Approaches

Zero Tillage [China]

approaches_2411 - China

Completeness: 83%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da abordagem.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Wang Deshui

(8610) 68918672

Institute of Soil & Fertilizer, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)

12 zhong guan cun south street, Beijing 100081, P.R. of China

China

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) - China

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Referência ao(s) questionário(s) sobre tecnologias da gestão sustentável da terra

Zero Tillage
technologies

Zero Tillage [China]

Zero tillage technology was developed to protect the soils from sealing rainfall, to achieve and maintain a open internal soil structure, to enhance biological processes in the soil, and to develop a means for safe disposal of any surface runoff that nevertheless will occur.

  • Compilador/a: Zhanguo Bai

2. Descrição da abordagem de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da abordagem

Zero tillage approach was developed to protect the soils from sealing rainfall, to achieve and maintain a open internal soil structure, to enhance biological processes in the soil, and to develop a means for safe disposal of any surface runoff that nevertheless will occur.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da abordagem

Descrição detalhada da abordagem:

Sustainable agriculture in the dry and semidry regions in the north China, especially on the slope farmland is searching always based on the ecological balance. Conservative tillage such as zero, reduced and subsoiling tillage are important to keep soil fertility. Mulching is also a way to improve the soil organic matter. So no tillage with mulching is an approach to do this. No tillage lets all rainfall in the soils and avoid runoff occur.

2.3 Fotos da abordagem

2.5 País/região/locais onde a abordagem foi aplicada

Country:

China

Region/ State/ Province:

Henan province

2.6 Datas de início e término da abordagem

Indique o ano de início:

1995

Ano de término (caso a abordagem não seja mais aplicada):

2003

2.7 Tipo de abordagem

  • Baseado em projeto/programa

2.8 Principais metas/objetivos da abordagem

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Reduction of dust devil that occur in North China.)
The main objectives of the approach is to apply conservation tillage for sustainable agricultural development.
The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Traditional tillage (multi-till) with little return of organic matters to soils results in soil fertility decline and nutrient loss as well as yield decrease. This approach is designed to change the traditional cultivation ways to conservation tillage.

2.9 Condição que propiciam ou inibem a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias aplicada(s) segundo a abordagem

Disponibilidade/acesso a recursos e serviços financeiros
  • Inibitivo

buying no till machine and tractor
Treatment through the SLM Approach: subsidy and adjust crop planting pattern

Quadro jurídico (posse de terra, direitos de uso da terra e da água)
  • Propício

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights helped a little the approach implementation: Because land ownership belongs to state and land users can only lease land.

Conhecimento sobre gestão sustentável da terra, acesso a suporte técnico
  • Inibitivo

organizing subdivided householders together

3. Participação e papel das partes interessadas envolvidas

3.1 Partes interessadas envolvidas na abordagem e seus papéis

  • Usuários de terra/comunidades locais

Work equally divided between men and women (experimental areas selected on the basis of the landforms, contributed to diff, households). Householders organized by local committee or by implementation

  • Especialistas em gestão sustentável da terra/consultor agrícola
  • Professores/alunos/estudantes
  • Governo nacional (planejadores, responsáveis pelas decisões)
3.2 Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais nas diferentes fases da abordagem
Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais Especifique quem estava envolvido e descreva as atividades
Iniciação/motivação Passivo Mainly:interviews/questionnaires; partly: public meetings; Generally local and/or village committee call land users who involved in the SWC project together and illustrate the purpose and obligation.
Planejamento Apoio externo rapid/participatory rural appraisal; Detailed planning are addressed to whose who take part in the activities.
Implementação Participativo responsibility for minor steps; Each step and procedures are guided and checked for implementation.
Monitoramento/avaliação Passivo measurements/observations; Mainly done by the researchers and local government staffs not by local land users.
Research Participativo on-station; The effect and impacts of the SWC technology on the soil and environment are investigated and studied on experimental station and on farm.

3.4 Decisão sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias

Especifique quem decidiu sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias a serem implementadas:
  • Políticos/líderes
Explique:

Decisions on the choice of SLM Technology were made directive (top-down).
Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made mainly by SLM specialists with consultation of land users.

4. Suporte técnico, reforço das capacidades e gestão do conhecimento

4.1 Reforço das capacidades/formação

Foi oferecida formação aos usuários da terra/outras partes interessadas?

Sim

Especifique quem foi capacitado:
  • Usuários de terra
  • SWC specialists, extensionists/trainers
Tipo de formação:
  • Agricultor para agricultor
  • Áreas de demonstração
  • Reuniões públicas
  • Cursos
Assuntos abordados:

Teaching them how to operate tractor/tillage with mulching residuals and fertilizing as well as seeding; to understand the importance of the roles of the SWC etc.

4.2 Serviço de consultoria

Os usuários de terra têm acesso a um serviço de consultoria?

Sim

Especifique se foi oferecido serviço de consultoria:
  • nas áreas dos usuários da terra
Descreva/comentários:

Name of method used for advisory service: In situ demonstration and training; Key elements: Demonstration, Training, farmer visit; 1) Advisory service was carried out through: government's existing extension system, projects own extension structure and agents 2) Advisory service was carried out through: government's existing extension system, projects own extension structure and agents; Extension staff: mainly government employees 3) Target groups for extension: land users; Activities: Demonstration, training

Advisory service is quite adequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; Top-down agricultural/SWC technology extension service system has been established at variable government levels, they have capability of extension all kinds of the new techniques.

4.3 Fortalecimento da instituição (desenvolvimento organizacional)

As instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas através da abordagem?
  • Sim, significativamente
Especifique a que nível (níveis) as instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas:
  • Local
Especifique o tipo de apoio:
  • Financeiro
  • Reforço das capacidades/formação
  • Equipamento

4.4 Monitoramento e avaliação

Monitoramento e avaliação são partes da abordagem?

Sim

Comments:

bio-physical aspects were regular monitored through measurements
technical aspects were regular monitored through measurements
land users involved aspects were regular monitored through observations
There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation

4.5 Pesquisa

A pesquisa foi parte da abordagem?

Sim

Especifique os tópicos:
  • Ecologia
  • Tecnologia
Dê mais detalhes e indique quem realizou a pesquisa:

The successful results of the SWC study obtained by the SWC approach are widely applied to the control of the dust devil, and ecological recover. Research was carried out both on station and on-farm

5. Financiamento e apoio material externo

5.1 Orçamento anual para o componente de gestão sustentável da terra da abordagem

Caso o orçamento exato seja desconhecido, indique a faixa:
  • 100.000-1.000.000
Comentários (p. ex. principais fontes de recursos/principais doadores):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: local community / land user(s) (National - Central government): 30.0%; government: 60.0%; international: 5.0%; other: 5.0%

5.3 Subsídios para entradas específicas (incluindo mão-de-obra)

  • Equipamento
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Maquinário Parcialmente financiado
  • Agrícola
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
Fertilizantes Parcialmente financiado
  • Infraestrutura
Especifique quais entradas foram subsidiadas Em que medida Especifique os subsídios
community infrastructure Parcialmente financiado
Se a mão-de-obra pelos usuários da terra foi uma entrada substancial, isso foi:
  • Voluntário
Comments:

Labour was voluntary, paid in cash and rewarded with other material support.
In the past (before 1980's), SWC activities are mainly done by community members through obligation. Nowadays under the conditions of economic market, people unwill to do this voluntary, they concern return of their input for SWC.

5.4 Crédito

Foi concedido crédito segundo a abordagem para atividades de gestão sustentável da terra?

Sim

Especifique as condições (taxa de juros, reembolso, etc):

Interest rate charged: 2.3%; repayment conditions: After 2 to 5 years when SWC produces benefits, loaner should repay.
Interest was lower than market rate.

6. Análise de impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos da abordagem

A abordagem auxiliou os usuários da terra a implementar e manter as tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Soil & water loss reduced much and soil fertility is greatly improved with increase in yield.

A abordagem melhorou as questões de posse de terra/diretos do usuário que inibiam a implementação das tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Subdivision and lease of the land would hinder SWC implementation. The problem is likely to be overcome in the near future. Farmers worry that their land would transfer to others, well organizing could reduce the negative impact through prolong the lease period of land use.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

6.3 Atividades de sustentabilidade de abordagem

Os usuários da terra podem manter o que foi implementado através da abordagem (sem apoio externo)?
  • Sim

6.4 Pontos fortes/vantagens da abordagem

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Raising yield and soil moisture as well as fertility. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Leaving high residual straw and cover soil surface.)
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Practical (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Financial support from various government)
Very welcome by farmers. Great economic and ecological benefits (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: enlarging extension)

6.5 Pontos fracos, desvantagens da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Shortage of finance Raising money
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Hard to widely extension due to expensive tillage machinery Government should financially support

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Report of ninth-Five plan project on Dryland Farming, Jan 2002,

Available from where? Costs?

internal reference

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Introduction of Luoayng physicography

Available from where? Costs?

unpublished materials

Title, author, year, ISBN:

No-till farming for sustainable rural development, 2002

Available from where? Costs?

World Bank

Title, author, year, ISBN:

A road map from conventional to no-till farming, 2002

Available from where? Costs?

World Bank

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Conservation agriculture, 2001

Available from where? Costs?

FAO

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