National Capacity Building Coordinator, Energy and Environment Programme, UNDP Tajikistan
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM I)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Pilot Program for Climate Resilience, Tajikistan (WB / PPCR)
Shelterbelts are used to protect irrigated land from deposition of sand and to reduce wind speed
This technology consists of shelterbelts made of Russian Silverberry (Elaeagnus angustifolia) to protect irrigated wheat and rice fields from strong winds.
In the Shaartuz area wind erosion poses huge problems to crop cultivation as topsoil is being removed and deposited as sediments on neighbouring fields. Dusty storms not only damage the crops but they also cause damage to the main surface, the fertile layer of soil. Sand also damages the irrigation canals, roads, gardens and streets in urban areas which forces people to leave such areas. Good yields cannot be achieved if fields are not properly protected.
A solution to this problem is the planting of shelterbelts around fields to slow wind speed and to prevent erosion of the arable soil layer. During Soviet times shelterbelts were planted on collective farms by the state forestry committee under contracts. After the collapse of the USSR and before the formation of Dehkan farms land users were not interested in investing in shelterbelts due to unprotected land use rights and unclear legal procedures. One farmer however tested the planting of a shelterbelt in 1992 when his son came back from his studies at the Agricultural University where he had learnt about the technology. They planted the first shelterbelt using a mixture of different tree species to protect newly irrigated fields. Due to financial constraints they could not invest in any other shelterbelts but in 2010 UNDP provided them with financial support to buy seedlings to increase the shelterbelt area. For this new shelterbelt the native Russian Silverberry (Elaeagnus angustifolia) was considered the most appropriate species as soils were highly saline and only this species proved tolerant.
Trees were planted in three rows, along field boundaries and also along irrigation channels. Within rows trees were spaced at a 1m interval with a 6 m distance between rows. The plantations were established through “haschar” (voluntary neighbourhood help) with 30 people planting about 10,000 trees within one month. During the first three years after planting the saplings need regular irrigation and sanitary cleaning to help establish themselves. After 6-7 years the trees start drawing a lot of water from the soil which prevents the irrigated soils from damage through water logging. Russian silverberry can grow up to 12 m in 10-12 years.
Benefits of these shelterbelts are increased crop yields (wheat and rice) due to the protection from strong winds and decreased evapotranspiration. Thanks to the species association with nitrogen fixing root bacteria soil fertility is improved. The trees further produce edible fruits and provide valuable firewood that is consumed by the households. Russian Silverberry is resistant to pests and diseases and drought-tolerant once established; however, it requires a lot of water during the first few years. One constraint to the establishment of the shelterbelt is local people who often cut down branches for firewood. The farmer therefore has to guard his field whenever possible with the help of his family and staff he has employed to work on his field. Implementation of forestry initiatives began in 2009 and a total of 11 ha land was covered between 2009-2010. 11 farmers were involved in the project and establishment of the shelterbelts was initiated stage by stage during these two years. The project initiatives have also continued into 2011 as well. As other farmers do observe and understand the importance of shelterbelts, there has been a trend towards adoption of the technology by other farmers.
- < 0.1 平方千米（10 公顷）
Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.09 km2.
The technology has been applied by 11 different farmers on 9 ha of land
The land users son learnt about the technology while he studied at the agricultural university and the first shelterbelt was implemented through the land users own initiative
年作 - 具体指明作物:
- 谷类 - 小麦（春季）
- 谷类 - 水稻（旱地）
多年生（非木质）作物 - 指定作物:
- Silverberry (Elaeagnus angustifolia)
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Dusty storms not only damage the crops but they also cause damage to the main surface, the fertile layer of soil. Sand also damages the irrigation canals, roads, gardens, streets in urban areas which can force people to leave such areas.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Wind erosion leading to deflation of sandy soils, low soil fertility, reduction of vegetation cover, and increasing impacts of climate change.
wastelands, deserts, glaciers, swamps, recreation areas, etc
Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -against wind
Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use, wind storms / dust storms, inputs and infrastructure: (roads, markets, distribution of water points, other, …) (breakdown of soviet irrigation systems and therefore abandonment of land)
Shelterbelts consist of three rows of trees (Russian Silverberry). The rows are spaced 6 meters apart from each other and the interval between trees within the rows is 1-2 m.
Location: Shaartuz. Khatlon
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low
Technical knowledge required for land users: low
Main technical functions: stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), reduction in wind speed
Secondary technical functions: increase of biomass (quantity)
Aligned: -against wind
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 1500
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 1-2
Trees/ shrubs species: Elaeagnus angustifolius (planted)
Julie Zaehringer, Baumackerstr. 51, 8050 Zuerich
|1.||Planting of grafting material or tree seedlings||December|
Duration of establishment phase: 12 month(s)
|1.||Irrigation of seedlings||regularly during first three years|
|2.||Sanitary cleaning of trees|
Labour was provided for free through the so-called "haschar" or neighborhood help.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Thermal climate class: temperate
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Annual population growth: 1% - 2%
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
contribution to human well-being
through increased crop yield
shelterbelts can provide habitat to birds, insects etc.
from prevention of deposition
the trees take time to establish during which the benefits are not yet tangible
- > 50%
100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
11 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
It is impossible to get good yield in these areas which are prone to strong winds without shelterbelts. Farmers do realise and understand the importance of shelterbelts and there is a trend towards growing spontaneous adoption of the technology.
|Reduced deflation and deposition of sand on fields and therefore improved crop growth|
|Increased crop yield as before the establishment of shelterbelts no crops could grow on this land|
|Reduced wind speed|
|Russian Silverberry produces edible fruits rich in vitamins|
|Increased production area|
|Russian silverberry is a native tree species with high drought-tolerance and the ability to grow on nutrient-poor soils thanks to its root association with nitrogen fixing bacteria|
|Once established the shelterbelts do not need a lot of maintenance|
|Rehabilitation of unproductive, denuded land into productive cropland|
|The shelterbelts have to be protected from being damaged by local people who want to cut them for firewood||Awareness raising; increase of firewood supply through tree planting|