Technologies

Rehabilitation of Degraded Lands ( Area closure) [Ethiopia]

Kutura

technologies_1072 - Ethiopia

Completeness: 67%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Community Organizations and Mobilization for Soil and Water Conservation Work (COM-SWC)
approaches

Community Organizations and Mobilization for Soil and Water ... [Ethiopia]

Community mobilization for soil and water conservation work in a watershed planning unit is an approach for collective action by organizing all active labor forces living in the kebele/peasant association into development group of 20-30 members and further divide into 1:5 work force to implement construction of soil and water ...

  • Compiler: Gizaw Desta Gessesse

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Closing the degraded land to let it to regenerate by excluding human and animal interference ans speed up the regeneration process by applying some SWC activities and undertake enrichment plantation.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

Area closure is suitable for degraded lands. Degraded areas are excluded from animal and human contact and integrated with activities that speed up regeneration process such as SWC activities, agronomic measures, vegetative and management measures.

Purpose of the Technology: Area closure improves the productivity of degraded lands and protects down stream fields and properties from flooding and improves ground water recharge.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Management and utilization plan prepared and agreed. Planning and design of supplimentary measures are integrated.

Natural / human environment: Area closure is applicable in all areas that have lost vegetation cover and has low soil fertility.

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Ethiopia

Region/ State/ Province:

SNNPR

Further specification of location:

Lemo

Comments:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 10.5 km2.

Communities develop positive attitude towards activities implemented and results obtained such as livestock feed, fuel wood, bee forage, farm implements and construction materials.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

It is introduced technology.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Yes

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agro-silvopastoralism

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - barley
  • cereals - maize
  • cereals - other
  • legumes and pulses - beans
  • root/tuber crops - potatoes
  • wheat, teff, legumes, haricot
  • Enset, Desho, phalaris
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • coffee, open grown
  • chat, Acacia saligina, Acaccia decurrens, Omedila, Grevillea robusta
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 180 Longest growing period from month to month: Apr - Nov Second longest growing period in days: 150 Second longest growing period from month to month: Jan - May

Is intercropping practiced?

Yes

If yes, specify which crops are intercropped:

maize & haricot bean

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

  • Tree plantation, afforestation
Products and services:
  • Timber
  • Fuelwood
  • Grazing/ browsing
  • Nature conservation/ protection
Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Overgrazing, low awarness of land users, lack of management plan for communal lands and low level of diversification of land users activities.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Shortage of grazing lands, lack of common understanding of the management of common resources.

Semi-nomadism / pastoralism: Yes

Grazingland comments: Inspite of decreasing grazing lands, farmers still want to own some heads of livestock. Grazinglands as a result are highly pressurized. Land users cut grass from area closures and carry them home to feed their livestock. Some land users who have few polts for grazing close them to grow grass.

Plantation forestry: Yes

Problems / comments regarding forest use: Natural forests do not exist. Planted forests are managed by the community. In the SWC area, a larger area was planted some 20 years ago but at present the planted forests have been cleared for cultivation. This is the result of high population growth. Some of the planteed forests have been cleared by demobilizing soldiers.

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Cereals - Legumes - Cereals

Constraints of infrastructure network (roads, railways, pipe lines, power lines)

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • area closure (stop use, support restoration)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
  • Wo: offsite degradation effects
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Wg: gully erosion / gullying

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wo: offsite degradation effects, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities, Ha: aridification

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land
Comments:

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation, mitigation / reduction of land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

SNNPR

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, improvement of ground cover, increase of infiltration

Secondary technical functions: increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply, increase in soil fertility

Early planting
Material/ species: maize and potato
Remarks: row planting, broad casting

Mixed cropping / intercropping
Material/ species: maize & haricot bean
Remarks: row planting

Legume inter-planting
Remarks: broad casting

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: animal dung
Remarks: broad casting

Contour tillage
Remarks: along the contour

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 2500
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 2

Vegetative measure: in blocks
Vegetative material: G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 3333
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 1
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 10
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.3
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.3

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: G : grass

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: G : grass

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: G : grass

Trees/ shrubs species: Acacia saligina, Acaccia decurrens, Omedila, Grevillea robusta

Grass species: Desho, phalaris

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 15.00%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 8.00%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 0.00%

Retention/infiltration ditch/pit, sediment/sand trap
Vertical interval between structures (m): 3
Spacing between structures (m): 10
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 3
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.3
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 3

Terrace: forward sloping
Vertical interval between structures (m): 2
Spacing between structures (m): 10
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 5
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.3
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 1
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 30

Construction material (earth): Soil excavated from the ditches is used to make the embankment

Construction material (stone): Hill side terraces are supported with stones at the downslope side to make them stronger and stable.

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 15%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 8%

Lateral gradient along the structure: 0%

Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

Change of land use type: from degraded agricultural land to area closure and practicing of cut and carry.

Other type of management: change of management / intensity level - from open access forms of grazing to guarding, plantation and construction of various SWC techniques.

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Birr

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

8.6

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

0.70

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Seedling production through out the year
2. Transportation beginning of rains
3. Planting beginning of rains
4. Surveying dry season
5. Digging of ditches and construction of structural measures dry season
6. Stablization of terraces
7. Surveying the degraded land dry season
8. Awarness creation slack period from farming
9. Planning any time
10. Closing the area

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 505.8 505.8 50.0
Equipment Machine use ha 1.0 83.27 83.27
Equipment Tools ha 1.0 19.26 19.26 70.0
Plant material Seeds ha 1.0 69.76 69.76 100.0
Plant material Seedlings ha 1.0 116.28 116.28 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 794.37
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 92.37
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 24 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. land preparation before rains / each cropping season
2. Replanting rainy season /once
3. Stablization of terraces rainy season/annual
4. Appointing guards / annual

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Equipment Machine use ha 1.0 81.39 81.39
Plant material Seedlings ha 1.0 7.3 7.3 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 88.69
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 10.31
Comments:

Machinery/ tools: hoe, shovel, gaso

The cost is calculated for labour needed to the construct SWC activities to rehablitate one hectar of degraded land.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Higher slopes and shallow soil depths increase the cost of construction.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

900-1400 mm

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

> 180 days of LGP

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 2001-2500 m a.s.l. ( <2400m a.s.l., ranked 1) and 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l. ( >1900m a.s.l., ranked 2)
Slopes on average: Rolling (ranked 1), hilly (ranked 2) and gentle, moderate and steep (all ranked 3)

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil depth on average: Also moderately deep (ranked 2) and shallow (ranked 3)
Soil texture: Fine/heavy (mainly clay loam, ranked 1) and medium (ranked 2)
Soil fertility is medium (ranked 1), low (ranked 2), high (ranked 3)
Soil drainage/infiltration is good (ranked 1) and medium (ranked 2)
Soil water storage capacity high (ranked 1) and medium (ranked 2)

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 200-500 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 3% - 4%
6% of the land users are rich and own 15% of the land.
45% of the land users are average wealthy and own 40% of the land.
35% of the land users are poor and own 30% of the land.
12% of the land users are poor and own 20% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: Some land users are engaged in small trading and some are daily labourer when they are free from field activities.
Level of mechanization: Animal traction (oxen plough system, ranked 1) and manual work (hoe and gaso, ranked 2)
Market orientation of forest production system: Mixed (ranked 1, individual plantation for market and domestic consumption), subsistence (ranked 2, individual woodlots plantation for domestic consumption) and commercial/market (ranked 3, community plantation for sale)

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Comments:

Crop land: Average holding size is about 0.5 ha
Grazing land: Owing to expansion of cultivated land, grazing land size has reduced and estimated at about 0.1 ha per household.
Forest land: Due to cultivated land expansion the average holding size is about 0.15ha

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

soil depth increased and soil fertility improved.

fodder production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

biomass increased

fodder quality

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

biomass increased

wood production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

construction and fuel wood available

Income and costs

farm income

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

land productivity per unit area improved.

Socio-cultural impacts

community institutions

weakened
strengthened

national institutions

weakened
strengthened

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

conflict mitigation

worsened
improved
Comments/ specify:

loss of land for grazing and cultivation

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

excess water drainage

reduced
improved
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

productivity is enhanced

soil cover

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

vegetation cover is improved

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

pest/ disease control

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Introduction of pests/wild animals

Other ecological impacts

Soil fertility

decreased
increased

Biodiversity

decreased
increased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season

reduced
increased
Comments/ specify:

ground water recharging is improved

downstream flooding

increased
reduced
Comments/ specify:

runoff from the watershed is highly reduced

downstream siltation

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

sediments deposited behind the bund

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

negative

Long-term returns:

positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

3990

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%
Comments:

97% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

3800 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: estimates

5% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

190 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: The farmers have made some modifications in order to increase the effectivness of the technology, by making fences around enclosures.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Feed and forage sources improved

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Cut and carry system
Availability of fuel wood, farm implements and construction materials

How can they be sustained / enhanced? integrate with multipurpose tree species
Income from beekeeping due to area closure
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Income generated from wood and grass sales.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Equal share from the benefit to all land users.
Rapid recovery and rehabilitation of degraded lands.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Integrate with multipurpose techniques and encourage cut and carry system.
The environment is protected, wildlife attracted and unproductive areas become productive.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Awarness creation and technical support

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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