Conversion of stony slopes into an irrigated apricot orchard [Tajikistan]

Табдил додани замини сангоб ба зардолу бог

technologies_1055 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 71%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Tajik Soil Insitute (Tajik Soil Institute) - Tajikistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences) - Tajikistan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Conversion of a stony plot of land into an apricot orchard and use for production of fodder.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Before the technology was applied, this stony slope was used as a low-productive pasture. First of all, the area was cleaned of stones. The removed stones were used for construction of a fence around the plot. An irrigation canal was built along the upper border of the plot. An irrigation trench awas dug across the slope. No planting of this stony surface was carried out. Apricot trees were planted along the drainage ditches. Perennial herbaceous fodder plants such as alfa-alfa and esparzet were intercropped in the apricot orchard. Collected stones were used to fence the land area and so to protect the territory from animals.

Purpose of the Technology: The purpose of the technology is to increase productivity of these stony slopes with the use of irrigation, and intercropping with perennial herbaceous fodder plants in the apricot orchard.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Removing stones from the plot, construction of a fence, construction of an irrigation canal, construction of drainage ditches across the plot, planting trees, ploughing the intercropped area, and planting perennial fodder plants.

Natural / human environment: The plot is located in an arid zone, and 60% of the surface is covered with stones. Vegetation cover mostly consists of ephemers which have a short growing period. The land is used as summer, low productive pastures.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:


Further specification of location:

GBAO, Vanj, Jovid

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.2 Km2.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • during experiments/ research
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Землепользователи принимали участие лишь в технической реализации технологии.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agroforestry



  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • fodder crops - other
  • fodder crops - alfalfa
  • esparzet
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, plum, etc)
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Is intercropping practiced?


If yes, specify which crops are intercropped:

intercropping with perennial herbaceous fodder plants in the apricot orchard

Grazing land

Grazing land

  • 1-10 LU /km2
Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands


Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Mixed: Mf: Agroforestry

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • Yes (Please fill out the questions below with regard to the land use before implementation of the Technology)
Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agroforestry
Grazing land

Grazing land

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • full irrigation

Водопотребление: полностью орошаемое, полностью орошаемое

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • agroforestry
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
  • V2: Grasses and perennial herbaceous plants
structural measures

structural measures

  • S6: Walls, barriers, palisades, fences
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type

Main measures: vegetative measures

Secondary measures: structural measures, management measures

Type of agronomic measures: mixed cropping / intercropping, legume inter-planting, minimum tillage

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -contour

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Bc: reduction of vegetation cover

Main causes of degradation: overgrazing, droughts, population pressure

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

Основная цель: предотвращение / сокращение деградации

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Location of apricot orchard on the slope

Location: Jovid Jamoat. GBAO, Vanj

Date: 2010,06,16

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover

Secondary technical functions: improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), increase in organic matter

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: F : fruit trees / shrubs, C : perennial crops

Wall/ barrier
Vertical interval between structures (m): 1
Spacing between structures (m): 3000
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 3000

Change of land use type


Sosin Pjotr, Dushanbe, 21a Rudaki Avenue

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Construction of fence 1 year
2. Construction of irrigation canal 1 year
3. Purchase of seedlings 15 days
4. Planting seedlings 2 months
5. Removing stones from an area of 20 ha

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Construction of fence meter 3000.0 15.0 45000.0 30.0
Labour Construction of irrigation canal meter 1300.0 23.07692 30000.0 10.0
Labour Planting seedlings Pieces 6400.0 1.0 6400.0 100.0
Labour Removing stones ha 20.0 2625.0 52500.0 30.0
Plant material Seedlings Pieces 6400.0 5.0 32000.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 165900.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 36866.67

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • arid

Thermal climate class: subtropics

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is low

Soil drainage / infiltration is good

Soil water storage capacity is medium

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

> 50 m

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly disadvantaged land users

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

2-5 ha is cropland and 0.5-1 ha for grazing

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • leased

The land belongs to the state and the land users rented this plot.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


fodder production

Water availability and quality

demand for irrigation water

Income and costs

farm income


economic disparities


Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency


recreational opportunities


situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups


Livelihood and human well-beeing

Comments/ specify:

Implementation of this technology allowed the farmer to earn 12500 somoni from selling hay and apricots. This Income provided him a chance to invest for education, health and increasing the number of livestock and things needed for a household.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff


soil moisture


soil organic matter/ below ground C

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C


habitat diversity

Other ecological impacts



6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm not well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:


How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 11-50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

30 household

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%

40% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

30 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: At the moment this technology is not being widely adopted due to lack of finances of other land users in the region.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
It does not require any special engineering facilities

How can they be sustained / enhanced? During the implementation of the technology
The local material was used for fencing

How can they be sustained / enhanced? During the implementation of the technology
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
No engineering structures are needed

How can they be sustained / enhanced? In the course of the use of technology
No additional materials and equipment are used

How can they be sustained / enhanced? In the course of the use of technology
Local material is used for fencing

How can they be sustained / enhanced? In the course of the use of technology

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Technology's effectiveness depends on availability of irrigation water Implement water-saving technology

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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