ນີ້ແມ່ນສະບັບເກົ່າ, ກໍລະນີນີ້ ບໍ່ມີການເຄື່ອນໄຫວ. ໄປທີ່ສະບັບປະຈຸບັນ.
ວິທີທາງ
​ຊັກ​ຊ້າ

Zabré women’s agroecological programme [ເບີກິນາ ຟາໂຊ]

  • ​ການ​ສ້າງ:
  • ​ປັບ​ປູງ:
  • ຜູ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ
  • ບັນ​ນາ​ທິ​ການ
  • ຜູ້ທົບທວນຄືນ

approaches_2405 - ເບີກິນາ ຟາໂຊ

ຄວາມສົມບູນ: 89%

1. ຂໍ້ມູນທົ່ວໄປ

1.2 ລາຍລະອຽດ ການຕິດຕໍ່ ຂອງບຸກຄົນທີ່ຊັບພະຍາກອນ ແລະ ສະຖາບັນ ການມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ໃນການປະເມີນຜົນ ແລະ ເອກະສານ ຂອງວິທີທາງ

ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ (ຫຼາຍຄົນ)

ຜູ້ຊ່ຽວຊານ ດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

Lougue Maria

Association des femmes Pag-La-Yiri de Zabré (AFZ)

O9 B.P. 335 Ouagadougou 09,

ຜູ້ຊ່ຽວຊານ ດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ:

De Pury Jean Pascal Etienne

ceas.ne@bluewin.ch / ceas-rb@fasonet.bf

ancien directeur du Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer

CH-2000 NeuchâFtel, Switzerland, 2 rue de la Côte,

ສະວິດເຊີແລນ

ຊື່ຂອງ ສະຖາບັນການຈັດຕັ້ງ ທີ່ອໍານວຍຄວາມສະດວກ ໃນການສ້າງເອກກະສານ ຫຼື ປະເມີນແນວທາງ (ຖ້າກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ)
Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer (CEAS) - ສະວິດເຊີແລນ

1.3 ເງື່ອນໄຂ ຂອງການນໍາໃຊ້ເອກກະສານຂໍ້ມູນ ຂອງ WOCAT

ຜູ້ສັງລວມ ແລະ ບັນດາຜູ້ຕອບແບບສອບຖາມ ຍອມຮັບໃນເງື່ອນໄຂ ການນໍາໃຊ້ຂໍ້ມູນເອກະສານ ທີ່ສ້າງຂື້ນ ໂດຍຜ່ານ ອົງການ WOCAT:

ແມ່ນ

1.4 ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ (ຫຼາຍ) ກັບແບບສອບຖາມ (ຫຼາຍ) ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ຂອງດ້ານການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

2. ພັນລະນາ ແນວທາງການຄຸ້ມຄອງນໍາໃຊ້ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

2.1 ການອະທິບາຍ ໂດຍຫຍໍ້ ຂອງວິທີທາງ

A demand-driven initiative, by a women’s association, aimed at the promotion of composting through training and extension, using project staff and local facilitators.

2.2 ການອະທິບາຍ ລາຍລະອຽດ ຂອງວິທີທາງ

ການອະທິບາຍ ລາຍລະອຽດ ຂອງວິທີທາງ:

Aims / objectives: Leaders of the women’s association of Zabré (Association des Femme de Zabré, AFZ) initiated a training programme for their members on compost making, and its application in planting pits (zai) after they visited a seminar on the topic in 1987. AFZ actively sought technical and financial help, and found this through the Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer (CEAS, based in Switzerland). Support began with the establishment of a first demonstration site where five local facilitators (one from each zone), learned about and developed the technology together over a whole year - comparing the results with sorghum fields without compost. In the following year, those five facilitators each trained 20 women in their zones, using the same training methods as they themselves had experienced. AFZ set up demonstration and training sites in each of the five zones. These demonstration areas were protected by a wire netting fence, contained a well, a cement water tank, and some shade trees for the compost heaps and training sessions. Machines for the wells, hand tools and manure were fully financed, whereas community infrastructure was only partly funded. Each demonstration site had one hectare of cultivated land, with irrigated vegetables in the dry season and sorghum in the rainy season. The facilitators used this land to demonstrate the effect of the compost, and thus to visually convince the trainees. Each of the trainees carried 20 kg of compost home and applied it to their own sorghum fields. During the first 18 months, a CEAS technician visited the zones regularly.

Methods: In the following years, the neighbouring villages each sent groups of 20 women to the established demonstration and training sites, each group for one day a week. They carried out the successive phases of composting in the demonstration plots, while simultaneously implementing the practice at home - where they were supervised by the facilitators as far as possible. In this way, 500 women were trained within one year. Although it took a while, men gradually began to take part and assist their wives when they lost their fear of being ridiculed by others. Many more women then put themselves forward for training. While waiting, they tried to imitate their neighbours, but with mixed results. The support of the CEAS project decreased over the years until 1997, after which it was phased out, being no longer necessary. Training has since continued through the five zonal facilitators and the local agriculture extension service.

2.3 ຮູບພາບຂອງແນວທາງ

2.5 ປະເທດ / ເຂດ / ສະຖານທີ່ບ່ອນທີ່ແນວທາງໄດ້ຖືກນໍາໃຊ້

ປະເທດ:

ເບີກິນາ ຟາໂຊ

ພາກພື້ນ / ລັດ / ແຂວງ:

Boulgou Province

2.6 ວັນທີເລີ່ມຕົ້ນ ແລະ ສິ້ນສຸດ ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕີບັດ ວິທີທາງ

ສະແດງປີຂອງການເລີ່ມຕົ້ນ:

1987

ປີທີ່ສີ້ນສູດ (ຖ້າຢຸດບໍ່ໄດ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ວິທີທາງ):

1997

2.7 ປະເພດຂອງແນວທາງ

  • ພາຍໃຕ້ໂຄງການ / ແຜນງານ

2.8 ເປົ້າໝາຍ / ຈຸດປະສົງຫຼັກ ຂອງການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ວິທີທາງ

- train 6,000 women members of AFZ (in 1987) in making compost, and applying it to planting pits (zai) in order to double yields of sorghum or maize - the eventual target is for all farmers of the two departments to make, and apply compost on their fields, - improve the status of women and their livelihoods, - encourage women’s participation in development, - promote training and cooperative action

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Since the drought and famine periods of 1970-74 and 1981-84, the main concern of the women in Zabré was how to feed their families. This meant trying to raise crop production again to the pre-1970s average of 800 kg/ha from the level of 400 kg/ha to which it had fallen. The soils were deteriorating because of declining organic matter as increased population led to continuous cultivation without fallow periods. The status of women was low, and they found it hard to generate income through other activities.

2.9 ເງື່ອນໄຂອໍານວຍ ຫຼື ຂັດຂວາງການປະຕິບັດຂອງເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ / ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີການນໍາໃຊ້ຕາມແນວທາງ

ສັງຄົມ / ວັດທະນະທໍາ / ມາດຕະຖານ ແລະ ຄຸນຄ່າທາງສາສະໜາ
  • ເຊື່ອງຊ້ອນ

Men were afraid of being ridiculed in case of failures.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Contrastingly, women don’t fear being laughed at. The expectation of increasing the yields encourages them to take risks: eventually men also followed for the same reasons.

ມີຄວາມສາມາດ / ເຂັ້າເຖິງຊັບພະຍາກອນດ້ານການເງິນ ແລະ ການບໍລິການ
  • ເຊື່ອງຊ້ອນ

Training of farmers is relatively expensive.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: The donors (Fondation pour le Progrés de l'Homme) and CEAS took care of the approach costs.

ການກໍ່ຕັ້ງສະຖາບັນ
  • ເຊື່ອງຊ້ອນ

The existing institution of the women’s association of Zabré (AFZ), which has functioned well for 12 years, needed to adapt to the new agroecological programme promoted by CEAS.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: The management of the AFZ was motivated to adopt and integrate the technology offered by CEAS.

ກ່ຽວກັບກົດໝາຍ (ສິດນໍາໃຊ້ດິນ, ສິດນໍາໃຊ້ນໍ້າ)
  • ອໍານວຍ

Even though the land users do not own the land they cultivate (the state officially owns the land, though land use rights are traditional and secure) they receive immediate and full benefits through improved crop yields.

  • ເຊື່ອງຊ້ອນ
ຄວາມຮູ້ກ່ຽວກັບການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ, ການເຂົ້າເຖິງການສະໜັບສະໜູນ ທາງດ້ານວິຊາການ
  • ເຊື່ອງຊ້ອນ

One key question was: how best to teach composting to 6,000 women?

Treatment through the SLM Approach: AFZ already had an extension structure and the five facilitators served as ‘multipliers’

3. ການມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ແລະ ບົດບາດຂອງພາກສ່ວນທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງທີ່ໄດ້ມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ

3.1 ຜູ້ມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ໃນວິທີທາງ ແລະ ພາລະບົດບາດ ຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າ

  • ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ດິນໃນທ້ອງຖິ່ນ / ຊຸມຊົນທ້ອງຖິ່ນ

There were great differences - in the beginning at least - when AFZ merely asked the men to ‘allow’ their wives to learn about composting. After two years, men started to participate in the training and eventually as many of them as women began to make and use compost. Another difference was in discussions, when men tended to dominate.

  • ຜູ້ຊ່ຽວຊານ ການນຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ / ທີ່ປຶກສາດ້ານກະສິກໍາ
  • ອົງການຈັດຕັ້ງ ສາກົນ
  • AFZ

Leaders of the women's association of Zabré

3.2 ການມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນໃນທ້ອງຖິ່ນ / ຊຸມຊົນທ້ອງຖິ່ນໃນໄລຍະທີ່ແຕກຕ່າງກັນຂອງແນວທາງ
ການລວບລວມ ເອົາຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ດິນ ໃນທ້ອງຖິ່ນ / ຊຸມຊົນທ້ອງຖິ່ນ ໃຫ້ລະບຸ ຜູ້ໃດທີ່ມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ໃນແຕ່ລະກິດຈະກໍາ?
ການເລີ່ມຕົ້ນ / ແຮງຈູງໃຈ ການຮ່ວມມື discussion of problems in public meetings
ການວາງແຜນ ການຮ່ວມມື meetings with those in charge of the groups of women farmers
ການປະຕິບັດ ການຮ່ວມມື in exchange for the training received, some land users volunteered themselves as temporary/part-time facilitators
ຕິດຕາມກວດກາ / ການປະເມີນຜົນ ການຮ່ວມມື the land users learned to control the quality and the efficiency of their work and voluntarily contributed to monitoring/evaluation - the facilitators were responsible for progress reports
Research ການບໍ່ປະຕິບັດ visit of international researchers to the farms

3.3 ແຜນວາດ (ຖ້າມີ)

ການອະທິບາຍ:

The agroecological programme of the Zabré Women's Association (AFZ). There are five facilitator’s zones each with:
- 1 president, 1 vice-president
- 1 facilitator
- 1 pharmacy
- 1 cereal bank
- 1 meeting room
- 1 shop
- 1 demonstration/training site

3.4 ການຕັດສິນໃຈກ່ຽວກັບການຄັດເລືອກເຕັກໂນໂລຢີຂອງການຄຸ້ມຄອງທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ / ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ

ໄດ້ຕັດສິນໃຈເລືອກ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ (ຫຼາຍ) ບໍ່?
  • Leaders of the women's association of Zabré (AFZ)
ອະທິບາຍ:

in consultation with experts from the Centre Ecologique Albert Schweitzer (CEAS).

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by Leaders of the women's association of Zabré (AFZ). CEAS, their engineers at Zabré and the facilitators designed the approach, which fitted well into the existing structure of AFZ.

4. ການສະໜັບສະໜູນທາງດ້ານວິຊາການ, ການສ້າງຄວາມສາມາດ, ແລະ ການຈັດການຄວາມຮູ້.

4.1 ການສ້າງຄວາມສາມາດ / ການຝຶກອົບຮົມ

ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ຫຼື ພາກສ່ວນກ່ຽວຂ້ອງອື່ນໆ ໄດ້ຮັບການຝຶກອົບຮົມບໍ່?

ແມ່ນ

ຮູບແບບຂອງການຝຶກອົບຮົມ:
  • ຕົວຕໍ່ຕົວ
  • ເນື້ອທີ່ສວນທົດລອງ
  • ກອງປະຊຸມ
  • ຫຼັກສູດ
ຮູບແບບຂອງການຝຶກອົບຮົມ:
  • on-farm training
ໃນຫົວຂໍ້:

Training, as the central focus of the approach, was provided on two levels: project staff trained local facilitators, who then further spread the gained SWC knowledge among the land users. Subjects treated included compost making and application, reforestation, soil protection and anti-erosion measures. station training.

4.2 ການບໍລິການໃຫ້ຄໍາປຶກສາ

ເຮັດຜູ້ໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນມີການເຂົ້າເຖິງການບໍລິການໃຫ້ຄໍາປຶກສາ?

ແມ່ນ

ລະບຸວ່າການສະໜອງ ການບໍລິການ ໃຫ້ຄໍາປຶກສາ:
  • ໃນພື້ນທີ່ຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ດິນ
ອະທິບາຍ / ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

Key elements: demonstrations and practical training of of AFZ’s members in the five demonstrationareas in the respective AFZ zones.

4.3 ສະຖາບັນການສ້າງຄວາມເຂັ້ມແຂງ (ການພັດທະນາອົງການຈັດຕັ້ງ)

ສະຖາບັນ ໄດ້ຮັບການສ້າງຕັ້ງຂື້ນ ຫຼື ໄດ້ຮັບການສ້າງຄວາມເຂັ້ມແຂງ ໂດຍການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ວິທີທາງບໍ່?
  • ມີ, ຫຼາຍ
ລະບຸ ທາງສະຖາບັນ ໄດ້ສ້າງຄວາມເຂັ້ມແຂງ ໃນລະດັບໃດ (ຫຼາຍ):
  • ທ້ອງຖິ່ນ
ລະບຸ ປະເພດ ຂອງສະໜັບສະໜູນ:
  • ທາງດ້ານການເງິນ
  • ການສ້າງຄວາມອາດສາມາດ / ການຝຶກອົບຮົມ
  • ອຸປະກອນ

4.4 ຕິດຕາມກວດກາ ແລະ ປະເມີນຜົນ

ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ວິທີທາງ ໄດ້ມີການປະເມີນຜົນ ແລະ ຕິດຕາມບໍ?

ແມ່ນ

ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

bio-physical aspects were regular monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: colour, texture and temperature of compost
technical aspects were regular monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: learning progress and production
socio-cultural aspects were ad hoc monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: effects on input and product prices
economic / production aspects were regular monitored by 0 through measurements; indicators: agricultural output
area treated aspects were regular monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: fields with compost
no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by 0 through observations; indicators: trained land users and implementers of technology
management of Approach aspects were regular monitored by 0 through measurements; indicators: CEAS' accounting expertise
There were no changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation

4.5 ການຄົ້ນຄວ້າ

ນີ້້ແມ່ນສ່ວນໜຶ່ງ ການຄົ້ນຄວ້າ ຂອງວິທີທາງບໍ່?

ແມ່ນ

ໃຫ້ຂໍ້ມູນ ເພີ່ມເຕີມ ແລະ ກໍານົດ ຜູ້ໃດເຮັດການຄົ້ນຄວ້າ:

Applied research was not part of this approach. However CEAS used previous recommendations from an applied research station in Gorom (Burkina Faso) and thereby adapted the technology to the local situation.

5. ການສະໜັບສະໜູນທາງດ້ານການເງິນ ແລະ ອຸປະກອນຈາກພາຍນອກ

5.1 ງົບປະມານປະຈໍາປີ ສໍາລັບວິທີທາງ ຂອງການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງ

ຄໍາເຫັນ (ຕົວຢ່າງ: ແຫຼ່ງຂໍ້ມູນຫຼັກ ຂອງການສະໜອງທຶນ / ຜູ້ໃຫ້ທຶນທີ່ສໍາຄັນ):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international (CEAS&Fondation pour le progrés del'homme): 80.0%; government (national): 20.0%

5.2 ການສະໜັບສະໜູນ ທາງດ້ານການເງິນ / ອຸປະກອນ ສະໜອງໃຫ້ແກ່ຜູ້ນໍາທີ່ດິນ

ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ດິນ ໄດ້ຮັບການສະໜັບສະໜູນ ທາງດ້ານ ການເງິນ / ອຸປະກອນ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີບໍ?

ແມ່ນ

5.3 ເງິນສົມທົບສໍາລັບການນໍາໃຊ້ສະເພາະປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າໃນການຜະລີດກະສິກໍາ (ລວມທັງແຮງງານ)

  • ອຸປະກອນ
ໃຫ້ລະບຸໄດ້ຮັບການສະໜັບສະໜູນປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າຫຍັງແດ່ ທີ່ຂອບເຂດ ລະບຸ ການອຸດໜູນ
ເຄື່ອງກົນຈັກ ງົບປະມານເຕັມສ່ວນ machines for the wells on demonstration areas
ເຄື່ອງມື ງົບປະມານເຕັມສ່ວນ
  • ກະສິກໍາ
ໃຫ້ລະບຸໄດ້ຮັບການສະໜັບສະໜູນປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າຫຍັງແດ່ ທີ່ຂອບເຂດ ລະບຸ ການອຸດໜູນ
manure ງົບປະມານເຕັມສ່ວນ
  • ພື້ນຖານໂຄງລ່າງ
ໃຫ້ລະບຸໄດ້ຮັບການສະໜັບສະໜູນປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າຫຍັງແດ່ ທີ່ຂອບເຂດ ລະບຸ ການອຸດໜູນ
ommunity infrastructure ງົບປະມານເຕັມສ່ວນ
ຖ້າແຮງງານ ຂອງຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ດິນ ໄດ້ຮັບການສະໜັບສະໜູນ ປັດໃຈຂາເຂົ້າ, ແມ່ນບໍ່:
  • ການອາສາ
ຄວາມຄິດເຫັນ:

the hope of increasing yields served as an effective incentive.

5.4 ສິນເຊື່ອ

ໄດ້ປ່ອຍສິນເຊື່ອ ສະໜອງໃຫ້ພາຍໃຕ້ ວິທີການສໍາລັບກິດຈະກໍາ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນນຍົງບໍ່?

ບໍ່ແມ່ນ

6. ວິເຄາະຜົນກະທົບ ແລະ ສັງລວມບັນຫາ

6.1 ຜົນກະທົບຂອງແນວທາງ

ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ວິທີທາງ ສາມາດຊ່ວຍຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ ໃນການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ແລະ ບໍາລຸງຮັກສາ ເຕັກໂນໂລຢີ ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ ທີ່ດິນແບບຍືນຍົງໄດ້ບໍ?
  • ບໍ່
  • ມີ, ໜ້ອຍໜຶ່ງ
  • ມີ, ພໍສົມຄວນ
  • ມີ, ຫຼາຍ

The compost making and its application has helped to improve soil and water management, as the compost returns humus to the soil and increases its water retention capacity and thus improves ground cover.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • ບໍ່
  • ມີ, ໜ້ອຍໜຶ່ງ
  • ມີ, ພໍສົມຄວນ
  • ມີ, ຫຼາຍ

Many women's groups from other regions throughout the country invite delegations from AFZ to teach them compost making. The AFZ delegates are provided with food, accommodation, travel costs and presents in exchange for training. This is much cheaper than the 'official' compost training provided by the Association for Agroecological Technology Development (ADTAE).

6.3 ຄວາມຍືນຍົງຂອງກິດຈະກໍາວິທີທາງ

ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ ທີ່ດິນ ສາມາດສືບຕໍ່ ການຈັດຕັ້ງປະຕິບັດ ຜ່ານວິທີທາງໄດ້ບໍ່ (ໂດຍປາດສະຈາກ ການຊ່ວຍເຫຼືອ ຈາກພາກສ່ວນພາຍນອກ)?
  • ແມ່ນ
ຖ້າ ໄດ້, ອະທິບາຍເຫດຜົນ:

The land users are continuing activities and can do so in future, assuming no new problems arise.

6.4 ຈຸດແຂງ / ຂໍ້ດີ ຂອງວິທີທາງ

ຈຸດແຂງ / ຈຸດດີ / ໂອກາດ ຈາກທັດສະນະຂອງຜູ້ປ້ອນຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ບຸກຄົນສຳຄັນ
Land users have confidence in their organisation (AFZ) and learn while working in the fields and discussing with the facilitators (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: The facilitators know to nurture this confidence until the land users get profit from the compost (which in turn reinforces that confidence).)
AFZ was convinced about the necessity of compost before they knew about CEAS. They searched for a technical collaborator for training and financial support (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: This preliminary motivation is an asset and the technical partner has to fulfil neither less, nor more, than what AFZ expects.)
Training of local trainers/facilitators (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Positive feedback from the farmers will stimulate the facilitators to continue their work.)
AFZ represents female land users, it is local and not 'created' by CEAS and is thus an ideal structure (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: CEAS has the knowledge, but AFZ has the power. AFZ needs to learn to use its power to access CEAS' knowledge bank.)

6.5 ຈຸດອ່ອນ / ຂໍ້ເສຍຂອງແນວທາງ ແລະ ວິທີການແກ້ໄຂໃຫ້ເຂົາເຈົ້າ

ຈຸດອ່ອນ ຫຼື ຂໍ້ເສຍ ຫຼື ຄວາມສ່ຽງ ໃນມຸມມອງຂອງ ຜູ້ສັງລວມຂໍ້ມູນ ຫຼື ບັນດາຜູ້ຕອບແບບສອບຖາມ ມີວິທີການແກ້ໄຂຄືແນວໃດ?
Internal conflicts within the association may cause problems and there is a danger of CEAS specialists becoming involved in these AFZ rivalries CEAS should be aware of AFZ power struggles and not get involved. CEAS must stick to its technical role - which is related to knowledge only and not to power.

7. ເອກກະສານອ້າງອີງ ແລະ ຂໍ້ມູນການເຊື່ອມໂຍງ

7.1 ວິທີການ / ແຫຼ່ງຂໍ້ມູນ

  • ການໄປຢ້ຽມຢາມພາກສະໜາມ, ການສໍາຫຼວດພາກສະໜາມ
  • ການສໍາພາດ ຜູ້ນໍາໃຊ້ທີ່ດິນ

7.2 ເອກະສານທົ່ວໄປທີ່ສາມາດໃຊ້ໄດ້

ຫົວຂໍ້, ຜູ້ຂຽນ, ປີ, ISBN:

UNEP (2002) Enriching soils naturally. In: Success stories in the struggle against desertification pp 5-8

ຂໍ້ມູນການເຊື່ອມຕໍ່ ແລະ ເນື້ອໃນ

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