic fertilizer. Afterwards, the plot is designed according to 4m x 4 m spacing between rows and trees. Under such parameters, on 1 jirib (0.2 ha) of land 125 fruit tree (apple or pear) seedlings are planted. The depth of the planting pits is 60 x 50 cm. The planted tree is watered and the lower trunk is covered with lime and water solution. Alfalfa is sown under the trees for livestock fodder.

4.3 Общая информация по необходимым вложениям и стоимости

Уточните, как рассчитывались затраты и вложения:
  • на площадь, где применяется Технология
Укажите размер и единицу площади:

1 ha

Укажите денежные единицы, использованные для подсчета затрат:
  • Доллары США
Укажите обменный курс между долларом США и местной валютой (если уместно): 1 доллар США =:

67,0

Укажите среднюю дневную заработную плату наемных работников:

5.2-5.3 USD per day

4.4 Мероприятия, необходимые для начала реализации

Деятельность Тип мероприятия Сроки
1. Selection of the area for orchard (Men) Управленческие Fall
2. Applicatoin of manure (Men) Агрономические Fall/Winter
3. Design of tree spacing in the orchard assisted by project staff (Men) Управленческие End of winter
4. Digging pits for planting (Men/Women) Инженерные Spring
5. Planting of fruit trees (Men/Women) Агрономические Spring
6. Sowing of alfalfa under the trees (Men/Women) Мероприятия с использованием растительности Spring

4.5 Вложения и затраты, необходимые для начала реализации

Опишите затраты Единица Количество Затраты на единицу Общая стоимость на единицу % затрат, оплаченных землепользователями
Оплата труда Application of manure person-day 5,0 5,3 26,5 83,0
Оплата труда Design of tree spacing person-day 5,0 5,3 26,5
Оплата труда Digging pits for planting person-day 15,0 5,3 79,5 83,0
Оплата труда Planting trees, sowing alfalfa and watering person-day 10,0 5,3 53,0 83,0
Оборудование Meter piece 1,0 2,25 2,25
Оборудование Rope Meter 500,0 0,07 35,0
Оборудование Shovel piece 2,0 3,8 7,6
Оборудование Pick axe piece 1,0 2,25 2,25
Посадочный материал Seedlings (apple/pear) piece 625,0 0,75 468,75
Посадочный материал Alfalfa seeds kg 17,5 0,42 7,35
Удобрения и ядохимикаты DAP Kg 250,0 0,9 225,0
Удобрения и ядохимикаты Urea Kg 250,0 0,45 112,5
Удобрения и ядохимикаты Animal manure ton 10,0 60,0 600,0
Удобрения и ядохимикаты Pesticide cc 500,0 0,9 450,0
Удобрения и ядохимикаты Lime Kg 25,0 1,5 37,5
Общая стоимость запуска Технологии 2133,7
Если землепользователем оплачено менее 100% затрат, укажите, кем покрывались остальные затраты:

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des hommes (Tdh) Switzerland

Пояснения:

Costs calculated for a Technology area of 1ha was only done for the purpose of the WOCAT documentation. In reality SLM plots are on average 0.2- 0.4 ha or 1- 2 jiribs. Costs were simply multiplied by 5. The actual costs for a 1ha plot might be slightly different.

4.6 Поддержание/ текущее обслуживание

Деятельность Тип мероприятия Сроки/ повторяемость проведения
1. Watering of the trees (Men/Women) Агрономические 2 times/month/Summer
2. Weeding (Women) Агрономические
3. Pruning (Men) Агрономические
4. Lime application (Men) Агрономические
5. Hay making (Men/Women) Агрономические
6. Harvesting fruits (Men/Women) Агрономические

4.7 Стоимость поддержания/ текущего обслуживания ( в год)

Опишите затраты Единица Количество Затраты на единицу Общая стоимость на единицу % затрат, оплаченных землепользователями
Оплата труда Irrigation person day 5,0 5,3 26,5 100,0
Оплата труда Weeding person day 5,0 5,3 26,5 100,0
Оплата труда Pruning person day 5,0 5,3 26,5 100,0
Оплата труда Lime application person day 5,0 5,3 26,5 100,0
Оборудование Scissors for pruning piece 2,0 9,0 18,0
Удобрения и ядохимикаты Lime Kg 25,0 1,5 37,5 100,0
Общая стоимость поддержания Технологии 161,5
Если землепользователем оплачено менее 100% затрат, укажите, кем покрывались остальные затраты:

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des Hommes (Tdh) Switzerland

Пояснения:

Costs calculated for a Technology area of 1ha was only done for the purpose of the WOCAT documentation. In reality SLM plots are on average 0.2- 0.4 ha or 1- 2 jiribs. Costs were simply multiplied by 5. The actual costs for a 1ha plot might be slightly different.

4.8 Наиболее значимые факторы, влияющие на стоимость затрат

Опишите наиболее значимые факторы, влияющие на стоимость затрат:

Due to the remoteness of the villages where the Technology has been implemented, all the inputs for establishment, such as agricultural equipment, plant material, fertilizers, etc., are purchased in Rustaq town. The expenses for traveling and delivering the inputs affect the establishment costs.

5. Природные и социально-экономические условия

5.1 Климат

Среднегодовое количество осадков
  • < 250 мм
  • 251-500 мм
  • 501-750 мм
  • 751-1000 мм
  • 1001-1500 мм
  • 1501-2000 мм
  • 2001-3000 мм
  • 3001-4000 мм
  • > 4000 мм
Укажите среднегодовое количество осадков (если известно), мм:

580,00

Пояснения/ комментарии по осадкам:

Average annual percipitation for the area was calculated with 580 mm, with minimums in dry years (2000 and 2001) of 270 mm and maximums in wet years (2009/2010) of 830 mm. The absolut maximum rainfall was calculated for 1986 with 1024 mm. The data series covers the time from 1979 to 2014.

Укажите название соответствующей метеостанции:

Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), http://rda.ucar.edu/pub/cfsr.html

Агроклиматическая зона
  • полузасушливая

Derived from the publicly available dataset on length of growing period (LGP) (Fischer 2009 / IIASA-FAO). Internet link: http://tiles.arcgis.com/tiles/P8Cok4qAP1sTVE59/arcgis/rest/services/Length_of_growing_period/MapServer

5.2 Рельеф

Склоны (преобладающие):
  • пологие (0-2%)
  • покатые (3-5%)
  • покато-крутые (6-10%)
  • крутые (11-15%)
  • очень крутые (16-30%)
  • чрезвычайно крутые (31-60%)
  • обрывистые (>60%)
Формы рельефа:
  • плато/ равнины
  • гребни хребтов/холмов
  • склоны гор
  • склоны холмов
  • подножья
  • днища долин
Зона высотной поясности:
  • 0-100 м над уровнем моря
  • 101-500 м н.у.м.
  • 501-1000 м н.у.м.
  • 1001-1500 м н.у.м.
  • 1501-2000 м н.у.м.
  • 2001-2500 м н.у.м.
  • 2501-3000 м н.у.м.
  • 3001-4000 м н.у.м.
  • > 4 тыс. м н.у.м.

5.3 Почвы

Средняя мощность почв:
  • поверхностные (0-20 см)
  • неглубокие (21-50 см)
  • умеренно глубокие (51-80 см)
  • глубокие (81-120 см)
  • очень глубокие (> 120 см)
Гранулометрический состав (верхнего горизонта):
  • средние фракции (суглинистый, супесчаный)
Гранулометрический состав (на глубине более 20 см):
  • средние фракции (суглинистый, супесчаный)
Содержание органического вещества в верхнем горизонте:
  • среднее (1-3%)
  • низкое (< 1%)
Если возможно, приложите полное описание почв или укажите доступную информацию, например тип почв, рH/ кислотность почв, ёмкость катионного обмена, содержание азота, содержание солей и т.д.

Local land users differentiate between the following soil types where orchards and vineyards are established:
- Light soil: moderately deep; texture medium; medium, low organic matter
- Dark soil: moderately deep; texture medium, medium; medium organic matter

5.4 Доступность и качество воды

Уровень грунтовых вод:

5-50 м

Доступность поверхностных вод:

средняя

Качество воды (без обработки):

питьевая вода хорошего качества

Является ли солёность воды проблемой?

Нет

Происходят ли периодические затопления территории?

Да

Регулярность:

эпизодически

Комментарии и дополнительная информация по качеству и количеству воды:

Floods occur mainly during the rainy seasons in spring and autumn. Availability of surface water differs for the three study villages Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana, and Dashti Mirzai. Sari Joy has sources and good surface water availability. Jawaz Khana has poor water availability as water has to be fetched from a lower laying stream. Dashti Mirzai has good water availability also from an irrigation channel.

5.5 Биоразнообразие

Видовое разнообразие:
  • низкое
Разнообразие местообитаний:
  • низкое

5.6 Характеристика землепользователей, применяющих Технологию

Осёдлый или кочевой:
  • Осёдлый
Рыночная ориентация производства:
  • натуральное хозяйство (самообеспечение)
  • смешанное (самообеспечение/ товарное хозяйство
Доходы из других источников:
  • 10-50% всех доходов
  • > 50% всех доходов
Относительный уровень достатка:
  • средний
  • обеспеченный
Индивидуальное или коллективное хозяйство:
  • частное/ домовладение
Уровень механизации:
  • ручной труд
Пол:
  • женщины
  • мужчины
Возраст землепользователей:
  • средний возраст
  • пожилой
Укажите другие важные характеристики землепользователей:

The land users in the area where the Technology is applied belong to the Uzbek ethnic minority group Qarluq.
Although the men are generally the main land users, however, women and children also take active part in the related work. The functions of men and women are clearly distinguished within the Afghan society. At the same time within the family this division of work and functions also results in men and women working hand-in-hand. An improvement of the family’s livelihood situation is expected to positively affect all family members. While, it is recognized that the involvement of women is key in order to secure basic human rights for everyone, to achieve good governance, sustainable development, and to efficiently contribute to poverty reduction (SDC 2004), it is also clear that a context sensitive approach is of high importance.
Women in rural Afghanistan are involved in many production and income generating activities that contribute to the overall household income, however, very few women own resources such as land and livestock, and their income generating options are fewer in comparison to that of men.

5.7 Средний размер земельных участков, арендуемых или находящихся в собственности землепользователей, применяющих Технологию

  • < 0,5 га
  • 0,5-1 га
  • 1-2 га
  • 2-5 га
  • 5-15 га
  • 15-50 га
  • 50-100 га
  • 100-500 га
  • 500-1000 га
  • 1000-10000 га
  • > 10000 га
Считается ли это мелким, средним или крупным хозяйством (по местным масштабам)?
  • среднего размера

5.8 Собственность на землю, права на земле- и водопользование

Землевладелец:
  • индивидуальная, не оформленная в собственность
Право землепользования:
  • индивидуальное
Право водопользования:
  • общинное (контролируемое)
Пояснения:

Those who own land and use water for irrigation are obliged to pay for the water. The payment is made both in kind and in cash to the Mirob - the person in charge of distributing water in the community. The amount of the payment varies from village to village.

6. Воздействия и заключительные положения

6.1 Влияние Технологии УЗП в пределах территории ее применения

Социально-экономическое воздействие

Продуктивность

производство сельскозяйственных культур

снизил.
увеличил.
Комментарий/ пояснения:

The local and new improved varieties of fruit trees planted and managed sustainably give better fruit yields. Enhanced fruit production is also due to proper and timely control of pests and disease.

производство кормов

снизил.
увеличил.
Комментарий/ пояснения:

The grass (alfalfa and sainfoin), which is planted under the fruit trees is used as fodder for livestock.

производство продуктов животноводства

снизил.
увеличил.
Комментарий/ пояснения:

Indirect contribution to animal production is achieved through availability of more fodder for the livestock from the grass in the orchards. Animals also feed on the tree leaves in autumn.

производство древесины

снизил.
увеличил.
Комментарий/ пояснения:

Production of wood is limited. Fuel wood is made from seasonal pruning of the trees.

продуктивность недревесных продуктов леса

снизил.
увеличил.

разнообразие продукции

снизил.
увеличил.
Комментарий/ пояснения:

Multiple varieties of fruit trees are grown, also through grafting techniques.

площадь, используемая для производства продукции

снизил.
увеличил.

Социальное и культурное воздействие

продовольственная безопасность/ самообеспечение

снизил.
улучшил.
Комментарий/ пояснения:

The new practice of establishing orchards and vineyards ensures better yields. New variety of fruits such as apples, pears, almonds and grapes improve the diversity of household's production and consumption. The households have better opportunity to earn more from selling their fresh and dried fruits on the local market.

знания в области УЗП/ деградации земель

снизил.
улучшил.
Комментарий/ пояснения:

Land users learned new methods of planting trees according to the soil conditions and water availability. They were trained with such skills as grafting, pruning, pest and disease control and were introduced to improved verities of fruit trees.

положение социально и экономически уязвимых групп населения

ухудшил.
улучшил.
Комментарий/ пояснения:

Female headed households are not included. Technology is implemented on private land, therefore people without land are excluded. However, they have they opportunity to earn income as a hired worker for the SLM implementers.

Экологическое воздействие

Водный цикл/ поверхностный сток

поверхностный сток

увеличил.
снизил.
Почвы

утрата почв

увеличил.
снизил.
Биоразнообразие: растительность, животный мир

Растительный покров

снизил.
увеличил.
Комментарий/ пояснения:

Improved vegetation cover resulting from the tree plantations and the grass.

6.2 Влияние Технологии за пределами территории ее применения

подтопление ниже по течению

увеличил.
сократил.

отложение наносов ниже по течению

увеличил.
снизил.

буферная/ фильтрационная способность

снизил.
улучшил.
Коммментарий по оценке влияния:

These comments apply to 6.1 and 6.2:
- Socio-economic impacts: Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the benefits from orchards and vineyards. They were asked to indicate production increase of crops; fodder; animals; wood; non-wood forest products; increase in product diversity; or production area. The most important increase they rated with 3, the second most with 2, others with 1 point. Averages of the points given by all implementers of orchards are reflected here.
- Similarly for the "ecological impacts" and on "off-site impacts": Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the on-site and off-site impacts of orchards and vineyards on water; soil; and vegetation. They were asked to indicate the strength of impacts with three, two or one points. Averages of the points given by the orchard implementers are reflected here.
- Socio-cultural impacts: This section is answered by the scientists, based on information collected during focus group discussions, and interviews conducted with persons from the 3 villages where the LIPT project implemented the SLM practices.

6.3 Подверженность и чувствительность Технологии УЗП к постепенным изменениям климата и экстремальным погодным явлениям/ стихийным бедствиям, связанным с изменением климата (в понимании землепользователей)

Экстремальные явления, связанные с изменением климата (стихийные бедствия)

Погодные стихийные бедствия
Насколько успешно Технология справляется с этим?
местные ливневые дожди очень хорошо
Стихийные бедствия климатического характера
Насколько успешно Технология справляется с этим?
засухи хорошо
Пояснения:

Based on the multi-criteria matrix: SLM implementers were asked to jointly discuss and rate how much the SLM technology reduced the lands vulnerability to drought and local rainstorms. Only vulnerability to the most prevalent climate extremes (drought and local rainstorms) was discussed. SLM technologies were rated as reducing vulnerability poorly, well, or very well. The average points reflected here are from multi-criteria matrixes compiled in three villages where the SLM technology had been implemented.

6.4 Анализ эффективности затрат

Насколько получаемый результат сопоставим с первоначальными вложениями (с точки зрения землепользователей)?
Эффективность затрат в краткосрочной перспективе:

очень позитивное

Эффективность затрат в долгосрочной перспективе:

очень позитивное

Пояснения:

Based on the multi-criteria matrix: During the FGD with SLM implementers, a multi-criteria matrix was elaborated, and different SLM practices were rated. In the frame of this exercise, SLM implementers were asked to jointly discuss and rate short term (1-3 years) and long-term (10 years) returns of the SLM practice. As the SLM technology was only implemented 1-2 years ago, it is too early to compare benefits to maintenance costs. Farmers have little experience so far on the actual benefits of the SLM technology. The ratings are mostly based on expected benefits and not on actual benefits.

6.5 Внедрение Технологии

  • 1-10%
Если возможно, дайте количественную характеристику (число домохозяйств и/или площадь применения):

6.5 ha

Среди применяющих Технологию землепользователей, какова доля лиц, применяющих её по собственной инициативе, т.е. без какого-либо материального стимулирования со стороны?
  • 10-50%
Пояснения:

Individual SLM implementers were asked whether they received support for implementing the Technology. Each indicated the type of support he received from the proposed options: "Full Support 100%, Some Support, No Support 0%". 18% have adopted the technology without receiving support.

6.6 Адаптация

Была ли Технология УЗП изменена в недавнее время с целью адаптации к меняющимся условиям среды?

Да

другое (поясните):

protection

Укажите, что именно изменилось в Технологии (дизайн, используемые материалы или виды растений/животных и т.д.):

Some of the land users built a wall around their orchard. The wall made from locally available clay material, protects the trees and the grass from animal and people intrusion.

6.7 Сильные стороны/ преимущества/ возможности Технологии

Сильные стороны/ преимущества/ возможности по мнению землепользователей
The land users have high expectations about the benefits of the improved practices to grow fruit trees. They see the benefit of growing different types of fruits. Expectations are high about increased fruit yields and increased opportunities to sell more fresh and dried fruits and nuts on the local market. Fruits and nuts sell very well and can generate higher incomes for the households.
The ecological benefits of the orchards in protecting the soil from heavy rains is valued by the land users. The villagers mark improved vegetation cover as their villages are becoming greener with the fruit trees and the alfalfa in the orchards.
It is appreciated by the land users that they were introduced and provided with new varieties of fruits. They were also trained on planting and maintaining orchards and vineyards in accordance with local conditions and using such techniques as grafting, pruning, mulching, protection from pests and diseases, etc.
The orchards not only give fruits, but also are the source of fuel wood, which is made from pruning the trees. Considering that many households keep livestock, the grass under the trees and tree leaves are used to feed the livestock. In return livestock manure is used as organic fertilizer for the trees.
Some land users having seen the positive outcome of their work, are interested in enlarging their orchards. Others are ready to support those who want to plant fruit trees by sharing tree saplings or seedlings with them.
Women share the expectations of earning more money for their household through growing more fruits and selling them on the local market. In Dashti Mirzai and Jawaz Khana women are particularly excited over their grape, which still need some time to give yields.
Сильные стороны/ преимущества/ возможности по мнению составителя или других ключевых специалистов
Better management practices in growing fruit trees will benefit the land user and the land through strengthening soil resistance to heavy rainfall and prevent erosion. Over the period of few more years the trees and undergrowth grass will significantly enhance infiltration and moisture retention in the soil, which in turn increase the vegetation cover and halt the degradation process.
The SLM knowledge obtained through project training is disseminating inside and beyond the villages, along with exchange of seedlings from new varieties of fruit trees. In addition to that, land users are aware of pest and disease control and have access to these services through trained specialist.
Households do not have to rely only on wheat and legumes, but are able to diversify their agricultural production even more. The expected opportunity to sell more fruits and nuts has the potential to increase households income. This in turn will enable the family to secure their food supply for longer periods.
Female family members' participation is one of the key elements for sustaining orchards and vineyards. Women highly value the importance of their work in orchards and the benefit it provides to their households.

6.8 Слабые стороны/ недостатки/ риски Технологии и пути их преодоления

Слабые стороны/ недостатки/ риски по мнению землепользователей Возможные пути их преодоления/снижения?
Lack of irrigation water is a crucial issue, especially in Jawaz Khana, which makes it very difficult for the land users to maintain their orchards. Rehabilitate the Yakhdons. Yakhdon is a local storage method for collecting snow water in winter to be used for drinking and irrigation in spring and summer. One Yakhdon can provide water for up to six months. Several of these Yakhdons are destroyed and their rehabilitation would provide better access to water for Jawaz Khana.
The young trees are sensitive to droughts and need to be watered regularly to ensure that they survive.
Establishment of orchards requires hard work and sufficient money from the land user to buy seedlings and in some cases to build a wall around the orchard or build an irrigation canal.
Слабые стороны/ недостатки/ риски по мнению составителя или ответственных специалистов Возможные пути их преодоления/снижения?
The establishment of orchards is reported as one of the most labour-intensive SLM practice for both men and women. Working in orchards increases the burden of women in addition to their household chores.
Technical knowledge on planting and maintaining fruit trees and grapes is required to ensure tree survival, good productivity and protection from pests and diseases.

7. Справочные материалы и ссылки

7.1 Методы сбора/ источники информации

  • опросы землепользователей

Focus group discussions (FGD) were organized by CDE team to collect information from SLM implementers. Total of 17 land users who have implemented terraces participated in the FGDs held in the three villages of Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai.
Interviews were conducted by the HAFL team to collect information from persons representing all the three study villages. Very detailed interviews were conducted with 41 persons interested in orchard implementation, of which 14 persons are from households that already have implemented orchards.

  • опросы специалистов/экспертов по УЗП

Close collaboration took place during the compilation of this material with the technical staff of the LIPT project in Rustaq.

  • данные, собранные из отчетов и достоверных документов

Information provided in the reports of the LIPT project in Rustaq served as an initial source of information during the preparatory phase and also solidifying the description of the technology and area of implementation. Other background papers on Afghanistan were referred to for general information on agriculture and natural resource management in Afghanistan.

7.2 Ссылки на опубликованные материалы

Название, автор, год публикации, ISBN:

Guidelines for Focus Group Discussions

Название, автор, год публикации, ISBN:

Methods section of the Rustaq NRM study

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