"Ngitiri" an Indigenous Silvopastoral System. [Tanzania, United Republic of]

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Reporting Entity: United Republic of Tanzania

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights: No

Completeness: 69%

General Information

General Information

Title of best practice:

"Ngitiri" an Indigenous Silvopastoral System.


Tanzania, United Republic of

Reporting Entity:

United Republic of Tanzania

Property Rights

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights:



Prevailing land use in the specified location

  • Cropland
  • Grazing land
  • Woodland
  • Uproductive land
  • Human settlement

Contribution to Desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD) measures

  • Prevention
  • Mitigation
  • Adaptation
  • Rehabilitation


Section 1. Context of the best practice: frame conditions (natural and human environment)

Short description of the best practice

Ngitiri or enclosure is an indigenous silvopastoral system practised by Sukuma people in Shinyanga region. It involves the conservation of grazing lands supplemented by tree planting; protects the soil, reclaims degraded lands and provides fodder and other woody, non-woody products to communities.|


Shinyanga region.

If the location has well defined boundaries, specify its extension in hectares:


Estimated population living in the location:


Brief description of the natural environment within the specified location.

The Eastern part of the region is dominated by heavy black clay soils with areas of red loam and sandy soil. Most of the Shinyanga region is dry flat lowland thus its agro- economic zones are not well pronounced as it is with some regions in the country.
The topography of Shinyanga region is characterized by flat, gently undulating plains covered with low sparse vegetation. The North- Western and North- Eastern parts of the region are covered by natural forests which are mainly miombo woodland. |
Shinyanga region has a tropical type of climate with clearly distinguished rainy and dry seasons. Average temperature for the region is about 280 C. The region experience rainfall of 600mm as minimum and 900 mm as maximum per year. The region has two seasons a year.

Prevailing socio-economic conditions of those living in the location and/or nearby

The population is devided into low to medium Income levels.
Agriculture; Livestock keeping; Petty trade; and Artisanal Mining  
Customary and Lease land rights;
Communal land use rights.

On the basis of which criteria and/or indicator(s) (not related to The Strategy) the proposed practice and corresponding technology has been considered as 'best'?

i. It has demonstrated effectiveness in reclaiming degraded lands;
ii. It supplies forage/fodder during dry season;
iii. It is used as a source of woodfuels, plant medicines;
iv. It is used as a source of income by selling forage/fodder and fuelwood; and
v. It improves the micro-climate conditions.|

Section 2. Problems addressed (direct and indirect causes) and objectives of the best practice

Main problems addressed by the best practice

i. Shortage of fodder/forage;
ii. shortage of fuelwood;
iii. Low Income and
iv. Land degradation.

Outline specific land degradation problems addressed by the best practice

i. Soil erosion;
ii. Deforestation;
iii. Overgrazing;
iv. Water runoff;
v. Soil infertility and
vi. Adverse micro-climate conditions.

Specify the objectives of the best practice

i. Restoration of degraded lands
ii. Increased supply of fodder/forage
iii. Improved household fuel supply
iv. Improved income levels.

Section 3. Activities

Brief description of main activities, by objective

Improved Income levels.
Selling of fodder/forage and fuelwood.
Increased Supply of fodder/forage.
Restricting grazing of the Ngitiri during the rain season.|Using the Ngitiri during the dry season only.
Restoration of degraded lands:-
Identification of degraded lands, suitable for Ngitiri project.
|Restricting the use of identified area|Planting of multipurpose trees.
Improved household fuel supply.
Controlled harvesting of multipurpose and regeneration trees.

Short description and technical specifications of the technology



Section 5. Contribution to impact

Describe on-site impacts (the major two impacts by category)

The selling of woody and non-woody products from Ngitiri leads to improved income levels. In addition the availability of fuelwood in Ngitiri areas contribute to the saving on time used for fuelwood collection.
The restriction on use of Ngitiri and planting of trees leads to the regeneration of natural vegetation that leades to improved biodiversity and supply of woody and non-woody products
Regeneration of vegetation in Ngitiri areas leads to improved vegetation cover which in turn restores degraded lands. As a result of this, soil erosion is reduced and micro climate improved.|

Describe the major two off-site (i.e. not occurring in the location but in the surrounding areas) impacts

The improved vegetation cover in Ngitiri can lead to reduced sedimentation of water bodies found in the area due to reduced soil erosion.

Impact on biodiversity and climate change

Explain the reasons:

it impacts on biodiversity due to the regeneration of vegetation cover. The regenerated vegetation cover and planted trees improves the biodiversity of the area.
Increase in carbon stock due to tree planting and regeneration of vegetation which restores both above and ground carbon.

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?



At a 10% discount rate, CBA shows a +ve PV. A multiplier effect generated through improvement of security for social services and of Sustainable Land Use Management was observed. The total monthly value of benefits per person is est. at USD 14, surpasing the national av. rate of USD 8.5. |

Section 6. Adoption and replicability

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?


Can you identify the three main conditions that led to the success of the presented best practice/technology?

Higly motivated households.
Shinyanga region has a serious shortage of grazing areas during dry season. Ngitiri system was developed by the local communities on their own in order to increase fodder/forage during the dry season. This factor did contribute significantly to the success of the system.


In your opinion, the best practice/technology you have proposed can be replicated, although with some level of adaptation, elsewhere?


At which level?
  • Local
  • Sub-national

Section 7. Lessons learned

Related to human resources

Ngitiri has shown that when individuals are determined and committed, they can solve their own problems using local solutions.  |

Related to financial aspects

Not every Land degradation problem requires high input of financial resources to overcome it.

Related to technical aspects

TK has a a potential to contribute in solving DLDD related problems.

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