有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Pilot Program for Climate Resilience, Tajikistan (WB / PPCR)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Forestry Department of GBAO - 塔吉克斯坦
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Pamir Biological Institute (Pamir Biological Institute) - 塔吉克斯坦
Establishment of an 8-row shelterbelt consisting of different varieties of willow, poplar and sea-buckthorn to protect irrigated cropland with poor quality soil in the high Pamir region from wind erosion.
The 24m wide shelterbelt consists of eight rows of trees. Three plots, 50m wide and 350m long were left in-between the trees to intercrop with lucerne and other perennial herbs. Thus, the total area which includes the shelterbelts, meadows and irrigation ditches makes up nearly 10 ha. The shelterbelt was established perpendicular to the direction of the strong winds. Past trials have shown that under the harsh climatic conditions of the Pamir region, shelterbelts in sandy and pebbly areas should include at least eight rows of trees and shrubs.
Purpose of the Technology: The purpose of this technology was to intercrop the shelterbelts with lucerne in order to help protect crops from wind erosion.
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Shelterbelts were planted by hand, not using any machinery. Trees and shrubs were planted in accordance with their physiological characteristics and their tolerance to deflation. The eight rows were planted in the following order: 1st row: sea-buckthorn, 2nd: Shugnan willows, 3rd: Thuran willows, 4th: Pamir poplars, 5th: Bolle's poplars, 6th: Wilhelm’s willows, 7th: Shugnan willows and 8th: Sea Buckthorn. The distance between trees in each row was 4m. Willows and poplars were planted as cuttings, around 1.5–3m in length cut off at the point at which the diameter of the base was around 6cm. Sea buckthorn was planted as seeds at a depth of 4-6cm. Horizontal planting, which increases the growth by 25%, was used instead of vertical planting. The trees were planted between late March and early April. Furrow irrigation ditches were dug before the actual planting of the trees. The irrigation ditches were 0.3m deep and 0.5m wide. The plot was then watered before the actual planting of the trees and the Lucerne, to increase the soil moisture and improve the subsequent growth of the trees. Further watering of the area was carried out every 4-7 days depending on the weather conditions and levels of moisture in the soil. These willow and poplar trees can be pruned 5-6 years after the initial planting. At this stage the branches will be 1-3 m long and can be used by the local population.
Natural / human environment: The plot is located in an arid zone which has sandy and pebbly soil with low fertility. Initially this area was covered by Tugai forest and used as grazing land as well as for timber production. However, as a result of deforestation, the land in this area has become highly unstable and poses a threat to the irrigated lands upslope. 80% of the soil consists of stones and sand. Vegetation cover is mainly composed of sagebrush deserts. These shelterbelts were established during Soviet times and when the civil war broke out after independence, many of the poplar trees were cut down by the local population for construction- and firewood. Therefore only parts of the original shelterbelts are still in place today.
Boundary points of the Technology area: 36.40.46 - 71.47.28 36.40.37 - 71.47.26 36.4051 - 71.47.01 36.40.36 - 71.47.02
Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.1 km2.
about 10 ha
58 years ago
年作 - 具体指明作物:
- 饲料作物 - 苜蓿
- 根/块茎作物 - 土豆
- 蔬菜 - 根茎类蔬菜（胡萝卜、洋葱、甜菜等）
- 蔬菜 - 叶菜（色拉、卷心菜、菠菜和其他）
- poplar, wilow, sea-buckthorn
Longest growing period in days: 150Longest growing period from month to month: from May to September
trees to intercrop with lucerne and other perennial herbs
Wastelands, deserts, glaciers, swamps, recreation areas, etc
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): land loss, soil fertility decrease, desertification of the area, poverty,
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): land degradation, land fertility decrease, deforestation, poverty
Plantation forestry: Yes
Forest products and services: fuelwood, fruits and nuts, grazing / browsing, nature conservation / protection, protection against natural hazards
Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Forests / woodlands: Fp: Plantations, afforestations
Livestock is grazing on crop residues
Main measures: vegetative measures
Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -against wind, aligned: -linear
Main type of degradation addressed: Ed: deflation and deposition
Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (excessive cutting of natural trees and shrubs), wind storms / dust storms (during the wind storm sand covers the cultivated lands), land tenure (more of the forests destroyed in transition period), poverty / wealth (shortage of electricity was the main reason of forest degradation)
Secondary causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (grass was used for livestock), overgrazing (overgrazing of the natural forests by livestock)
Main goals: prevention of land degradation
Secondary goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation, rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land
Location: GBAO. Ishkashim
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (All the works are simple for implementaton)
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (All the works are simple for implementaton)
Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), reduction in wind speed, increase of biomass (quantity), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder), spatial arrangement and diversification of land use
Secondary technical functions: increase of surface roughness, improvement of subsoil structure (hardpan), increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, increase of groundwater level / recharge of groundwater
Aligned: -against wind
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 390
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 3
Vegetative material: G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 20 kg seeds
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 4
Trees/ shrubs species: sea-buckthorns, willows and poplars
Perennial crops species: alfa alfa
Grass species: alfa alfa
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 0.00%
If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 0.00%
Gradient along the rows / strips: 0.20%
Qadamov Aslam, Gulmamadov St.52/7 apt.11
|1.||digging of pits for tree planting||first year|
|2.||planting of trees||first year|
|3.||sowing of the alfa-alfa in drills||every 5 years|
|4.||construction of irrigation canals|
|劳动力||Digging of pits for tree||Persons/day||10.0||18.0||180.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Planting of trees||Persons/day||10.0||10.0||100.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Sowing of the alfa-alfa in drills||Persons/day||8.0||3.125||25.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Construction of irrigation canals||Persons/day||15.0||15.0||225.0||100.0|
|设备||Shovels and other tools||pieces||30.0||1.0||30.0|
Duration of establishment phase: 1 month(s)
|1.||sanitary cutting and pruning||every year|
|2.||cutting of alfa alfa||three times per year|
|3.||maintenance of the irrigation system||every year|
|劳动力||Sanitary cutting and pruning||Persons/day||3.0||3.333||10.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Cutting of alfa alfa||Persons/day||5.0||12.0||60.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Maintenance of the irrigation system||Persons/day||2.0||22.5||45.0||100.0|
wind breakes and grass strips
seeds and seedlings cost
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
average annual rainfall - 110 mm, during winter - spring times, 5 - 6 month of dry time
Thermal climate class: boreal. 3 months below 5°C and 6 months above 5°C
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Altitudinal zone is 2600 m
Slopes on average are 10 - 14°
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil texture consists of about 70% of sand and 30% of clay
Soil fertility is low, with humus about 0.2 - 0.3 %
Soil drainage / infiltration is medium and during the summer time soil waters rise up to 1m from top soil
Soil water storage capacity is low because of the sandy soil
Availability of surface water also medium, but good water availibility during vegetation time
Water quality (untreated) is good because water comes from glaciers
Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: < 10 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 0.5% - 1%
10% of the land users are average wealthy and own 5% of the land.
60% of the land users are poor and own 70% of the land.
30% of the land users are poor and own 25% of the land.
Market orientation of production system: Products are for subsistence needs mainly but for sale as well
Level of mechanization: Animal traction is available fro most landusers, but machines only for some landusers.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
< 0.5 ha for forests.
Average land size is 1.5 ha
irrigation canals are protected and therefore don't have to be cleaned from sediments every year
technology increases yield from croplands
during field work farmers acquire knowledges about erosion and methods to prevent it
poor farmers get opportunity to use more croplands
Livelihoods and human well-being
Because of increased knowledge of the local farmers about erosion, reduce wind storm related diseases
windbreak rows conserve soil moisture
No, drought is only a problem if it lasts longterm (for a year or more)
- > 50%
100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
81 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: unfortunately, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and during the civil war people cut down all the shelterbelts for fuelwood, some people have starte to rehabilitate the shelterbelts as they understand their importance, but it is difficult because there is no material support
|Low cost of the technology as compared to other technologies|
|The use of local sorts of trees and shrubs allows to apply this technology in any climatic zone of the Pamir|
|High tolerance of selected sorts of trees and shrubs to sand storms, which has been confirmed by multiple practical surveys|
|Willows and poplar trees are prone to various diseases||use herbicides|
|Forest strips need irrigation||construction of irrigation system|
|Willows and poplar trees are prone to various diseases||use herbicides|