技术

Community fodder bank for sustaining supplies [阿富汗]

Kahdon; Somonkhona

technologies_674 - 阿富汗

完整性: 84%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

土地使用者:

Mohammad Azim Habibullah

Natural Resources Management Committee (NRMC)

Sari Joy village, Rustaq District

阿富汗

SLM专业人员:
Researcher:
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar, Afghanistan (LIPT)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Potential and limitations for improved natural resource management (NRM) in mountain communities in the Rustaq district, Afghanistan (Rustaq NRM Study)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Terre des Hommes (Terre des Hommes) - 瑞士
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (DEZA / COSUDE / DDC / SDC) - 瑞士
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - 瑞士

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

17/10/2016

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 所述技术的可持续性声明

这里所描述的技术在土地退化方面是否存在问题,导致无法被认为是一种可持续的土地管理技术?:

注释:

SLM practices documented in the framework of the Rustaq NRM study were established only recently (1-3 years ago). It is too early for a final judgment on the sustainability of these technologies within the human and natural environment of Chokar watershed.

1.5 请参阅有关SLM方法的问卷

Watershed Associations (WSA) and Natural Resource Management Committees (NRMC)
approaches

Watershed Associations (WSA) and Natural Resource Management Committees ... [阿富汗]

Two Watershed Associations (WSA), in Chaker and Nahristan watershed areas respectively, are registered at the national level with the Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) and at the regional level with the Department of Agriculture. Both associations are strong, active, dynamic, and have the capacity to coordinate and support ...

  • 编制者: Bettina Wolfgramm

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Community fodder banks have been established in villages for the purpose of ensuring supplies of livestock fodder during winter, to prevent loss of livestock and to prevent over-grazing early in spring.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

Livestock keeping is one of the key livelihood strategies in rural Rustaq, in addition to cultivation of agricultural crops. Families rely on their livestock not only for consumption of meat and dairy products, but also as means of transportation (donkeys), labour force in agriculture (oxen, donkeys) and a source of cash income. When crops fail to produce enough, families sell their livestock to survive until the next season. Naturally, every family strives to increase their household’s livestock as much as they can, which increases pressure on the local pastures, leading to extensive overgrazing.
The pastures in Jawaz Khana, Dashti Mirzai and Sari Joy are characterized by poor vegetation cover, low carrying capacity and severe erosion - with deep rills clearly visible. The quantity and quality of fodder is insufficient for all the livestock, leading to poor animal health. Starting from early spring to late autumn livestock keepers graze their animals on the open grazing lands. During winter months, the animals are kept inside and fed with the fodder conserved during summer. Very often, and especially during droughts, the fodder stocks can be extremely low and inadequate for the animals to make it through to spring - and then farmers lose livestock.
For the purpose of tackling fodder shortages during winter months and preventing livestock loss, the Livelihood Improvement Project in Takhar (LIPT) supported the Natural Resources Management Committees in Sari Joy, Dashti Mirzai and Jawaz Khana to establish community fodder banks. The fodder bank is also meant to compensate for the closure of rehabilitated pastures during the exclusion period of 1-3 years.

The NRMC mobilized the community to construct the fodder bank building. The building is composed of a large single space of 3.5 m x 10 m x 4 m. Generally the location for the fodder bank is chosen in the middle of the village near the mosque or NRMC building. On average, the fodder bank has a capacity of 250 bags of straw and 50 bundles of hay. Durable construction materials, namely stone and cement are used for the walls. The walls are painted for protection from mould. Proper windows and entrance door are installed to ensure insulation and protection from weather events. The construction materials and labour costs are fully covered by the LIPT project. The maintenance works for the building consists of repairing the roof every autumn with a clay layer.

The fodder bank serves as a reserve for the village community. After each harvest the farmers deliver a certain amount of fodder to the fodder bank, and in return they can take out fodder for their livestock needs. The established regulations require that each farmer is obliged to reimburse the fodder bank for the fodder he has taken as a loan. The NRMC appoints persons in charge of accepting, and releasing, fodder from the fodder bank. The persons in charge record the incoming and outgoing fodder in the log book for fodder. The log book registers the name of the farmer and the amount of fodder he has delivered, or taken, from the fodder bank.

The fodder banks have been functioning for only couple of years. The community has been using the fodder bank to feed their livestock during winter mainly, but also when they have shortage of fodder in other months as well. Due to the low capacity of current pastures the farmers produce just enough to feed their livestock and not much is left to store in the fodder bank. The fodder stocks are expected to increase in future as part of the ongoing process of pasture rehabilitation through cultivation of alfalfa and rotational grazing plans.

Women and children are often involved in collecting the hay and carrying it to the fodder bank. This requires long-distance walks with heavy loads since many houses are located far from the fodder bank. Despite this heavy work, women say that they find the fodder banks useful because of the opportunity to borrow hay for their livestock when they need it.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

阿富汗

区域/州/省:

Takhar Province, Rustaq District

有关地点的进一步说明:

Dashti Mirzai, Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana Villages

注释:

Coordinates of SLM plots owned by SLM implementers who participated in the FGD derived through the Rustaq NRM study QGIS database.
This documentation is based on the experiences of SLM implementers from Sari Joy (1 Fodder bank), Jawaz Khana, (1 Fodder bank), and Dashti Mirzai (1 Fodder bank).

2.6 实施日期

注明实施年份:

2014

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) supported by Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) from 2012-17

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化
  • Improve fodder supplies

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

定居点、基础设施

定居点、基础设施

  • 定居点、建筑物
注释:

Fodder bank to store hay and wheat straw

3.3 有关土地利用的更多信息

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养
每年的生长季节数:
  • 1

3.4 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 畜牧业和牧场管理
  • 收割后的措施

3.5 技术传播

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 适用于特定场所/集中在较小区域

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

其它措施

其它措施

注释:

The measures comprise construction of a facility to host community fodder bank

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 修复/恢复严重退化的土地
注释:

The Technology is implemented in support of pasture rehabilitation, sustaining fodder for livestock and preventing early grazing, .

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.2 技术规范/技术图纸说明

The building is composed of a large single room of 3.5 m x 10 m x 4 m. Generally the location for the fodder bank is chosen in the middle of the village near the mosque or NRMC building. On average, the fodder bank has a capacity of 250 bags of straw and 50 bundles of hay. Durable construction materials such as stone and cement are used for the walls. The walls are covered with white paint for protection from mould. Proper windows and entrance door are installed to ensure insulation and protection from weather events. The construction materials and labour costs are fully covered by the LIPT project. The maintenance works consists of repairing the roof every autumn with a clay layer.

4.3 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

具体说明成本和投入是如何计算的:
  • 每个技术单元
指定单位:

Building

指定体积、长度等(如果相关):

Measurements: 3.5 m x10 m x 4 m

具体说明成本计算所用货币:
  • 美元
注明美元与当地货币的汇率(如相关):1美元=:

67.0

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

5.2-5.3 USD

4.4 技术建立活动

活动 措施类型 时间
1. Selection of the site for building the fodder bank 管理 Spring
2. Preparatory works and excavation of the site 结构性的 Summer
3. Construction of walls 结构性的 Summer
4. Other construction works and installations 结构性的 Summer

4.5 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Preparatory works and excavation of the site person-day 2.0 5.3 10.6
劳动力 Construction of wall of the facility person-day 15.0 5.3 79.5
劳动力 Other construction works and installations person-day 15.0 5.3 79.5
设备 Hummer piece 2.0 3.7 7.4
设备 Weel barrow piece 1.0 37.0 37.0
设备 Pickaxe piece 2.0 3.7 7.4
设备 Big hammer piece 1.0 13.0 13.0
设备 Saw piece 1.0 2.8 2.8
设备 Shovel piece 4.0 3.7 14.8
设备 Gloves set 10.0 1.5 15.0
设备 Other tools piece 10.0 3.2 32.0
施工材料 Stone for construction cubic meter 12.0 16.0 192.0
施工材料 Cement Bag 71.0 3.7 262.7
施工材料 Lime kg 1.0 14.0 14.0
施工材料 Gravel cubic meter 4.0 16.0 64.0
施工材料 Oil paint kg 10.0 1.7 17.0
施工材料 Door piece 1.0 162.0 162.0
施工材料 Window piece 4.0 17.0 68.0
施工材料 Plastic color 50% and 100% kg 48.0 2.45 117.6
技术建立所需总成本 1196.3
如果土地使用者负担的费用少于100%,请注明由谁负担其余费用:

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des hommes (Tdh) Switzerland

4.6 维护/经常性活动

活动 措施类型 时间/频率
1. Repair works of the roof with clay and hay mixture 结构性的 Autumn

4.7 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Repair of the roof person day 2.0 5.3 10.6 100.0
技术维护所需总成本 10.6

4.8 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

Due to the remoteness of the villages where the Technology has been implemented, all the inputs for establishment, such as agricultural equipment, plant material, fertilizers, etc., are purchased in Rustaq town. The expenses for traveling and delivering the inputs affect the establishment costs.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
指定年平均降雨量(若已知),单位为mm:

580.00

有关降雨的规范/注释:

Average annual precipitation for the area was calculated with 580 mm, with minimum in dry years (2000 and 2001) of 270 mm and maximum in wet years (2009/2010) of 830 mm. The absolute maximum rainfall was calculated for 1986 with 1024 mm. The data series covers the time from 1979 to 2014

注明所考虑的参考气象站名称:

Reference meteorological station considered: Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), http://rda.ucar.edu/pub/cfsr.html

农业气候带
  • 半干旱

Derived from the publicly available data set on length of growing period (LGP) (Fischer 2009 / IIASA-FAO). Internet link: http://tiles.arcgis.com/tiles/P8Cok4qAP1sTVE59/arcgis/rest/services/Length_of_growing_period/MapServer

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

5-50米

地表水的可用性:

中等

水质(未处理):

良好饮用水

水的盐度有问题吗?:

该区域正在发生洪水吗?:

规律性:

偶然

关于水质和水量的注释和进一步规范:

Floods occur mainly during the rainy seasons in spring and autumn. Availability of surface water differs for the three study villages Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana, and Dashti Mirzai. Sari Joy has sources and good surface water availability. Jawaz Khana has poor water availability as water has to be fetched from a lower-down stream. Dashti Mirzai has good water availability - also from an irrigation channel.

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
栖息地多样性:

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

定栖或游牧:
  • 半游牧的
生产系统的市场定位:
  • 生计(自给)
  • 混合(生计/商业
非农收入:
  • 收入的10-50%
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 个人/家庭
  • 团体/社区
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
  • 畜力牵引
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
土地使用者的年龄:
  • 中年人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

The land users in the area where the Technology is applied belong to the Uzbek ethnic minority group Qarluq.
Although the men are generally the main land users, however, women and children also take active part in the related work. The functions of men and women are clearly distinguished within the Afghan society. At the same time within the family this division of work and functions also results in men and women working hand-in-hand. An improvement of the family’s livelihood situation is expected to positively affect all family members. While, it is recognized that the involvement of women is key in order to secure basic human rights for everyone, to achieve good governance, sustainable development, and to efficiently contribute to poverty reduction (SDC 2004), it is also clear that a context sensitive approach is of great importance.
Women in rural Afghanistan are involved in many production and income generating activities that contribute to the overall household income, however, very few women own resources such as land and livestock, and their income generating options are fewer in comparison to that of men.

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者拥有或租用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 中等规模的

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 社区/村庄
  • 个人,未命名
土地使用权:
  • 社区(有组织)
  • 个人
用水权:
  • 社区(有组织)
注释:

Those who own land and use water for irrigation are obliged to pay for water. The payment is made both in kind and in cash to the Mirob - the person in charge of distributing water in the community. The amount of the payment varies from village to village.

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会文化影响

SLM/土地退化知识

减少
改良
注释/具体说明:

Land users learned about the SLM practice through involvement in the process.

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

有关影响评估的意见:

These comments apply to 6.1 and 6.2:
- Socio-economic impacts: Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the benefits from the Technology. They were asked to indicate production increase of crops; fodder; animals; wood; non-wood forest products; increase in product diversity; or production area. The most important increase they rated with 3, the second most with 2, others with 1 point. Averages of the points given by all implementers are reflected here.
- Similarly for the "ecological impacts" and on "off-site impacts": Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the on-site and off-site impacts of the Technology on water; soil; and vegetation. They were asked to indicate the strength of impacts with three, two or one points. Averages of the points given by all Technology implementers are reflected here.
- Socio-cultural impacts: This section is answered by the scientists, based on information collected during focus group discussions, and interviews conducted with persons from the 3 villages where the LIPT project implemented the Technology.

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

注释:

SLM implementers from three villages were asked to jointly discuss and rate how much the SLM technology reduced the lands vulnerability to drought and local rainstorms. Only vulnerability to the most prevalent climate extremes (drought and local rainstorms) was discussed. SLM technologies were rated as reducing vulnerability poorly , well, or very well. The average points reflected here are from multi-criteria matrices compiled in three villages where the SLM technology had been implemented.

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

非常积极

长期回报:

非常积极

注释:

Based on the multi-criteria matrix: During the FGD with SLM implementers, a multi-criteria matrix was elaborated, and different SLM practices were rated. In the framework of this exercise, SLM implementers were asked to jointly discuss and rate short term (1-3 years) and long-term (10 years) returns. As the SLM technology was only implemented 1-2 years ago, it is too early to compare benefits to maintenance costs. Farmers have little experience so far on the actual benefits of the SLM technology. The ratings are mostly based on expected benefits and not on actual benefits.

6.5 技术采用

  • 单例/实验
注释:

One fodder bank is established in each village to be used by the whole community for storing their hay.

6.6 适应

最近是否对该技术进行了修改以适应不断变化的条件?:

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Fodder reserves are available during winter and early spring.
Livestock keepers can borrow fodder from the fodder bank when they need it.
The fodder is stored in a dry place and is protected from rain and snow.
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
The community learns how to regulate the use of fodder
By providing fodder reserves, the rehabilitated pastures are protected from early grazing in spring.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Poor awareness and community participation in storing their fodder in the fodder banks More community awareness and mobilization

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

  • 与土地使用者的访谈

Focus group discussions (FGD) were organized to collect information from SLM implementers in the villages of Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai.

  • 与SLM专业人员/专家的访谈

Close collaboration took place during the compilation of this material with the technical staff of the LIPT project in Rustaq.

  • 根据报告和其他现有文档进行编译

Information provided in the reports of Tdh LIPT Project in Rustaq served as an initial source of information during the preparatory phase and also solidifying the description of the technology and area of implementation. Other background papers on Afghanistan were referred to for general information on agriculture and natural resource management in Afghanistan.

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Guidelines for Focus Groups Discussions

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Methods section of the Rustaq NRM study

模块