技术

Riverbank stabilization [阿富汗]

Nehal Shani Kenar Darya

technologies_1285 - 阿富汗

完整性: 84%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:

Slaimankhil Abdul Ghafar

HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, Afghanistan

阿富汗

有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 所述技术的可持续性声明

这里所描述的技术在土地退化方面是否存在问题,导致无法被认为是一种可持续的土地管理技术?:

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

A low cost and an easy activity for protecting agricultural lands, gardens and public infrastructure from the damages of flash flood.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

Lack of vegetation coverage in the hills and mountains of Saighan district has become the source of destructive flash floods. Harvest of shrubs and other vegetation for fuel wood and the uncontrolled grazing of animals in upper catchment areas are some of the reasons for the loss of vegetation. Flash floods, that mainly occur during the spring and summer seasons, destroy many hectares of agriculture lands and gardens,damage public infrastructures and sometimes threatens lives.

The plantation of long root trees in lower catchment areas is an effective and low-cost technology. Its objective is to prevent flood damage. Trees 
hold the soil in place with their root structures decreasing land degradation and soil erosion. It is a low cost activity that can be 
alternative option to protection walls which are more costly, both in terms of establishments and maintenance. Additional benefits of the technology are the increased availability of wood beams for 
construction, of fuel wood and of fodder. This technology, coupled with information campaigns, may help to provide a strong disincentive against 
cutting shrubs and grazing in upper catchment areas. In addition, increasing the number of indigenous trees help reduce the negative effects of climate change. The trees also serve as wind breaks.

Having mobilized the community, areas along the watercourse that have been damaged by floods as well as unproductive lands were selected. Based on their ability to adapt well to the local environment, cuttings of Salix (or Willow) and Populus (or Poplar) were selected for planting. Cuttings were provided from the district. Each participating household planted 400 cuttings (2 m long size). The cuttings were planted at a distance of 25 cm and the line to line distance was 100 cm. For the first year, wooden belts, placed along the plating line may protect the new saplings from flood damages, ensuring that the sapling are able to grow. Protection by fencing with barbed wire in two first years also prevents grazing of leaves and new branches by animals.

Interested households should be introduced by the Community Development Council members through a transparent selection process and considering the following criteria:
•the household should be interested to plant long root tree cuttings;
•the household should have enough degraded / riverbank and waste land to plant cuttings;
•Willingness to invest.

The cost of applying riverbank stabilization (plantation of Salix and Populus) is estimated to be 10 AFN/cutting. One person can plant over 500 cuttings per day. In this case, 50% of the cutting cost was contributed by HELVETAS projects and 50% of the cost of the cuttings was contributed by the participating households.

Participating households maintain the plantations. They are responsible for irrigating the cuttings and for protecting them from grazing animals for the first few years. In addition to improved flood protection, participating households increased their understanding riverbank stabilization and energy plantation and managing cuttings (selection, land preparation, fascine and palisade plantation).

Bamyan province is a remote province of Afghanistan with a high poverty rate. It has a semi-arid climate with cold winters and hot and dry summers. During winter, temperatures can drop below -22 degrees. Summer temperatures can reach 34 degrees in the month of July. The average annual rainfall in the area is about 230 mm and some years can be very dry. 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods and off-farm activities are marginal. The growing season in Saighan district is relatively short from April to October and farmers can produce only one crop per year. Farmers with access to irrigation water cultivate cash crops, for example potato and vegetables, in addition to staple crops (wheat) and fodder crops. Those without access to irrigation water cultivate wheat and fodder crops only. Water scarcity during May to September may result to lack of high value crops.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

阿富汗

区域/州/省:

Bamyan

有关地点的进一步说明:

Saighan

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果技术均匀分布在一个区域,则指定覆盖的区域(单位为平方千米):

9.85e-05

注释:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 98.5 m2.

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

When the people migrated in other provinces, they saw over there and learnt. Since 2011 HELVETAS introduced this activity for alternative option of cutting shrubs and low cost protection wall against flood damages.

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化
  • 降低灾害风险

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

牧场

牧场

粗放式放牧:
  • 半游牧畜牧业
集约放牧/饲料生产:
  • 收割和携带/零放牧
水道、水体、湿地

水道、水体、湿地

  • 池塘、大坝
注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Lack of sustainable land management, uncontrolled overgrazing of animals and collection of woods and bushes for fuel by the people in the upper catchment area. Occurrence of flash floods which damage public infrastructure, gardens and farm lands the sources of livelihoods downstream areas.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Population increase and lack of resources and service delivery during the war caused over exploitation of resources in upper catchment areas. Increase in flock sizes to improve incomes which resulted to overgrazing.
Semi-nomadism / pastoralism: People move their flocks to other provinces and graze also in the area hill and mountaines
Cut-and-carry/ zero grazing: Provide fodder from agriculture land and graze in unimproved pasture areas. People have less animals like sheep, goat and cows

Number of growing seasons per year: 1
Longest growing period in days: 90, Longest growing period from month to month: April to June; Second longest growing period in days: 120, Second longest growing period from month to month: July to October
Livestock density: 1-10 LU /km2

3.3 由于技术的实施,土地使用是否发生了变化?

由于技术的实施,土地使用是否发生了变化?:
  • 是(请在技术实施前填写以下有关土地利用的问题)
水道、水体、湿地

水道、水体、湿地

  • 排水管道、水道
  • 池塘、大坝

3.4 供水

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 充分灌溉

3.5 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 地表水管理(泉、河、湖、海)
  • 湿地保护/管理

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

植物措施

植物措施

  • V1:乔木和灌木覆盖层
注释:

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -along boundary

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
  • Wr:河岸侵蚀
土壤风蚀

土壤风蚀

  • Et:表土流失
注释:

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Cutting shrubs of upper catchments increased naked area, so flash flood and drought years resulted), overgrazing (Free grazing of animals in spring and summer seasons resulted that domestic plants have eaten by animals before producing seed), floods (Naked area of upper catchments is the source of comming multi times flood per year), population pressure (Increasing population demanded more), war and conflicts (War limited services and caused less availability of fuel)
Secondary causes of degradation: droughts (No vegetation coverage increased temprature of the area and reduced deep moisture of soil), poverty / wealth (Poverty is the reason of destroying natural resources), governance / institutional (Lack of good governance for having development strategy)

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 防止土地退化
  • 减少土地退化

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

技术规范(与技术图纸相关):

The technology should be applied along the damageable areas into multi lines. The technoIogy should be applied along the
damaged areas in multiple lines.
Location: Saighan district. Bamyan province
Date: 12/10/2015

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high (To advice and train people on lining system and propaganda of its importance)
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate
Main technical functions: stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), reduction in wind speed
Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), improvement of subsoil structure (hardpan)

Aligned: -along boundary
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 5000
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 2
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.25

Trees/ shrubs species: Salix, poplar
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): >50%
If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 15-30%
Gradient along the rows / strips: >3%

作者:

Shabir Shahem, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, Afghanistan

4.2 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

其它/国家货币(具体说明):

Afghani

如相关,注明美元与当地货币的汇率(例如1美元=79.9巴西雷亚尔):1美元=:

64.0

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

5.46

4.3 技术建立活动

活动 时间(季度)
1. Cutting preparation and plantation 5 days (April)

4.4 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 labour ha 1.0 54.6 54.6 100.0
其它 cutting ha 1.0 1562.5 1562.5 50.0
技术建立所需总成本 1617.1
技术建立总成本,美元 25.27
注释:

Duration of establishment phase: 0.33 month(s)

4.5 维护/经常性活动

活动 时间/频率
1. No maintenance cost is required so far.

4.6 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

注释:

Riverbank establishment cost is calculated here assuming that the soil is soft, gulleys have not formed and the cuttings are available within the villages and cost efficiently provided by the farmer.

4.7 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

The severity of erosion, hard soil and lack of long root cuttings are the factors which effect the cost of riverbank establishment the most.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

Annual rainy days are 37 and snowy days are 14 days, mostly June to September are dry months.

农业气候带
  • 半干旱

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
表土有机质:
  • 中(1-3%)

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

5-50米

地表水的可用性:

中等

水质(未处理):

不良饮用水(需要处理)

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
  • 中等

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

生产系统的市场定位:
  • 混合(生计/商业)
非农收入:
  • 低于全部收入的10%
相对财富水平:
  • 丰富
  • 非常丰富
个人或集体:
  • 团体/社区
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
性别:
  • 男人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: In Afghanistan societies women don't work in such hard works, although now women work out of their homes but they work as teacher, staff of organizations, self professionals and etc.
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 3% - 4%; 3%
60% of the land users are very rich and own 30% of the land (Able to purchase cutting and hire worker).
30% of the land users are rich and own 40% of the land (Able to purchase cutting and hire worker).
10% of the land users are average wealthy and own 30% of the land (Able to purchase cutting and work by themselves). (Mainly they do not have land).
Off-farm income specification: Those people who not applied such technology, their lands are under threat of flood and to provide fuel wood should pay more in a year

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者使用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 中等规模的

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 个人,未命名
土地使用权:
  • 个人
  • individual/communal
  • individual/communal
注释:

The water use rights is determined by hours on 2000m2 land area.

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

饲料生产

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

19700 kg

注释/具体说明:

The leaves of tree can be more after 5 years, now the saplings are small size

木材生产

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

985 pcs

注释/具体说明:

It is going to be increased after some years when the tree saplings groth more sizes

生产区域

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

49250 kg

注释/具体说明:

Fuel wood increased

能源生产

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

50

注释/具体说明:

The household who applied technology are about sufficient from fuel energy

社会文化影响

食品安全/自给自足

减少
改良
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

20%

注释/具体说明:

Houshoulds who applied the technology now they don't pay for providing fuel wood as more as they paid in the past. they provide fuel wood more from their established forest and save their moneys for other needs

SLM/土地退化知识

减少
改良
注释/具体说明:

People undrestood it is a good technique to control soil erosion and get fuel wood to do not go got mountains for cutting shrubs

冲突缓解

恶化
改良
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

30%

contribution to human well-being

decreased
increased
注释/具体说明:

Now the boys don't go to the mountains to collect bushes for fuel wood and get education. It has as well contributed the households economically as they do not need to spend money in purchasing fuel wood.

生态影响

土壤

土壤覆盖层

减少
改良
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

30%

注释/具体说明:

Now the hard wind is not a reason of soil erosion in covered land areas and it get more however the trees grow more and become tall

土壤流失

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

50%

注释/具体说明:

Protection of area from damage of flood and wind by tree belts decreased soil loss of agriculture lands

土壤有机物/地下C

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

10

SLM之后的数量:

50%

注释/具体说明:

Raw materials which accelerate micro organism activities increase in the area

生物多样性:植被、动物

生物量/地上C

降低
增加
SLM之前的数量:

10%

SLM之后的数量:

50%

注释/具体说明:

Fallen leaves increased biomass

减少气候和灾害风险

风速

增加
降低
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

30%

注释/具体说明:

Wind breaks and protected about more than 3 Hectare agriculture lands

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

下游洪水

增加
减少
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

15%

注释/具体说明:

Breaks wave of flood

风力搬运沉积物

增加
减少
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

50%

注释/具体说明:

Decreased damages of wind and frost

对公共/私人基础设施的破坏

增加
减少
SLM之前的数量:

0

SLM之后的数量:

50%

注释/具体说明:

Protected the road

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

渐变气候

渐变气候
季节 增加或减少 该技术是如何应对的?
年温度 增加

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地暴雨
局地风暴
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱 不好
水文灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
比较和缓的(河道)洪水 不好

其他气候相关的后果

其他气候相关的后果
该技术是如何应对的?
缩短生长期 不好
注释:

During the first years, as the roots are still undeveloped, saplings should be protected by a stone wall from floods. During drought years saplings
should be irrigated at least 2 times per week over two years.

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

稍微积极

长期回报:

非常积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

非常积极

长期回报:

非常积极

注释:

Expenditure occurs mostly during the establishment of the technology. After a few years, benefits (including production) increase without significant expenditure.

6.5 技术采用

  • > 50%
在所有采用这项技术的人当中,有多少人是自发的,即未获得任何物质奖励/付款?:
  • 91-100%
注释:

It was applied as extension activity but when the others families learnt and saw the good results, they applied by themselves without any external supports
985 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
The land users also decided to extend this activity in other place lands which they have.
There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
As this technology is applicable by each family and has good results, many other people has trend toward the spontaneous adoption of the technology.

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Increasing fuel wood
Prevents occurrence of flash floods in the agricultural lands
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
Applicable by rural community members.
Low cost technology to prevent damage of floods in comparison with concrete protection wall.
A good option for reducing shrubs cutting in the upper catchment areas.
Prevent soil erosion by winds
Contributes in the greening of the environment

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Lack of good and improved cuttings Production of good species in wood lot or nurseries
Small landholdings per households (limiting the establishment of the technology) Group decision and motivating and involving larger group of people to apply the technology
Saplings are vulnerable towards floods in the first two years because still they have not long roots and saplings are as well small Protection by a stone wall belt in the way of coming flood for 2 first years

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查
  • 与土地使用者的访谈
(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

12/10/2015

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

HELVETAS Swiss IntercooperationSaighan field officeILRC and GS projects 2012 to 2015

可以从哪里获得?成本如何?

HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, Afghanistan

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