Natural forest conservation using apiaries [Tanzania, United Republic of]

Utunzaji misitu kwa kufuga nyuki (swahili),

technologies_1152 - Tanzania, United Republic of

Completeness: 76%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Waluce Michael

Ngara District Council

Tanzania, United Republic of


Mugishagwe Wilson

Ngara District Council

Tanzania, United Republic of


Sangatati Josephat

Ngara District Council

Tanzania, United Republic of

SLM specialist:

Kaihura Fidelis


Tanzania, United Republic of

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
The Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project for the Kagera River Basin (GEF-FAO / Kagera TAMP )
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - Italy
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Ngara District Council (Ngara District Council) - Tanzania, United Republic of

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Establishment of apiaries in natural forests to retard forest mismanagement and improve honey production

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


This technology has been practiced in Ngara region for the last 50 year and involves construction and upkeep of apiaries for honey and related goods production. The apiaries are constructed by farmers (traditional) or purchased (modern box hieves) and then positioned in a designated forest area that is away from settlements and public places. The apiaries should be hanged on a strong branches of trees with good shade and the honey production process takes from 9 to 12 months.

Purpose of the Technology: It is recommended to apply this technology in the forest that is exposed to deforestation as apiaries help to enhance forest protection. The establishment of apiaries help to improve management of the natural forest while increasing production of honey. This will contribute to the better livelihood of the community and environmental wellbeing.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The described technology covers area of enclosed 4 hectares of natural forest and establishment of 365 apiaries (338 traditional, 27 box hives); the group of practitioners consist of 10 members (7 male and 3 female). The establishment procedures require: a) identification of forest at risk of degradation, b) ermarcation of the apiary forest, c) creefing of fire breaks d) reparations for and hanging the beehives (traditional and box hives). Maintanance acivities include a) regular slashing of grasses and bushes around the trees with hives b)grading with hand hoes the fire breaks/ roads around the entire forest for fire protection before each dry season c) cleaning of hives,repairs and harvest honey with bee protectives (bee smoker,bee veils,gloves) to eliminate the risks of fire in the forest.Patrol and guard tresspassers d) monitoring pests and diseases

Natural / human environment: Natural occuring tree species include: Combretus spp., Albizia spp., Parinari spp., Pericopsis spp. and Eucalyptus woodlots. Grazing areas are nearby but restricted by village by laws to tress pass in the forest apiary
The aipiaries should be located near permanent water sources because bees use water for honey production and cooling in the hives. Farmers with bee hives become more committed to protect their forest when they hang beehives in the area. Honey is harvested for consumption, trade and medicinal mixtures
The land users are small scale subsistance farmers with poor to average income/wealth,organised as a group of 10 farmers. the population density is between 200-500 people per square km and anual population growth at 2-3% Land ownership is both individual and communal but there are natural forestl areas owned communally through village governments where groups may access temporarily by request to establish environmental friendly activities such as forest apiaries.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment


Tanzania, United Republic of

Region/ State/ Province:


Further specification of location:

Ngara District

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

The described technology covers area of enclosed 4 hectares of natural forest. Applied 365 bee hives (338 traditional, 27 box hives); the practitioners group has 10 members (7male and 3 female)

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • as part of a traditional system (> 50 years)
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Beekeeping using local hives is a tradtional practice among the the Hangaza and Shubi ethinic tribes of Ngara district

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • protect a watershed/ downstream areas – in combination with other Technologies
  • preserve/ improve biodiversity

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

  • Combretus spp., Albizia spp., Parinari spp., Pericopsis spp. and Eucalyptus woodlots
Products and services:
  • Fuelwood
  • Other forest products
  • Grazing/ browsing
  • Nature conservation/ protection

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Deforestation and fire burning during dry season
Reduction of biodiversity

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Droughts and vegetation burning during dry seasons

Problems / comments regarding forest use: the natural forest has been set aside for establishing bee apiaries therefore only forest managenet operation are conducted(slashing of grass)

3.4 Water supply


Number of growing seasons per year:



Longest growing period in days: 120; Longest growing period from month to month: Sept-December; Second longest growing period in days: 90; Second longest growing period from month to month: March to May

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • area closure (stop use, support restoration)
  • beekeeping, aquaculture, poultry, rabbit farming, silkworm farming, etc.

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A7: Others
management measures

management measures

  • M3: Layout according to natural and human environment

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bh: loss of habitats
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bf: detrimental effects of fires
  • Bs: quality and species composition/ diversity decline

Main type of degradation addressed: Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bh: loss of habitats, Bq: quantity / biomass decline, Bf: detrimental effects of fires, Bs: quality and species composition /diversity decline

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Deforestation through cutting of trees), over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (Mainly for firewood), industrial activities and mining (Firewood for burning bricks made from clay), droughts, land tenure (Lack of village land use plans for the area), governance / institutional (Weak natural resources enforcent institution at village level)

Secondary causes of degradation: overgrazing

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

Secondary goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Layout of natural apriaries (beehives BH) placed on the trees (good braches with shade), access path and firebreak and live fence.

Ngara district Council

Date: 15 May 2012

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (To extend knowledge/skills on modern/sustainable beekeeping)

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (To add/improve skills on existing indigineous knowledge)

Main technical functions: indirectly minimize deforestation, indirectly increase of biomass

Secondary technical functions: promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder), control of fires, reduction of dry material (fuel for wildfires), spatial arrangement and diversification of land use

Aligned: -along boundary
Vegetative material: O : other

Change of land use practices / intensity level: Establishment of bee apiaries in forest to add on value/productivity and optimise diversification of land use

Layout change according to natural and human environment: The site should be away at least 400m from nearby settlements/public places

Major change in timing of activities: Twice per year Feb and Sept during honey harvesting season management activities are at their peak.
- Fire breaks established in June /July before dry season commence

Control / change of species composition: Various flora and fauna organisms get time to establish and grow well due to absence of burning


Ileta Philip, P.O BOX 30, Ngara

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • USD
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Purchase of hives and binding wires Before dry season
2. Purchase of beekeeping protectives Routine
3. Slashing, screefing bushes and tall grasses; planting hedge around forest boundary Before dry season
4. Baiting and hanging apiaries Before dry season
5. Purhase of cuttings (euphobia spp) wet season

FOREST CONSERVATION APIARIES technology REVISED PART-November 2013 Description and purpose This is a practice where farmers hang bee hives on branches of trees in the forest and keep the honey bees between six to twelve months whereby honey is already mature for harvesting. Conventional beekeeping methods have introduced other practices such as placing beehives on stands/platforms and keeping many hives in the shelter bee houses whereby honey production can be increased. The trees and forest where bee hives are hanged are normally respected and not felled indiscriminately.

Identification of suitable trees/forest Bees forage on nectar and pollen from flowers of many trees, herbs, shrubs and field plants. However there are specific plant species which are more preferred were bees visit more frequently. The forest or locality with rich biodiversity of the suitable trees/plants is conducive for establishment of a bee apiary. Prominent tree species in this zone include Parinari curatelifolia, Combretum spp, Brachtegia spp, Albizia spp, Acacia spp and cultivated crops such as banana, coffee, and annual crops which include maize, bean and sorghum The source of permanent water should be nearby preferably not more than 3kms because bees use much water in feeding, making honey and to perform cooling in the hives. Demarcation of the apiary forest It is usual for the beekeepers to demarcate the areas so as to inform and alert the community members the existence of the beehives. The demarcation signs may involve partially debarking part of the stem bark of the border trees. The use of colour paints, planting of hedge rows and other boundary marker plants are increasingly becoming popular around many forest apiaries. The common plants for live fence include Euphorbia tirucali, Agaves sisalana and Dovyalis caffra. Types of bee hives Common traditional beehives involve log hives, small poles/withies hives, straw hives, calabashes and clay pots. The use of modern box hives has increased in recent years mainly due to development projects support in modern beekeeping methods. Local hives are cheap but not durable limited to one to three years lifespan and the production is low compared with box hives which may last for ten or more years under good care. Preparations for hanging the beehives i) Bait materials Farmers utilize some materials to attract bee colonies establish in the hives. These include smoking or burning of dry honey combs and rubbing of beeswax inside the hives. Other methods involve sprinkling of either maize flour, cassava flour, raw honey or sugar. The use of many types of herbs and other less known substances(less revealed) to rub and smoke in the beehives before hanging is observed to be more effective in some communities. Some traditional beekeepers have become popular and earn money and respect through providing such services .The swarming periods which normally happen in January/Feb and Mid August/ Sept are suitable for hanging the beehives because it may not take long time to pocess the bee colonies ii) Ropes and tree climbing devices The hives has to be carried to the apiary and be hanged up on a tree branch. This may involve transporting the beehives using any transport means and carry on head load for some distance depending on accessibility and the location of the forest apiary. One or two person has to climb the tree and others remain on the ground to lift the hive. The hive is round bound with strong tree bark ropes before hanging The use of sisal ropes and binding wires have replaced the traditional methods to tie and fix the hives in modern beekeeping apiaries. A tall ladder may be helpful to assist in climbing of tall trees in case of aged individuals. The bee shelter house/huts and hive stands These are normally located in the forest apiary and constructed with local materials especially tree poles, straws and thatched on top roof with dry grass or other leafy vegetation such as banana, coconut and many others plants depending on availability. The hut walls are left open without covering the round walls with earth to facilitate cooling with the fresh air movements. The bee hives are placed on top of each other on the 1.2 m high erected tree poles stands. This practice enables to have many bee hives in one house which are easy to manage and protect provided the surrounding flora has good potential of bee forage plants. Water and sugars may be provided in special containers as extra feeds during bad weather conditions

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Slashing, screefing bushes and tall grasses persons/day 100.0 0.63 63.0 100.0
Labour Baiting and hanging apiaries persons/day 100.0 0.63 63.0 100.0
Equipment Hives and binding wires pieces 400.0 2.25 900.0 50.0
Equipment Beekeeping protectives sets 4.0 93.75 375.0 80.0
Plant material Cuttings bundles 200.0 0.3 60.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 1461.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 1461.0

Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Slashing grasss,bushes and firebreaks Before dry season
2. Apiaries repair Regular
3. Monitoring of bee pests and diseases Regular

Bush fire control This is done before the onset of the dry season by establishment of firebreaks around the apiary and slashing short the tall grass and other unwanted vegetation in the apiary forest. Cleaning, repairng and fixing the beehives The beehives that have become loose ,damaged or fallen due to strong winds, rains and disturbance by intruders or animals and birds requires replacement or renovations. In many cases pests such as ants, termites and rodents attack bees and make them abandon the hive. Such hives require repairs and cleaning inside before another bee colony can establish Honey harvesting. There is usually one major honey flow season starting May/June to Sept/October in most places, but another minor season may occur in February depending on the abundance of flowering in the previous season. Traditional honey harvesting equipments and tools include clay pots and other local containers, a hive knife and a smoking/burning grass appliance like torch to kill or scare away the bees. Modern beekeeping make use of special set of equipments and protective clothes that include an overall, a veil, a hat, a bee smoker, gloves, boots and hive tool. During harvesting the last two to three combs of honey are left in the hive to enable the colony continue to feed and resume manufacture honey for the following season Honey processing, packaging and marketing Raw honey is strained and filtered from the chopped honey combs through a clean linen or cotton cloth. The honey storage devices include plastic buckets, jerry cans and small (0.5 to 1 litre) plastic or glass bottles which sales between 2 to 4 US dollars at roadsides in the local market. Uses of honey The sweet and delicious fluid becomes ready for consumption or sale. There are many other uses which include brewing, medicine, in cosmetics, making candles and shoe shine pastes. Bees wax is obtained after boiling and cooling the filtered honey combs juice. Good quality raw honey should be light brown in colour, free from impurities such as any dirty, bee legs, wings and less pollen. Honey can be stored for many years due to its bactericidal and bacterial static properties. Boiled honey is of less quality, light in density, colour and loses most of its chemical and medicinal properties Philip Ngara Tanzania

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Slashing grasss, bushes and firebreaks persons/day 60.0 1.25 75.0 100.0
Labour Apiaries repair persons/day 20.0 0.8 16.0 100.0
Labour Monitoring of bee pests and diseases persons/day 20.0 0.8 16.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 107.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 107.0

Machinery/ tools: Matchets,Slashers,Hoes,,Ropes,ladder for climbing trees.Binding wires

labour per hectare year 2011
tools per piece/each year 2011

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

High prices of equpipment an (especially box hives) and labour

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Bimodal-(sept to december)and Feb to May/June

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

Thermal climate class: tropics. Hot months(June,July,August,September),cold months(March,April),cool months(May,October)

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Slopes on average: The technology is not affected with slope variations

Landforms: The site of the forest apiary is located on hill slopes

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil depth on average: The depth of soil affects the vigour of grass,trees and other vegetation thus amount of biomass available for fire threat during fire season,the labour required for maintanance etc

Soil fertility is medium

Soil drainage / infiltration is medium

Soil water storage capacity is medium

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

> 50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Ground water table: On hill slopes

Water quality (untreated): The site for good drinking water is located some 400m proximal to the natural spring water source used for domestic supply and the Ruvuvu river is not far approximatle 2.kms. Poor drinking water at valley bottoms and wetlands nearby (4kms) and water for agricultural use only in wetlands, is used seasonally for dry season agriculture

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:

Degraded mostly by fire,overcutting of trees for firewood

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • groups/ community
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Difference in the involvement of women and men: -Very few women were invoved trditionally-due to climbing of trees to hang bee hives and honey harvesting.These are activities usually performed by men
-Women perform slashing of grass, processing of honey and marketing of products

Population density: 100-200 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%; 3%

20% of the land users are average wealthy and own 50% of the land.
80% of the land users are poor and own 50% of the land.

Off-farm income specification: A small number of people practice off farm activities in burnt bricks making and petty trade

Market orientation of production system: Honey for market, very little for consumption

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: Also 1-2 ha

The population density is low with a large ares of forests(55% of total area) still marginally disturbed

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
  • group
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)

The group was allocated the forest area of approximately 4 ha by village govt to establish the forest apiary.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production


wood production

Comments/ specify:

Trees not scotched by fire,trees growing smoothly

risk of production failure


product diversity


production area

Comments/ specify:

Increased productivity per area of forest

energy generation

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover

Income and costs

farm income

Comments/ specify:

Increased opportunities for crop pollination in nearby fields

diversity of income sources

Comments/ specify:

Honey and beeswax primary products for sale from apiary

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

Comments/ specify:

Sale of bee products during good harvest to contribute to household income

health situation

Comments/ specify:

Honey demand in herbal mixtures for diseases cure

cultural opportunities

Comments/ specify:

Reduce fire incidences

recreational opportunities

Comments/ specify:

The forest is beautiful to visit

community institutions

Comments/ specify:

Group cohesion due to common interests/income opportunities

SLM/ land degradation knowledge


conflict mitigation


livelihood and human well-being

Comments/ specify:

Increased income for the group members through sale of bee products honey as food and for diseases treatments members have attended various training for forest management and modern beekeeping members have incresed access to loans and credit organisations

dangers of bee attack

Comments/ specify:

When tresspassing people and animals or during swarming and harvesting honey

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity


surface runoff

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover


Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover


soil moisture

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover

soil cover

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover

soil loss

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover

soil compaction

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover

plant diversity


beneficial species

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover

habitat diversity

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover

Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases


fire risk

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover

wind velocity

Comments/ specify:

Retention of permanent vegetation cover

Other ecological impacts

pollination of forest and crops


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase not well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought not well

By planting fire tolerant plant species around boundaries of the forest, beehives will be more secure from fire damage and the forest apiary remain with vegetative soil cover -such species includes agaves sisalana,euphobia tirucali etc

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:


How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:



After initial high establishment costs,maintanance costs are minimal and the box hives are durable for at least 10 years when made from durable well seasoned timber

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

32 households in an area of 10 ha

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%

17 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: The box hives and beekeeping protectives were subsidies from projects/programmes under NGOs and governemnt support

50% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

15 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: Traditional beekeepeing with indigineous knowledge used traditional hives only.Government and some NGO s support improved by availing box hives and modern beekeeping knowledge

Comments on adoption trend: more 4 groups emerging who request for support n the area

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Increased income and income sources for farmers

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Intergrate modern box hives, processing gears and improve markets for bee products.
Decreased bushfire incidences

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Strengthern bylaws administration procedures to punish persons causing bushfires, harvest honey in late evening and during the nights.Use beesmokers during harvesting
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Enhanced forest conservation

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Improve management/tending activities in the forest and administation of bylaws
Improved vegetation cover

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Enrichment planting with suitable bee forage plant species
Incresed income and divesification of income sources

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Intergrate modern beekeeping and improved processing of bee products.Construct beehives shelter house in the forest to accomodate more hives
Decrease bush/grassfire incidences

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Screefing firebreaks using hand hoes, conduct regular firepatrols during dry season,use proper honey harvesting equipments especially beesmokers. Environmental education and campaigns
Continuous production of honey for consumption,sale and medicine

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Reservation of more forests for practicing cormecial beekeeping

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Bee stings for people and livestock Use of bee protective gears during honey harvesting
Regular conflicts with grazing of livestock in the forest during dry season when grass in other areas are already burned-Damaging of beehives by pastoralists By laws administration and operational
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
High costs for box hives and bee protective gears Intergrate modern box hives with durable traditional hives
Require large/extensive aeas/Competing demands especially firewood for energy domestic use/trade and grazing land areas By laws administration,Planting trees/woodlots
have participatory and operational village land use plans
Bee stings for people and livestock establish forest apiaries away(>400m) from human settlements and public places
Danger of falling from trees during hanging of hives and harvesting Use ropes,ladder and tree climbing devises,

7. References and links

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Kagera TAMP Project website


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