Technologies

Solar Cooker [Botswana]

Setofo sa marang a letsatsi

technologies_1385 - Botswana

Completeness: 69%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
University of Botswana (University of Botswana) - Botswana

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

18/02/2009

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Harnessing solar energy through solar cookers

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

The basic principle of all solar cookers is to concentrate sunlight using a mirror or some type of reflective metal. It is used to concentrate light and heat from the sun into a small cooking area making the energy more concentrated and therefore more potent. Parabolic shaped solar cookers - when a three dimensional parabolic is aimed at the sun, all the light that falls upon its mirrored surface is reflected to a point known as the focus.

The technology is supplied by the Rural Industries Innovation Centre (RIIC) in Botswana. The solar cooker is maintained by cleaning the reflector mirrors with soft cloth soaked in soap and rinse with clean water. Turn reflector anti-clockwise until it hits the stand leg to lock it in place when it not in use. The solar cooker requires frequent adjustment and supervision for safe operation.

The solar cooker is best used in an open atmosphere with direct sunlight. A solar cooker needs an outdoor spot that is sunny for several hours and protected from strong winds and where food will be safe. Solar cookers do not work at night or on cloudy days

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Botswana

Region/ State/ Province:

Botswana

Further specification of location:

Southern District

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Mixed (crops/ grazing/ trees), incl. agroforestry

Mixed (crops/ grazing/ trees), incl. agroforestry

  • Agro-pastoralism
Main products/ services:

Main products semi-nomadism/pastoralism: Beef cattle/goats,chicken/sheep,donkeys
Main products ranching: Beef cattle
Major cash crop seasonal cropping: Sorghum
Major food crop seasonal cropping: Maize
Major other crop seasonal cropping: Beans,Melons

Settlements, infrastructure

Settlements, infrastructure

  • Solar cooker
Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Overgrazing the commons, droughts, saline water and overharvesting of fuelwood for heating and cooking purposes leading to deforestation and land degradation

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Same as above

Grazingland comments: Technology not applied in Boteti at the moment

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Forests / woodlands: Fn: Natural

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Mixed cropping is the traditional practice but government extension advice promotes monocropping which majority find expensive and risky.

Constraints of settlement / urban: No constraint

3.3 Further information about land use

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period from month to month: Oct - Mar

Livestock density (if relevant):

1-10 LU /km2

3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • energy efficiency technologies

3.5 Spread of the Technology

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)
Comments:

SLM is point specific

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bs: quality and species composition/ diversity decline
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bs: quality and species composition /diversity decline

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Et: loss of topsoil

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Most rural households use fuelwood for cooking, heating and lighting and sometimes cut live trees)

Secondary causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (The study area is prone to drought), droughts, land tenure (The study area is communal grazing land), poverty / wealth (There are few employment opportunities in the study area and poor agric production hence most residents do not have adequate income to buy alternative sources of energy.)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
Comments:

Secondary goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation, rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, improvement of ground cover

Secondary technical functions: increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, increase of groundwater level / recharge of groundwater, reduction in wind speed, increase of biomass (quantity), control of fires

Construction material (other): Metal + reflective mirrors or shiny alluminium sheets

4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Pula

Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD =:

6.6

4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 0.3 month(s)

4.7 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Comments:

Material + Labour -these are current date costs

4.8 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Material followed by labour

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Seasonal summer rains in 6 months dry (LGP=75-179 days)

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: subtropics. Subtropical thermal climate. Semi-arid with dry winters (LGP=75-179 days)

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 501-1000 m a.s.l. (part of the Makgadikgadi Basin)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

> 50 m

Availability of surface water:

poor/ none

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Ground water table; >50m (ranked 1, for boreholes) and 5-50 m (ranked 2, wells in Boteti River bed)
Availabilty of surface: Poor/none (unreliable river flows and rainfalls)
Water quality (untreated): poor drinking water (treatment required, unusable, sometimes too salty even for animal/livestock consumption) and poor drinking water (treatement required, salty waters in most areas ) Both ranked 1.

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:

Biodiversity: Low (ranked 1, a grazing zone with some arable agriculture.However, the area is sandwiched between Central Kalahari and Makgadikgadi game reserves) and high (ranked 2, several national parks/game reserves nearby)

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • very poor
  • very rich
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • animal traction
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Difference in the involvement of women and men: N/A

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%

(Rich cattle barons (0.1 and 0.5%)).
(Most inhabitants (0.6 and 0.3%)).
(Subsistence farmers (0.3 and 0.2%)).

Off-farm income specification: Save labour time to fetch firewood and helps consrve forests.Limited off-farm income opportunities for everyone,including non-adopters of the technology.

Market orientation of production system: subsistence (self-supply), subsistence (self-supply), commercial/ market

5.7 Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale
Comments:

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology:
Cropland: 2-5 ha
Grazing land: 1,000-10,000 ha (ranked 1, ranches and cattle posts) and 5-15 ha (ranked 2, subsistence farming)

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)
  • individual
Comments:

The SLM technology can be used by anybody, it is not group specific.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

wood production

decreased
increased

energy generation

decreased
increased
Income and costs

workload

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

With respect to firewood collection

Socio-cultural impacts

recreational opportunities

reduced
improved

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

conflict mitigation

worsened
improved

situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

worsened
improved
Comments/ specify:

Less demand on the time and labour of women and the girl child who are the main collectors of firewood

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

It provides cheaper alternative sources of energy.Reduced workload for firewood collectors(women and girl child)

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity

decreased
increased

water quality

decreased
increased

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved

surface runoff

increased
decreased

excess water drainage

reduced
improved

groundwater table/ aquifer

lowered
recharge

evaporation

increased
decreased
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil loss

increased
decreased

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

soil compaction

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased

salinity

increased
decreased

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased

animal diversity

decreased
increased

beneficial species

decreased
increased

habitat diversity

decreased
increased

pest/ disease control

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased

fire risk

increased
decreased

wind velocity

increased
decreased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability

decreased
increased

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season

reduced
increased

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

downstream siltation

increased
decreased

groundwater/ river pollution

increased
reduced

buffering/ filtering capacity

reduced
improved

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced

damage on neighbours' fields

increased
reduced

damage on public/ private infrastructure

increased
reduced

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season Type of climatic change/ extreme How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local windstorm not well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
Cloudy weather not well
Comments:

N/A

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

Comments:

1% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Helps conserve trees,otherwise cut for fuelwood-saves 1 ton of wood per year

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Disseminate the technology to rural household
Reduces labour time for gathering fuelwood

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Improve incomes of rural household so that they could afford the technology
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
1) Helps conserve trees,otherwise cut for fuelwood-saves 1 ton of wood per year

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Disseminate the technology to rural household
2Reduces labour time for gathering fuelwood

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Improve income of rural households so that they could afford the technology
Solar energy is renewable and entirely non-polluting
Smoke free cooking
Solar energy is free

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Strong winds can upset cookers and pots on them if not sheltered Build unroofed shelter around cooking area
Open cooking exposes food to dust
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
1)Only cook when it is sunny Safe storage facility
2)Parabolic cookers need frequent adjustment Build unroofed shelter around cooking area
Need to stole cooker during rainy season
Strong winds can upset cookers and pots on them if not sheltered
Open cooking exposes food to dust

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all

Modules