Institute of Soil & Fertilizer, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)
12 zhong guan cun south street, Beijing 100081, P.R. of China
有助于对方法进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) - 中国
Zero tillage approach was developed to protect the soils from sealing rainfall, to achieve and maintain a open internal soil structure, to enhance biological processes in the soil, and to develop a means for safe disposal of any surface runoff that nevertheless will occur.
Sustainable agriculture in the dry and semidry regions in the north China, especially on the slope farmland is searching always based on the ecological balance. Conservative tillage such as zero, reduced and subsoiling tillage are important to keep soil fertility. Mulching is also a way to improve the soil organic matter. So no tillage with mulching is an approach to do this. No tillage lets all rainfall in the soils and avoid runoff occur.
The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Reduction of dust devil that occur in North China.)
The main objectives of the approach is to apply conservation tillage for sustainable agricultural development.
The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Traditional tillage (multi-till) with little return of organic matters to soils results in soil fertility decline and nutrient loss as well as yield decrease. This approach is designed to change the traditional cultivation ways to conservation tillage.
buying no till machine and tractor
Treatment through the SLM Approach: subsidy and adjust crop planting pattern
The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights helped a little the approach implementation: Because land ownership belongs to state and land users can only lease land.
organizing subdivided householders together
Work equally divided between men and women (experimental areas selected on the basis of the landforms, contributed to diff, households). Householders organized by local committee or by implementation
|启动/动机||被动||Mainly:interviews/questionnaires; partly: public meetings; Generally local and/or village committee call land users who involved in the SWC project together and illustrate the purpose and obligation.|
|计划||外部支持||rapid/participatory rural appraisal; Detailed planning are addressed to whose who take part in the activities.|
|实施||互动||responsibility for minor steps; Each step and procedures are guided and checked for implementation.|
|监测/评估||被动||measurements/observations; Mainly done by the researchers and local government staffs not by local land users.|
|Research||互动||on-station; The effect and impacts of the SWC technology on the soil and environment are investigated and studied on experimental station and on farm.|
Decisions on the choice of SLM Technology were made directive (top-down).
Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made mainly by SLM specialists with consultation of land users.
- SWC specialists, extensionists/trainers
Teaching them how to operate tractor/tillage with mulching residuals and fertilizing as well as seeding; to understand the importance of the roles of the SWC etc.
Name of method used for advisory service: In situ demonstration and training; Key elements: Demonstration, Training, farmer visit; 1) Advisory service was carried out through: government's existing extension system, projects own extension structure and agents 2) Advisory service was carried out through: government's existing extension system, projects own extension structure and agents; Extension staff: mainly government employees 3) Target groups for extension: land users; Activities: Demonstration, training
Advisory service is quite adequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; Top-down agricultural/SWC technology extension service system has been established at variable government levels, they have capability of extension all kinds of the new techniques.
bio-physical aspects were regular monitored through measurements
technical aspects were regular monitored through measurements
land users involved aspects were regular monitored through observations
There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation
The successful results of the SWC study obtained by the SWC approach are widely applied to the control of the dust devil, and ecological recover. Research was carried out both on station and on-farm
Approach costs were met by the following donors: local community / land user(s) (National - Central government): 30.0%; government: 60.0%; international: 5.0%; other: 5.0%
Labour was voluntary, paid in cash and rewarded with other material support.
In the past (before 1980's), SWC activities are mainly done by community members through obligation. Nowadays under the conditions of economic market, people unwill to do this voluntary, they concern return of their input for SWC.
Interest rate charged: 2.3%; repayment conditions: After 2 to 5 years when SWC produces benefits, loaner should repay.
Interest was lower than market rate.
Soil & water loss reduced much and soil fertility is greatly improved with increase in yield.
Subdivision and lease of the land would hinder SWC implementation. The problem is likely to be overcome in the near future. Farmers worry that their land would transfer to others, well organizing could reduce the negative impact through prolong the lease period of land use.
Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
|Raising yield and soil moisture as well as fertility. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Leaving high residual straw and cover soil surface.)|
|Practical (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Financial support from various government)|
|Very welcome by farmers. Great economic and ecological benefits (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: enlarging extension)|
|Shortage of finance||Raising money|
|Hard to widely extension due to expensive tillage machinery||Government should financially support|
Report of ninth-Five plan project on Dryland Farming, Jan 2002,
Introduction of Luoayng physicography
No-till farming for sustainable rural development, 2002
A road map from conventional to no-till farming, 2002
Conservation agriculture, 2001