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技术
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Mulching [乌干达]

Okubikka etaka nebisubi

technologies_1161 - 乌干达

完整性: 73%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:

Kateregga Matia

Rakai District

乌干达

SLM专业人员:

Mazimakwo Kukundakwe

Kabale District

乌干达

有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
The Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project for the Kagera River Basin (GEF-FAO / Kagera TAMP )
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO Food and Agriculture Organization) - 意大利

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

12/05/2013

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Improving soil fertility for both animal and perennial crops on flat area using mulching.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

It involves use of vegetative materials spread on the surface of the soil such as grass , crop residues and banana leaves.


Perennial crops are grown such as coffee, banana under this technology.

Purpose of the Technology: Of applying mulching was improve soil fertility to control soil erosion , improve soil structure.


Mulching applied also to increase agriculture outputs to improve the income among the farmers.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Mulching was initiated through community meetings held at local level.

Labor is used for clearing weed and cutting of grass for covering the surface of the soil.

Hoes, pandas are used as inputs for maintenance activities.
When the vegetative materials decompose like after one year, he cuts new grass for more covering of soil or spreading of vegetative materials to soil.

Natural / human environment: This village where the technology is applied, is located on gentle slope and other part is on flat area. It favors the growth of annual and perennial crops.
They receive two rainy seasons , one from March to late May; another one from mid August to December. This village also has 170 households . 45% of the members practice mulching , they grow crops for commercial and subsistence purpose. Both men and women are involved in all the activities.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

乌干达

区域/州/省:

Uganda

有关地点的进一步说明:

Rakai District

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 10-50年前

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过土地使用者的创新
注释(项目类型等):

The technology was initiated in 1986 by local farmers through community meetings.

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

农田

农田

  • 一年一作
  • 多年一作(非木材)
主要农作物(经济作物及粮食作物):

Major cash crop perennial (non-woody) cropping: Coffee
Major food crop perennial (non-woody) cropping: Banana
Major food crop perennial (non-woody) cropping: Cassava & yams
Major other crop perennial (non-woody) cropping: Sweet potatoes

注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): There is loss of top soil due to leaving soil bare , water can easily wash the soil from one place to another.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Deforestation and monoculture due to poverty among some farmers.

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Cropland: Cp: Perennial (non-woody) cropping

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Crops which grow for one or two years are grown.

如果由于技术的实施而导致土地用途发生变化,则在技术实施前说明土地利的用途。:

Cropland: Ca: Annual cropping

3.3 有关土地利用的更多信息

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养
具体说明:

Longest growing period in days: 42 Longest growing period from month to month: March to June Second longest growing period in days: 90 Second longest growing period from month to month: September to December

3.4 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 改良的地面/植被覆盖

3.5 技术传播

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果该技术均匀地分布在一个区域上,请注明覆盖的大致区域。:
  • 0.1-1 平方千米
注释:

The farmer has 6 acres applied this technology on 4 acres currently.

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

农艺措施

农艺措施

  • A1:植被和土壤覆盖层
注释:

Main measures: agronomic measures

Type of agronomic measures: mulching

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
注释:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Main causes of degradation: soil management (soil was not covered with grass.)

Secondary causes of degradation: change in temperature (Reduces micro-organisms due to high temperature.), poverty / wealth (Deforestation purposely to earn a living.)

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

作者:

Kakuuto Community developement project.

4.2 技术规范/技术图纸说明

The drawing shows mulching practice in the garden of Mr. Katerega of Kijonjo village -Kasasa
sub-county.

Location: Kijonjo village. Rakai District.

Date: 09/08/2011

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover

Secondary technical functions: increase in organic matter

Mulching
Material/ species: Grasses
Remarks: 50 big bundles per ha.

4.4 技术建立活动

活动 措施类型 时间
1. Buy hand hoe
2. Buy panda
3. Labour
4. Buy vegetative materials

4.5 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 25.0 25.0 100.0
设备 Tools ha 1.0 6.3 6.3 100.0
植物材料 Grass ha 1.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
技术建立所需总成本 81.3
注释:

Lifespan of the products:
Hand hoe: 7 years
Panda: 4 years
Labour: 4 months
Vegetative materials: 4 months

4.6 维护/经常性活动

活动 措施类型 时间/频率
1. Clearing weed 农业学的
2. Adding more vegetative materials 农业学的

4.7 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 25.0 25.0 100.0
设备 Tools ha 1.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
植物材料 Grass ha 1.0 50.0 50.0 100.0
技术维护所需总成本 125.0
注释:

Length of structure.

4.8 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

Labor was also expensive , which affects the cost.eg. for cutting grass for mulching.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

910.9 per month

农业气候带
  • 潮湿的
  • 半湿润

Thermal climate class: tropics

Thermal climate class: subtropics

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
关于地形的注释和进一步规范:

Altitudinal zone: 1233.3 & 1633.2 m.a.s.l

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
表土有机质:
  • 中(1-3%)
  • 低(<1%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

Soil texture: Medium (Crops on it grow well due to drained soil)
Soil fertility: High (Because crops mature faster and of good quality)
Topsoil organic matter: Medium (ranked 1, due to high rates decomposition of crop residues on soil) and low (ranked 2, on parts of the land without spreading vegetative material on it)
Soil drainage / infiltration: Medium (ranked 1, due to presence of micro-organisms that creates holes on soil) and poor (ranked 2)
Soil water storage capacity: High (the area has loam soil which favor water to stay in the soil)

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

5-50米

地表水的可用性:

匮乏/没有

水质(未处理):

良好饮用水

关于水质和水量的注释和进一步规范:

Ground water table: 5-50m (This village is on flat land)
Availability of surface water: Poor/none (ranked 1, especially in dry season) and medium (ranked 2, during rainy season (heavy rains))
Water quality (untreated): Good drinking water (they have two boreholes in the whole village)

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
关于生物多样性的注释和进一步规范:

Biodiversity: Low (ranked 1, micro-organisms become scarce during heavy rainfall) and medium (ranked 2, moderate temperature ,crops grow well & bacteria present)

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

生产系统的市场定位:
  • 生计(自给)
  • 混合(生计/商业
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
  • 丰富
个人或集体:
  • 个人/家庭
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
25% of the land users are rich and own 65% of the land (Inputs available).
75% of the land users are poor and own 35% of the land (They lack inputs).
Off-farm income specification: Traders especially retailers' income ranging in 50%.
Level of mechanization: Manual labour (It involves use of light labour)
Market orientation: Mixed (ranked 1, grown for commercial & home consumption) and subsistence (ranked 2, production is on small scale,especailly perennial crops)

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者拥有或租用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 中等规模的
注释:

0.5-1 ha (ranked 1): They have enough inputs.
<0.5 ha (ranked 2): Mainly the poor farmer(without inputs) belong here.

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 个人,未命名
  • 个人,有命名
土地使用权:
  • 个人
用水权:
  • 社区(有组织)
注释:

Few farmers own land without tittles, water use rights is communal and farmers without land tittle pay some money to land lord 3500/= every year.

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

作物生产

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

20bunches

SLM之后的数量:

50

注释/具体说明:

banana production increasd pr mth

生产区域

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

<0.4ha

SLM之后的数量:

1ha

注释/具体说明:

size of prodn area increased due to increased benefits.

收入和成本

工作量

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

45%

SLM之后的数量:

20%

注释/具体说明:

Spreading vegetation on top soil takes time.

社会文化影响

食品安全/自给自足

减少
改良

健康状况

恶化
改良
SLM之前的数量:

18%

SLM之后的数量:

55%

注释/具体说明:

Food production increased.

SLM/土地退化知识

减少
改良
SLM之前的数量:

25%

SLM之后的数量:

50%

注释/具体说明:

Indegenous conservation knowledge increased.

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
注释/具体说明:

For those farmers who practiced on a large scale , outputs increased , leading to increased income.

生态影响

水循环/径流

地表径流

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

45%

SLM之后的数量:

0.5%

注释/具体说明:

Soil binding together.

土壤

土壤水分

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

3%

SLM之后的数量:

85%

注释/具体说明:

Mulching leads to increased moisture

土壤覆盖层

减少
改良
SLM之前的数量:

25%

SLM之后的数量:

90%

注释/具体说明:

vegetative material spread on soil.

土壤流失

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

55%

SLM之后的数量:

1%

注释/具体说明:

top soil is protected.

土壤结壳/密封

增加
减少
SLM之前的数量:

20%

SLM之后的数量:

22%

土壤压实

增加
减少
SLM之前的数量:

20%

SLM之后的数量:

22%

注释/具体说明:

Failure of vegetative material to decompose.

土壤有机物/地下C

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

15%

SLM之后的数量:

55%

注释/具体说明:

vegetative material decompose at high rate.

减少气候和灾害风险

火灾风险

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

15%

SLM之后的数量:

50%

注释/具体说明:

dry grass can easily catch fire.

6.4 成本效益分析

注释:

In establishment benefits were low , and gradually became slightly positive compared to maintenance costs.

6.5 技术采用

在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发地采用该技术,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 90-100%
注释:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

62 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: Farmers improvise inputs ,however much some of them are financially poor, they do utilize the little they poses to implement.

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Depending on the information from this respondent, he said that adoption is still little , due to lack of enough financial resources, to transport vegetative material to garden.

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Improve soil fertility.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Combination of technology should be applied(mulching & composting).
Increase production outputs.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? monitoring and evaluation activities should be conducted.
Reduces soil erosion.
It improves soil aeration.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Mulch constantly.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
It improves soil fertility.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Combination of technology should be applied.
It increases water holding capacity of the soil.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Develop permanent attitude towards technology among farmers.
Improve soil structure.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Maintenance activity should be encouraged.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

土地使用者认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
It is very costly to some farmers. External financial support should be provided.
It may lead to compaction of soil. Mulch with soft vegetative materials.
It may lead to competition for soil nutrients &light. Avoid to mulch with weedy materials.
Mulches develop roots and become weed. Mulch with the good vegetative materials.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
It is very expensive in terms of maintenance and establishing. Financial support should be provided.
It may easily catch fire during suuny period. Constant monitoring of the site.
Mulches become habitats for pests like rats and termites. Spraying with some chemicals like rocket.

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