Building and rehabilitation of agricultural terraces. [Yemen]

بناء وإعادة تأهيل المدرجات الزراعية

approaches_2586 - Yemen

Completeness: 92%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Approach

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Ibrahem Abdullah


Agricultural Research and Extension Authority, AREA


Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Agricultural Research and Extension Authority (AREA) - Yemen

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?


The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Reference(s) to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Technologies

2. Description of the SLM Approach

2.1 Short description of the Approach

Pay incentives for farmers rehabilitate degraded terraces in order to face the crisis of increasing food prices.

2.2 Detailed description of the Approach

Detailed description of the Approach:

Aims / objectives: The main objective is to rehabilitate the degraded terraces and to protect them from erosion through the payment of incentives. Conservation of land resources should be achieved through cooperation between the land users applying local knowledge and traditional practices for soil conservation. Through this, the livelihoods of land users are improved and it helps them to continue their farming operations which helps to alleviate poverty. Through the Social Development Fund the state aims to improve community development through a comprehensive concept and to address the crisis of rising food prices. Through this fund land users receive support for their physical work. The rehabilitated terraces will later help them to improve their agricultural income The project interferes in the region through the involvement of land users (from bottom to top). To help them solve their problems, a study of the region’s problems using Participatory Rapid Rural Appraisal (PRA) and a Participatory Learning Approach (PLA) was conducted. With the participation of the community problems and constraints were identified and appropriate solutions developed, as well as priorities identified for intervention. An inventory of households was done by a dedicated team to determine the costs and the appropriate methods for the implementation process and the mechanisms used for the implementation. Furthermore awareness rising was carried out. After completion of the technical study and determination of the costs, the areas where the activities should be implemented were assigned to a specialist. After the technical study is finished and the cost of implementing for the targeted area is determined and allocated. Then Social Fund for Development office SFD appoints specialized person to follow up the implemented activities ,which usually carry out by the land users and as long as they finished the implemented activities they should receives their money (this the explanation of SDF and receivables). It should be noted that there is a lack of funding all the degraded areas, so that the SFD select only the degraded areas which are their owner unable to rehabilitate them.

2.3 Photos of the Approach

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Approach has been applied



Region/ State/ Province:

Sana'a governorate

Further specification of location:

Bani Ismail- Manakha District

2.6 Dates of initiation and termination of the Approach

Indicate year of initiation:


Year of termination (if Approach is no longer applied):


2.7 Type of Approach

  • project/ programme based

2.8 Main aims/ objectives of the Approach

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Facing increasing food prices i.e. Money against work.)

Rebuilding the degraded terraces and protect them from degradation

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Lack of money for implementing terraces, poverty.

2.9 Conditions enabling or hindering implementation of the Technology/ Technologies applied under the Approach

availability/ access to financial resources and services
  • hindering

Not enough finances available.

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Supporting land users with funds (money against work).

legal framework (land tenure, land and water use rights)
  • enabling

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights greatly helped the approach implementation: Initiate all land users in rehabilitating the degraded terraces without any conflict as long as they believe of work together and with spirit team work.

3. Participation and roles of stakeholders involved

3.1 Stakeholders involved in the Approach and their roles

  • local land users/ local communities

Both gender men and women. Men have more experience and more power for work than the women. Women carried out the weeding in the field in addition to food preparation at home.

  • SLM specialists/ agricultural advisers
  • national government (planners, decision-makers)
3.2 Involvement of local land users/ local communities in the different phases of the Approach
Involvement of local land users/ local communities Specify who was involved and describe activities
initiation/ motivation interactive Identified the problems, suggested solutions and determined the priority for implementation – local community
planning interactive
implementation interactive Land users carried out all the implementation under the supervision of supporting donors.
monitoring/ evaluation none
Research none

3.3 Flow chart (if available)


Diagram of a series of operations related to the preparatory activities for projects the Social Fund for Development



3.4 Decision-making on the selection of SLM Technology/ Technologies

Specify who decided on the selection of the Technology/ Technologies to be implemented:
  • land users alone (self-initiative)

It is a traditional technology and still exist but it needs maintenance.

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by land users supported by SLM specialists. The approach for implementation can be done by consulting and discussing it with the land users.

4. Technical support, capacity building, and knowledge management

4.1 Capacity building/ training

Was training provided to land users/ other stakeholders?


Specify who was trained:
  • land users
Form of training:
  • Meetings
Subjects covered:

Awareness campaign to increase the importance on preserving land and conserving it to avoid any damages as a result of degradation as then it becomes difficult to repair it by the land users. Finally, this situation will lead to land abandonment and emigration.

4.2 Advisory service

Do land users have access to an advisory service?


  • Meetings

4.3 Institution strengthening (organizational development)

Have institutions been established or strengthened through the Approach?
  • no

4.4 Monitoring and evaluation

Is monitoring and evaluation part of the Approach?



technical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: None

socio-cultural aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through measurements; indicators: None

economic / production aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through observations; indicators: None

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: None

bio-physical aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through observations; indicators: None

management of Approach aspects were regular monitored by project staff, land users through observations; indicators: None

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Increase the target area

There were no changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation: None

4.5 Research

Was research part of the Approach?


5. Financing and external material support

5.1 Annual budget for the SLM component of the Approach

If precise annual budget is not known, indicate range:
  • 10,000-100,000
Comments (e.g. main sources of funding/ major donors):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: government (Labour (Money against work).): 100.0%

5.2 Financial/ material support provided to land users

Did land users receive financial/ material support for implementing the Technology/ Technologies?


If yes, specify type(s) of support, conditions, and provider(s):

Money against work

5.3 Subsidies for specific inputs (including labour)

If labour by land users was a substantial input, was it:
  • paid in cash

Conducting works by contracting

5.4 Credit

Was credit provided under the Approach for SLM activities?


6. Impact analysis and concluding statements

6.1 Impacts of the Approach

Did the Approach help land users to implement and maintain SLM Technologies?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Periodical maintenance is very important for terraces to protect them from degradation and conserving soil moisture as well.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly
Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly
Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Rehabilitating degraded terraces bringing them back into production. Consequently alleviation of poverty.

6.2 Main motivation of land users to implement SLM

  • increased production

Increase the amount of production

  • environmental consciousness
  • Decrease the emigration.

Provide livelihoods (re-construction of terraces)

  • Protect the land from erosion.

6.3 Sustainability of Approach activities

Can the land users sustain what has been implemented through the Approach (without external support)?
  • uncertain
If no or uncertain, specify and comment:

Lack of financial resources

6.4 Strengths/ advantages of the Approach

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Use the available resources to rehabilitation of terraces. It means:'Rehabilitation of terraces should be depend on the existing materials in the region such as stones or water, and labour).
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Work together in groups strengthens the social relationship between land users, which leads to increased initiative or motivation between them. Like this they are prepared to face any damage that may occur as a result to natural crisis such as climate change or drought. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Legislation should be implemented because it will lead to enhance the links between the local community and raise the work together in every business. it mean: 'It should be implemented and adopted )

6.5 Weaknesses/ disadvantages of the Approach and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
There are some regions which are still degraded and that have not been yet rehabilitated due to lack of financial resources
Supporting farmers to rehabilitate the degraded land especially the terraces to achieve sustainable development and stop migration from rural areas to big cities. This can be done and to through alleviating poverty and at the same time preserving the limited land resources and utilized them in a sustainable way.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Technical study for construction and reclamation for terraces in some villages, Bani Ismail's uzlah, Manakhah district. Mid-monthly reports for implanting terraces construction in Bani Ismail's uzlah, Manakhah district.

Available from where? Costs?

- Social Fund for Development, Sana'a 97671449672- Social Fund for Development, Sana'a 97671449672

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Mid-monthly reports for implanting terraces construction in Bani Ismail's uzlah, Manakhah district.

Available from where? Costs?

Social Fund for Development, Sana'a 97671449672

Links and modules

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