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Zabré women’s agroecological programme [布基纳法索]

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approaches_2405 - 布基纳法索

完整性: 89%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与方法评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人员

SLM专业人员:

Lougue Maria

Association des femmes Pag-La-Yiri de Zabré (AFZ)

O9 B.P. 335 Ouagadougou 09,

SLM专业人员:

De Pury Jean Pascal Etienne

ceas.ne@bluewin.ch / ceas-rb@fasonet.bf

ancien directeur du Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer

CH-2000 NeuchâFtel, Switzerland, 2 rue de la Côte,

瑞士

有助于对方法进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer (CEAS) - 瑞士

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 SLM技术问卷的参考

2. SLM方法的描述

2.1 该方法的简要说明

A demand-driven initiative, by a women’s association, aimed at the promotion of composting through training and extension, using project staff and local facilitators.

2.2 该方法的详细说明

该方法的详细说明:

Aims / objectives: Leaders of the women’s association of Zabré (Association des Femme de Zabré, AFZ) initiated a training programme for their members on compost making, and its application in planting pits (zai) after they visited a seminar on the topic in 1987. AFZ actively sought technical and financial help, and found this through the Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer (CEAS, based in Switzerland). Support began with the establishment of a first demonstration site where five local facilitators (one from each zone), learned about and developed the technology together over a whole year - comparing the results with sorghum fields without compost. In the following year, those five facilitators each trained 20 women in their zones, using the same training methods as they themselves had experienced. AFZ set up demonstration and training sites in each of the five zones. These demonstration areas were protected by a wire netting fence, contained a well, a cement water tank, and some shade trees for the compost heaps and training sessions. Machines for the wells, hand tools and manure were fully financed, whereas community infrastructure was only partly funded. Each demonstration site had one hectare of cultivated land, with irrigated vegetables in the dry season and sorghum in the rainy season. The facilitators used this land to demonstrate the effect of the compost, and thus to visually convince the trainees. Each of the trainees carried 20 kg of compost home and applied it to their own sorghum fields. During the first 18 months, a CEAS technician visited the zones regularly.

Methods: In the following years, the neighbouring villages each sent groups of 20 women to the established demonstration and training sites, each group for one day a week. They carried out the successive phases of composting in the demonstration plots, while simultaneously implementing the practice at home - where they were supervised by the facilitators as far as possible. In this way, 500 women were trained within one year. Although it took a while, men gradually began to take part and assist their wives when they lost their fear of being ridiculed by others. Many more women then put themselves forward for training. While waiting, they tried to imitate their neighbours, but with mixed results. The support of the CEAS project decreased over the years until 1997, after which it was phased out, being no longer necessary. Training has since continued through the five zonal facilitators and the local agriculture extension service.

2.3 该方法的照片

2.5 采用该方法的国家/地区/地点

国家:

布基纳法索

区域/州/省:

Boulgou Province

2.6 该方法的开始和终止日期

注明开始年份:

1987

终止年份(若不再采用该方法):

1997

2.7 方法的类型

  • 基于项目/方案

2.8 该方法的主要目的/目标

- train 6,000 women members of AFZ (in 1987) in making compost, and applying it to planting pits (zai) in order to double yields of sorghum or maize - the eventual target is for all farmers of the two departments to make, and apply compost on their fields, - improve the status of women and their livelihoods, - encourage women’s participation in development, - promote training and cooperative action

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Since the drought and famine periods of 1970-74 and 1981-84, the main concern of the women in Zabré was how to feed their families. This meant trying to raise crop production again to the pre-1970s average of 800 kg/ha from the level of 400 kg/ha to which it had fallen. The soils were deteriorating because of declining organic matter as increased population led to continuous cultivation without fallow periods. The status of women was low, and they found it hard to generate income through other activities.

2.9 推动或妨碍实施本办法所适用的技术的条件

社会/文化/宗教规范和价值观
  • 阻碍

Men were afraid of being ridiculed in case of failures.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Contrastingly, women don’t fear being laughed at. The expectation of increasing the yields encourages them to take risks: eventually men also followed for the same reasons.

财务资源和服务的可用性/可得性
  • 阻碍

Training of farmers is relatively expensive.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: The donors (Fondation pour le Progrés de l'Homme) and CEAS took care of the approach costs.

机构设置
  • 阻碍

The existing institution of the women’s association of Zabré (AFZ), which has functioned well for 12 years, needed to adapt to the new agroecological programme promoted by CEAS.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: The management of the AFZ was motivated to adopt and integrate the technology offered by CEAS.

法律框架(土地使用权、土地和水使用权)
  • 启动

Even though the land users do not own the land they cultivate (the state officially owns the land, though land use rights are traditional and secure) they receive immediate and full benefits through improved crop yields.

  • 阻碍
了解SLM,获得技术支持
  • 阻碍

One key question was: how best to teach composting to 6,000 women?

Treatment through the SLM Approach: AFZ already had an extension structure and the five facilitators served as ‘multipliers’

3. 相关利益相关者的参与和角色

3.1 该方法涉及的利益相关者及其职责

  • 当地土地使用者/当地社区

There were great differences - in the beginning at least - when AFZ merely asked the men to ‘allow’ their wives to learn about composting. After two years, men started to participate in the training and eventually as many of them as women began to make and use compost. Another difference was in discussions, when men tended to dominate.

  • SLM专家/农业顾问
  • 国际组织
  • AFZ

Leaders of the women's association of Zabré

3.2 当地土地使用者/当地社区参与该方法的不同阶段
当地土地使用者/当地社区的参与 指定参与人员并描述活动
启动/动机 互动 discussion of problems in public meetings
计划 互动 meetings with those in charge of the groups of women farmers
实施 互动 in exchange for the training received, some land users volunteered themselves as temporary/part-time facilitators
监测/评估 互动 the land users learned to control the quality and the efficiency of their work and voluntarily contributed to monitoring/evaluation - the facilitators were responsible for progress reports
Research 被动 visit of international researchers to the farms

3.3 流程图(如可用)

具体说明:

The agroecological programme of the Zabré Women's Association (AFZ). There are five facilitator’s zones each with:
- 1 president, 1 vice-president
- 1 facilitator
- 1 pharmacy
- 1 cereal bank
- 1 meeting room
- 1 shop
- 1 demonstration/training site

3.4 有关SLM技术选择的决策

是否就技术的选择做出了决定?:
  • Leaders of the women's association of Zabré (AFZ)
解释:

in consultation with experts from the Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer (CEAS).

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by Leaders of the women's association of Zabré (AFZ). CEAS, their engineers at Zabré and the facilitators designed the approach, which fitted well into the existing structure of AFZ.

4. 技术支持、能力建设和知识管理

4.1 能力建设/培训

是否为土地使用者/其他利益相关者提供培训?:

培训形式:
  • 农民对农民
  • 示范区域
  • 公开会议
  • 课程
培训形式:
  • on-farm training
涵盖的主题:

Training, as the central focus of the approach, was provided on two levels: project staff trained local facilitators, who then further spread the gained SWC knowledge among the land users. Subjects treated included compost making and application, reforestation, soil protection and anti-erosion measures. station training.

4.2 咨询服务

土地使用者有权使用咨询服务吗?:

指明是否提供了咨询服务:
  • 在土地使用者的土地上
说明/注释:

Key elements: demonstrations and practical training of of AFZ’s members in the five demonstrationareas in the respective AFZ zones.

4.3 机构强化(组织发展)

是否通过这种方法建立或加强了机构?:
  • 是,非常
具体说明机构的强化或建立程度:
  • 本地
具体说明支持类型:
  • 财务
  • 能力建设/培训
  • 设备

4.4 监测和评估

监测和评估是该方法的一部分吗?:

注释:

bio-physical aspects were regular monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: colour, texture and temperature of compost
technical aspects were regular monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: learning progress and production
socio-cultural aspects were ad hoc monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: effects on input and product prices
economic / production aspects were regular monitored by 0 through measurements; indicators: agricultural output
area treated aspects were regular monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: fields with compost
no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: trained land users and implementers of technology
management of Approach aspects were regular monitored by 0 through measurements; indicators: CEAS' accounting expertise
There were no changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation

4.5 研究

研究是该方法的一部分吗?

提供进一步的细节,并指出是谁做的研究:

Applied research was not part of this approach. However CEAS used previous recommendations from an applied research station in Gorom (Burkina Faso) and thereby adapted the technology to the local situation.

5. 融资和外部物质支持

5.1 该方法中SLM组成部分的年度预算

注释(例如主要的资助来源/主要捐助者):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international (CEAS&Fondation pour le progrés del'homme): 80.0%; government (national): 20.0%

5.2 为土地使用者提供财政/物质支援

土地使用者是否获得实施该技术的财政/物质支持?:

5.3 对特定投入的补贴(包括劳动力)

  • 设备
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
机械 充分融资 machines for the wells on demonstration areas
工具 充分融资
  • 农业
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
manure 充分融资
  • 基建
具体说明哪些投入得到了补贴 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
ommunity infrastructure 充分融资
如果土地使用者的劳动力是一项重要的投入,那么是不是:
  • 自愿
注释:

the hope of increasing yields served as an effective incentive.

5.4 信用

是否根据SLM活动的方法给予信用值?:

6. 影响分析和结论性陈述

6.1 方法的影响

该方法是否帮助土地使用者实施和维护SLM技术?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The compost making and its application has helped to improve soil and water management, as the compost returns humus to the soil and increases its water retention capacity and thus improves ground cover.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Many women's groups from other regions throughout the country invite delegations from AFZ to teach them compost making. The AFZ delegates are provided with food, accommodation, travel costs and presents in exchange for training. This is much cheaper than the 'official' compost training provided by the Association for Agroecological Technology Development (ADTAE).

6.3 方法活动的可持续性

土地使用者能否维持通过该方法实施的措施(无外部支持的情况下)?:
若是,请说明如何维持:

The land users are continuing activities and can do so in future, assuming no new problems arise.

6.4 该方法的长处/优点

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
Land users have confidence in their organisation (AFZ) and learn while working in the fields and discussing with the facilitators (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: The facilitators know to nurture this confidence until the land users get profit from the compost (which in turn reinforces that confidence).)
AFZ was convinced about the necessity of compost before they knew about CEAS. They searched for a technical collaborator for training and financial support (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: This preliminary motivation is an asset and the technical partner has to fulfil neither less, nor more, than what AFZ expects.)
Training of local trainers/facilitators (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Positive feedback from the farmers will stimulate the facilitators to continue their work.)
AFZ represents female land users, it is local and not 'created' by CEAS and is thus an ideal structure (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: CEAS has the knowledge, but AFZ has the power. AFZ needs to learn to use its power to access CEAS' knowledge bank.)

6.5 该方法的弱点/缺点以及克服它们的方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Internal conflicts within the association may cause problems and there is a danger of CEAS specialists becoming involved in these AFZ rivalries CEAS should be aware of AFZ power struggles and not get involved. CEAS must stick to its technical role - which is related to knowledge only and not to power.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 方法/信息来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查
  • 与土地使用者的访谈

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

UNEP (2002) Enriching soils naturally. In: Success stories in the struggle against desertification pp 5-8

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