有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)
Large-scale no-till grain production with permanent wheel tracks
common to all on-farm equipment.
This controlled traffic, no-till farming system (CT/NT) is practiced on a 1,900 ha farm on the broad, almost flat Jandowae Plains in semi-arid Queensland, Australia. Principal soil types are vertisols, with some poorer areas where the sand content is greater, and these have a tendency to hard-set and crust. Over the past five years, the farm owner has changed the farming system completely from conventional farming to no-till with controlled traffic. Controlled traffic means permanent uncropped wheel tracks or ‘tramlines’: all equipment has 2 metre axles. The total farm machinery comprises a tractor, a spray rig and two 11 meter zero-till planter/fertilizer units; one each for wheat and sorghum sowing. The tramlines were laid out two years ago by a contractor using Geographical Positioning System (GPS).
The main technical objective was to eliminate soil compaction. The CT/NT combination ensures the land -between the tramlines - remains in excellent condition. There has been no ploughing or tillage at all in those 5 years. He practices a three year rotation between winter wheat, summer sorghum and fallow, but the system is not fixed: it depends very much on soil moisture status and thus on the rainfall (opportunity cropping). Generally in summer about one third is in summer sorghum and in winter about one third in winter wheat, the rest of the land is
under fallow. The one-year fallow is maintained through the use of herbicides sprayed onto the undisturbed residue from the previous crop. The system is designed for rain capture - to build up soil moisture stores in the fallow periods for subsequent crops - and for disease control (to ‘spell’ the land). During the cropping cycle, the key to his effective weed control system is ‘to get in early’ and ‘actively chase weeds’ through judicious spraying. The farm is now free of the locally common persistent weed Erigeron annuus. In the five years his sorghum yields have risen from 3 to 7 tons per hectares. Over the last three years the soil has improved, becoming soft, friable and moist between his plant lines. Infiltration has improved a lot and soil structure is now excellent.
Tractor use and overall fuel consumption has decreased to less than one quarter of that under conventional tillage. Correspondingly the workload is hugely reduced: from four men required under the conventional system for an equivalent area, the farmer is the sole operator, very occasionally assisted by his son, and a paid contractor for harvesting. He is so satisfied with the CT/NT system that he is attempting to purchase a nearby property to extend the area that he can farm using his current machinery.
Jimbour (north of Dalby), Queensland
- 10-100 平方千米
年作 - 具体指明作物:
- 谷类 - 高粱
- 谷类 - 小麦（冬季）
Longest growing period in days: 180 Longest growing period from month to month: Oct - AprS econd longest growing period in days: 180 Second longest growing period from month to month: Apr - Sep
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The farmer’s main reason for starting the combination of CT and NT was to rid himself of soil compaction, in order to achieve better utilisation of locally low and unpredictable rainfall amounts while minimising costs and reducing labour and machinery requirements.
Main measures: agronomic measures
Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Pc: compaction
Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Et: loss of topsoil
Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, improvement of soil structure, reduction of compaction by traffic, increase of soil fertility
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate; Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate
|1.||layout of the controlled traffic lines (tramlines) using GPS mounted in a 4x4 vehicle. Two days were adequate for the whole farm.|
Duration of establishment phase: 12 month(s)
|1.||Layout of the controlled traffic lines (tramlines)||Two days were adequate for the establishment on the whole farm.|
|2.||Weed control (spray-coupe) with roundup||Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)|
|3.||Fertilizing||Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)|
|4.||Sowing and simultaneous application of starter fertilizer||Mid October, Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)|
|5.||Spraying pre-emergent herbicide to kill summer grasses||Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)|
|6.||Harvest by contractors||early March, Summer sorghum (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)|
|7.||Weed control||Winter wheat (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)|
|8.||Fertilizing (Urea)||Winter wheat (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)|
|9.||Sowing and simultaneous application of starter fertilizer||Mid May, Winter wheat (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)|
|10.||In-crop weed spray||Winter wheat (650 ha, during 1 season or half a year)|
|11.||Harvest by contractors||October|
|12.||Fallow (1,250 ha)||During 2 seasons or totally 1 year|
|13.||Weed control (combination of roundup mixed with broadleaf herbicide)||5–6 times per fallow period|
|14.||Determine the soil moisture (To determine soil moisture he uses an iron rod; if he can push it into the heavy clay soil, then the soil is moist. Additionally, he measures rainfall)|
|设备||Harvesting by contractor||ha||1.0||17.0||17.0||100.0|
Machinery/ tools: tactor,spray rig, zero-till planter/fertilizer, iron rod
Comparison of costs between conventional tillage and no-till farming (CT/NT): (1) Labour costs are 4x less in CT/NT: 4 men used to work on the farm (conventional), now the farmer is alone – (plus contractors for harvesting). (2) Average annual diesel consumption: reduced from 108,333 litres (conventional) to 13,636 litres (no-till) which is 8 times less. (3) Costs of equipment to set up a CT/NT system (US$ 240,000) are 3 times less than that for conventional tillage equipment (US$ 700,000).
(4) For biocides he has to invest 5 times more in CT/NT. The conventional values are estimates.
In average one third of the farm area is in crop and two thirds are fallow. This means that overall farming costs per
ha are reduced, since during fallow period activities are limited to spraying herbicides. Labour costs approximately US$ 160 per day. Machinery costs average out at US$ 20 per hour (diesel costs US$ 0.9 per litre). All the data comes from this single farmer. Purchase of equipment is not included in the table above.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Thermal climate class: subtropics
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Landforms: Also footslopes and valley floors (both ranked 2)
Slopes on average: Also moderate (ranked 2) and rolling (ranked 3)
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil depth on average: Also shallow and deep (both ranked 2)
Soil fertility: Medium (ranked 1) and high (ranked 2)
Soil drainage: Poor
and own 88% of the land.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
200 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: There isn’t a strong trend now towards growing spontaneous adoption: uptake has slowed dramatically as many conservative farmers prefer to continue their traditional tillage practices.
Land that previously was un-farmable is now under crops. Site inspection shows initially poor land to be now in good condition (after only 5 years). The value of the land has increased
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Farmers practising CT/NT can and are buying/leasing more land, which will improve the overall state of the land in Queensland.
Farmers can manage much larger growing areas with less personnel and equipment. A single operator is well able to run a large arable farm on his own
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Ditto.
Cereal farming is now less prone to yield losses (and crop failure) in drought years – as there is better rainwater infiltration and water use efficiency with CT/NT
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Continue with the system.
|He has all weeds under control (without need for tillage).|
|The contract harvester runs on 3 m wide axles, so the wheels run on the beds. However, there has only been one wet harvest in 5 years so the incidence of soil compaction from harvesting is negligible||This is not really seen as a problem. One solution would be to build a dedicated harvester (too expensive) or find a contractor with equipment that fitted the system.|
|A conservative mentality towards conservation agriculture is constraining the adoption of the system by other farmers||Continue demonstrating and disseminating knowledge about benefits.|
Blackwell P (1998) Customised controlled traffic farming systems, instead of standard recommendations or ‘tramlines ain’t tramlines’.In Second national controlled farming conference, pp. 23–26. Eds JN Tullberg and DF Yule.
Gatton College: University of Queensland
Hulme PJ, McKenzie DC, MacLeod DA and Anthony DTW (1996) An evaluation of controlled traffic with reduced tillage for irrigated cotton on a Vertisol.
Soil and Tillage Research 38:217–237
McGarry D, Bridge BJ and Radford BJ (2000). Contrasting soil physical properties after zero and traditional tillage of an alluvial soil in the semi-arid tropics. Soil and Tillage Research 53:105–115