Community Forestry [Nepal]

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Reporting Entity: Nepal

Completeness: 86%

General Information

General Information

Title of best practice:

Community Forestry



Reporting Entity:



Prevailing land use in the specified location

  • Woodland

Contribution to Desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD) measures

  • Prevention
  • Mitigation
  • Adaptation
  • Rehabilitation

Contribution to the strategic objectives

  • To improve the living conditions of affected populations
  • To improve the conditions of affected ecosystems
  • To generate global benefits through effective implementation of the Convention

Linkages with the other best practice themes

  • Capacity-building and awareness-raising
  • Policy, legislative and institutional framework
  • Participation, collaboration and networking


Section 1. Context of the best practice: frame conditions (natural and human environment)

Short description of the best practice

Community forestry is a best practice because local people are made responsible to protect, manage and utilize their forest resources. Doing so has helped improve forest land and there has been contribution to people’s livelihood. It is proven worldwide that the concept of community forestry is successful.|



If the location has well defined boundaries, specify its extension in hectares:

1.23 million

Estimated population living in the location:

8 million

Brief description of the natural environment within the specified location.

Mountain, Hills and terai|
Sub-tropical to temperate
all soil type

Prevailing socio-economic conditions of those living in the location and/or nearby

agriculture, wage labour etc.|
Mostly rural people are ingaged. 38% economically poor and socially disadvantaged people.
Product rights to community and land rights to the government.

Section 2. Problems addressed (direct and indirect causes) and objectives of the best practice

Main problems addressed by the best practice

1. Reversing deforestation and degradation
2. Increased forest density
3. Increased forest area and increased bio-diversity

Outline specific land degradation problems addressed by the best practice

• Reversing forest degradation by controlling over grazing, forest fire, soil erosion, encroachment and illegal felling of trees.

Specify the objectives of the best practice

1. Meet the demand of local people on forest products
2. Sustainable management of forests.
3. Empowerment of poor and marginalized local people.

Section 3. Activities

Brief description of main activities, by objective

Objective 1.
1. Group formation
2. Training and coaching
3.  Regular supply of forest products through forest management activities
Objective 2
1. Forest inventory
2. Forest survey
3. Forest management plan and its implementation

Short description and technical specifications of the technology

The community residing nearby forests form groups called Community Forest Users groups and legally registered to the District Forest Offices. The nearby Forests are handed over to them with Forest Operational Plan giving total forest management rights based on the plans
Technical specification of the technology: Community based forest resource management
Technical specification of the technology: Community based forest resource management

Section 4. Institutions/actors involved (collaboration, participation, role of stakeholders)

Was the technology developed in partnership?


List the partners:

1. With the support of various donors.
2.Community Forest User Groups

Specify the framework within which the technology was promoted

  • National initiative – government-led

Was the participation of local stakeholders, including CSOs, fostered in the development of the technology?


List local stakeholders involved:

CSO- Provide institutional and technical support

For the stakeholders listed above, specify their role in the design, introduction, use and maintenance of the technology, if any.

Provide institutional and technical support

Was the population living in the location and/or nearby involved in the development of the technology?



Section 5. Contribution to impact

Describe on-site impacts (the major two impacts by category)

1.Encroachment of forest land along the forest boundary with private agriculture land has tremendously reduced.
2 .Number of complaints and forest offences in government controlled forests is reduced.
1. Enrollment of girl children in schools have increased
2. Soil nutrition and moisture in agricultural land during dry season have also increased.
1. Number of water springs and the volume of ground water discharge have increased.
2.Incidences of landslides have reduced.
Production or productivity
1. Increased biomass in community forests resulting an increased off take of litter and organic manure
2. Availability of more grass and fodder

Describe the major two off-site (i.e. not occurring in the location but in the surrounding areas) impacts

1 Reverse Forest Degradation and Deforestation
2. Meet the local demand of forest products and improved livelihood

Impact on biodiversity and climate change

Explain the reasons:

:  More than 1.5 % forest density increased in CF area which is the sink of carbon, the avoided Deforestation and Forest Degradation also  reduces carbon emissions.|
• Helped increase biomass
• Helped increase forest density
• Helped increase forest cover and vegetation both in private land and forest land
• Increase in agro-forestry area
• Plantations of new grass varieties
• Watershed conserved
• Soil conservation measures carried out

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?



70% of the cost is borne by local communities for goods and environmental services and for generating income in group’s fund and household income.

Section 6. Adoption and replicability

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?



: throughout the country and globally

Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?

Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?


Specify which type of incentives:
  • Policy or regulatory incentives (for example, related to market requirements and regulations, import/export, foreign investment, research & development support, etc)
  • Financial incentives (for example, preferential rates, State aid, subsidies, cash grants, loan guarantees, etc)

Can you identify the three main conditions that led to the success of the presented best practice/technology?

1. Enabling policy and legislative framework
2. Devolution of power to local communities
3. Strong and vibrant community groups and civil society organisations
Linked with,
• Replicable elsewhere with some level of adaptation


In your opinion, the best practice/technology you have proposed can be replicated, although with some level of adaptation, elsewhere?


At which level?
  • Local
  • Sub-national
  • National
  • Regional
  • International

Section 7. Lessons learned

Related to human resources

1. Capacity building of human resources in government, non-government and private sector should be enhanced.
2. Social inclusion and gender equality to be emphasized
3. Local level human resources are necessary condition for sustainability

Related to financial aspects

1. Long term ( at least 10 to 20 years) support for capacity building.
2. Attempts should be made to generate financial resources locally
3. Investment on value addition and business essential for financial sustainability.

Related to technical aspects

1. Recognize local knowledge and technology
2. Start with simple technology easily understandable for local communities
3. Emphasize local species, indigenous varieties and try to make interface between local and formal knowledge.

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