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Village-level participatory planning for sustainable agriculture and land management [塔吉克斯坦]

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approaches_2447 - 塔吉克斯坦

完整性: 83%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与方法评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人员

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:

Mott Jessica

World Bank

美国

有助于对方法进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
World Bank (World Bank) - 美国

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

10/10/2016

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

2. SLM方法的描述

2.1 该方法的简要说明

Design and implementation of participatory planning for village-level sustainable agriculture and land management investments through small grants for groups of upland farmers.

2.2 该方法的详细说明

该方法的详细说明:

Aims / objectives: As part of the CAWMP, participatory planning aimed to generate village-based community action plans (CAPs) that identified priority investments and beneficiaries for small grants to sustainably increase rural production. A total of 402 three-year plans were developed, through which about 4000 investments in four upland project sites were funded that resulted in increased livelihood assets for over 43,000 households and more than 96,000ha under improved land management practices.

Methods: Under supervision of a government-appointed Project Management Unit (PMU), four international facilitating organizations (FOs) were contracted to work closely with local field coordination units and Jamoat (“sub-district”) Development Committees (JDCs). An operational manual laid out guidelines for developing CAPs and the management of rural production investments. Activities could be proposed for three types of investment that would increase/improve: a) farm productivity, b) land resource management and c) small-scale infrastructure to support rural production. CAPs were required to include: (i) identifiers such as a location map, numbers of beneficiaries, area covered; (ii) an indicative list of investments and associated Common Interest Groups (CIGs) by investment type and cost; (iii) estimate of labor and materials needed; (iv) estimates of beneficiary contribution for each investment and (v) list of beneficiaries resulting from the improvements, and (vi) signed agreements to participate in the cost sharing, labor provision and subsequent operation and maintenance. Within each village, fixed amounts of funding were available and were exceeded by the value of proposed investments. Thus villagers considered the available budget, number of beneficiaries and associated risks when selecting investments (see TAJ044 for details). A beneficiary contribution of at least 25% of the value of the grant was required. In some cases, FOs and JDCs obtained other financing for activities outside of CAWMP.

Stages of implementation: Key steps in the implementation included: 1) Training of facilitators in participatory planning 2) Open village assembly introducing CAWMP and the CAP guidelines; 3) Participatory rural appraisals (PRA); 4) Sharing of findings in village assembly and identification of potential rural investments; 5) Prioritizing proposals and formation of CIGs; 6) Circulation of CAP, e.g., public display in JDC offices; 7) Preparation and submission of rural investment proposals with assistance from FOs and PCUs to JDCs/JRCs for initial screening and approval; and 8) Periodic meetings to review CAPs.

Role of stakeholders: Within villages, vulnerable households were identified and appraised through the use of PRA tools, such as wealth ranking and villager consultations and often were selected as priority recipients of initial investments. During the course of the project, environmental appraisal aspects of the planning process were strengthened through additional training in tools for participatory analysis.

2.3 该方法的照片

2.5 采用该方法的国家/地区/地点

国家:

塔吉克斯坦

区域/州/省:

Sughd, Region of Republican Subordination, Khatlon, Gorno Ba

有关地点的进一步说明:

Jirgital, Tajikibad, Vanj, Aini, Matcha, Pendjikent, Danghar

注释:

The Community Agriculture and Watershed Management Project was implemented in four project sites/watersheds - Surkhob, Vanjob, Toirsu and Zarafshan - that included 7 districts/raions and 39 sub-districts/jamoats. The total catchment area was 35,000km2. Total arable, farm and pasture land was approximately 319,500ha

2.6 该方法的开始和终止日期

注明开始年份:

2005

终止年份(若不再采用该方法):

2012

2.7 方法的类型

  • 基于项目/方案

2.8 该方法的主要目的/目标

The Approach focused mainly on other activities than SLM (participatory planning, design, implementation, village-level, small grants, sustainable agriculture, sustainable land management)

Community action plans for villages generated from a planning process that was participatory, transparent and identified and prioritised fair and feasible options for increasing rural production in ways that are environmentally sustainable.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Little prior experience in communities and organisations in participatory planning for sustainable agriculture and land management, particularly in the context of limited budgets. Marginalisation of poor and vulnerable groups and lack of transparency in decision-making over allocation of funding for investments.

2.9 推动或妨碍实施本办法所适用的技术的条件

社会/文化/宗教规范和价值观
  • 阻碍

Poor and vulnerable groups not active participants in appraisals and decision-making and do not adopt SLM practices.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Open meetings, PRA tools to encourage active participation.

财务资源和服务的可用性/可得性
  • 阻碍

Individual households unable to adequately invest in SLM investments.Few mechanisms to foster fairer distribution of resources along with feasible SLM options.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Households are formed into CIGs. Transparent budget limits for types of investment encourage participants to propose fairer and feasible SLM options.

法律框架(土地使用权、土地和水使用权)
  • 阻碍

Absence of land use rights will affect sustainability of technology investments.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Requirement that all CIGs have use rights nominally allocated. Project then assists in issuance of certificates.

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights hindered a little the approach implementation Very few Land Use Rights Certificates had been issued at start of project for arable land in upland areas. There was no provision for allocation of use rights to non-arable sloping lands suitable for horticulture, woodlots and other restricted access uses. However, project provisions (see 3.2.4.2) to assist in issuance of land use rights helped overcome this constraint.

了解SLM,获得技术支持
  • 阻碍

Little experience among specialists and beneficiaries with an integrated participatory process for planning SLM and related investments.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Tools for environmental, economic and social appraisals included in planning and further strengthened by training in additional topics, e.g., environmental analysis, financial management.

3. 相关利益相关者的参与和角色

3.1 该方法涉及的利益相关者及其职责

  • 当地土地使用者/当地社区

CIGs (Groups of households)

JDCs

As Common Interest Groups formed during planning

In some locations, cultural practices significantly limited female participation in planning. Generally, at least one third of women in villages participated in the planning processes. It should be noted that due to male migration, the number of female-headed households is increasing and depending on the location, their numbers can be significant.

Project population is generally considered poor or very poor. Within this population, PRA tools identified poor and vulnerable groups, who were then sometimes chosen as priority participants for certain types of rural investments.

As participants in village-level planning

  • 国家政府(规划者、决策者)

Project Management Unit, Project Coordination Units

  • 国际组织

UNDP-Tajikistan, FAO-Tajikistan

NGOs:Welthungerhilfe, Aga Khan Foundation/Mountain Societies Development Support Programme

3.2 当地土地使用者/当地社区参与该方法的不同阶段
当地土地使用者/当地社区的参与 指定参与人员并描述活动
启动/动机
计划 被动 Potential beneficiaries consulted for social assessment during project design. Findings used for developing planning approach.
实施 互动 Villagers participated in development of CAPs, formation of CIGs and choice of SLM activities.
监测/评估 互动 Villagers participated in monitoring of CAPs and the impacts of rural investments.
Research

3.3 流程图(如可用)

具体说明:

CAWMP Implementation Arrangements and Project Partners

作者:

Project Management Unit (Dushanbe, Tajikistan)

3.4 有关SLM技术选择的决策

具体说明谁有权决定选择要实施的技术:
  • 主要是土地使用者,由SLM专家提供支持
解释:

CIG members and technical specialists from the respective facilitating organisation and project coordination unit made decisions on the choice of SLM technologies

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by land users supported by SLM specialists. CIG members and technical specialists from the respective facilitating organisation and project coordination unit made decisions on the method/s for implementing SLM technologies in any one proposal.

4. 技术支持、能力建设和知识管理

4.1 能力建设/培训

是否为土地使用者/其他利益相关者提供培训?:

明确受训人员:
  • 土地使用者
  • 现场工作人员/顾问
  • JDCs
培训形式:
  • 公开会议
涵盖的主题:

Participatory rural appraisal, monitoring and evaluation, participatory environmental analysis, various SLM technologies eligible for support in CAWMP. The overall approach focuses on participatory learning by stakeholders including land users as part of the planning process. Land users learned through participation in rural appraisal tools.

4.2 咨询服务

土地使用者有权使用咨询服务吗?:

4.3 机构强化(组织发展)

是否通过这种方法建立或加强了机构?:
  • 是,非常
具体说明机构的强化或建立程度:
  • 本地
具体说明支持类型:
  • 能力建设/培训
提供进一步细节:

See TAJ047 for role of sub-district/JDC organisations in CAWMP at the sub-district and village-levels.

4.4 监测和评估

监测和评估是该方法的一部分吗?:

注释:

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by project staff, government, land users through measurements; indicators: At least 50% of villagers should participate in investments.

Community Action Plans aspects were regular monitored by project staff through observations; indicators: Number of CAPs, CAP implementation (CAWMP portion), Quality of proposals,

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Weak environmental appraisals in proposals resulted in additional training for facilitators in additional PRA tools (see TAJ045 for details on training). Changes made in rural investment proposal format since initial submissions were of variable quality.

There were few changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Clearer set of eligible and ineligible activities for each investment type since some initial proposed investments did not adequately address environmental, economic and social feasibility (see TAJ045 for details on eligibility criteria).

4.5 研究

研究是该方法的一部分吗?

5. 融资和外部物质支持

5.1 该方法中SLM组成部分的年度预算

如果不知道准确的年度预算,请给出一个范围:
  • > 1,000,000
注释(例如主要的资助来源/主要捐助者):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international non-government (Estimate of co-financing): 5.0%; government (Estimate of co-financing): 5.0%; international (World Bank/International Development Assistance and Global Environment Facility): 90.0%; local community / land user(s) (Opportunity cost of villagers time); other (Opportunity costs of JDC members time)

5.3 对特定投入的补贴(包括劳动力)

  • 其它
其它(具体说明) 程度如何 对补贴做出具体说明
facilitation, training and technical assistance

5.4 信用

是否根据SLM活动的方法给予信用值?:

6. 影响分析和结论性陈述

6.1 方法的影响

该方法是否帮助土地使用者实施和维护SLM技术?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Almost 4000 rural production investments that integrated SLM practices into the management of over 96,000ha have been implemented in 402 villages and 39 jamoats.

该方法是否有助于社会和经济弱势群体?:
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

As part of CAWMP, and within a generally poor project population, participatory planning identified poor and vulnerable groups as beneficiaries. Women comprised 40% of rural investment beneficiaries.

Legal agreement governing CAWMP permitted issuance of certificates for sloping lands for horticulture, woodlots and other restricted access uses. JDCs assisted project staff in processing certificates for participating households. Certificates were processed based on adoption of SLM practices. Another project accelerated certificates for arable land.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Other internationally funded projects and some country-based organisations have adopted elements of the planning approach, e.g., environmental appraisal tools, use of village-level budget limits.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

An overall assessment (as of 2009 and being updated in 2011) indicates that at least 80% of investments implemented are successful in terms of economic, environmental and social parameters.

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

The approach contributed to increasing the proportion of people above poverty from 3% to 16% (as of 2009 and being reassessed as part of a project evaluation in 2011) in the participating villages.

6.2 土地使用者实施SLM的主要动机

  • 增加生产
  • 加入运动/项目/团体/网络
  • well-being and livelihoods improvement

6.3 方法活动的可持续性

土地使用者能否维持通过该方法实施的措施(无外部支持的情况下)?:
若是,请说明如何维持:

Knowledge of and skills in participatory planning have been built in villages and can be used for other purposes as well as other projects and programmes. However, facilitation assistance would be beneficial to ensure fairness and transparency in decision-making.

6.4 该方法的长处/优点

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Awaiting project evaluation due in 2011
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
Working with budget limits was an effective mechanism for villagers to prioritize and assess risks of various options. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Document process and results, disseminate to government, donors and other implementing agencies.)
Open disclosure of available funds and amounts allocated to investments improved accountability. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Ensure similar measures are included in future planning processes.)

6.5 该方法的弱点/缺点以及克服它们的方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Flexibility given to FOs in planning methods led to some investment proposals of variable quality Future efforts should specify core minimum planning elements but still provide some flexibility to foster innovation and accommodation of local contexts.

7. 参考和链接

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Operational Manual for Community Mobilization, Rural Production Investments and Research and Demonstration Grants (2008)

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

Project Management Unit

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Operational Manuals for JDCs and CIGs in Financial Management and Procurement (2007)

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

Project Management Unit

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

CAWMP: Project Appraisal Document (2005)

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

World Bank website

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