Trees as Buffer Zones [Philippines]

technologies_1709 - Philippines

Completeness: 78%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

Manubag Jerry

(088) 221 4302

Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Development Corporation

Lurogan, Valencia City, Bukidnon , Philippines


Dinamling Djolly Ma.

Bureau of Soils and Water Management

Diliman, Quezon City

Pine Baldwin

Bureau of Soils and Water Management

Diliman, Quezon City

Bersabe Teodoro

Bureau of Soils and Water Management

Diliman, Quezon City

Betonio Gloria

DA-Northern Mindanao Integrated Agricultural Research Center

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Mt. Kitanglad and Agri Development Corporation (MKADC) - Philippines

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?


The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Trees as buffer zones are vegetative measures established in the area to prevent pest from crossing in between blocks. Further, the technology provides haven for flora and fauna which are endemic in the area.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Trees are planted at strategic locations along the road, between blocks, boundaries or in scattered areas within the pineapple plantation. Indigenous trees,"wildlings", which are considered endangered species were preserved in the plantation. Trees serve as habitat for the different tree of faunal species of birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals.

Purpose of the Technology: It assimilates carbon from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It also provides shelter/habitat for wildlife species such as birds and temporary shades for laborer during rest time. The trees also improve the aesthetic value of the plantation.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The initial step is the identification of specific tree planting areas for supplementation of natural cover. Along road networks are usually utilized as buffer zones. Prior to planting, grass brushing is done followed by hole digging. Maintenance in the area includes brushing of grasses and pruning of the canopy by 5-6 laborers.

Natural / human environment: The area is under humid agro-climate condition with a topography ranging from 1-10% slope. It receives an average annual rainfall of approximately 3072 mm. The elevation ranges from 370-890 meter above sea level.
Mt. Kitanglad and Agri Development Corporation (MKADC) operates the area where the technology is being practiced. Farmers living within the area are the laborers of the company.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Valencia City

Further specification of location:


2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The company integrated trees along roads and between blocks ,years later and trees were grown enough ( around 10 years) , they found its efficiency as habitats for endangered species.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Tree and shrub cropping
Main crops (cash and food crops):

Major cash crop: Pineapple
Other crops: Mangium, mahogany and other trees


Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Water logging, soil erosion and monocropping ( pineapple production throughout the year).

3.3 Further information about land use


Longest growing period from month to month: trees grow for more than a year

3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • integrated pest and disease management (incl. organic agriculture)

3.5 Spread of the Technology

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2

Estimated area planted as buffer zones is 5% of the gross area of the plantation.

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover

Main measures: vegetative measures

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -against wind, aligned: -along boundary, scattered / dispersed, in blocks

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wo: offsite degradation effects
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bh: loss of habitats

Main type of degradation addressed: Bh: loss of habitats

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Wo: offsite degradation effects

Main causes of degradation: other human induced causes (specify) (Cutting of trees, excessive pruning)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

Main goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology


Mr. Patricio A. Yambot

4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing

Trees planted between blocks of pineapple and access roads

Location: Barangay Lurogan. Valencia City, Bukidnon

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, increase of groundwater level / recharge of groundwater, reduction in wind speed, increase of biomass (quantity), spatial arrangement and diversification of land use, Improve of biodiversity

Aligned: -against wind
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, F : fruit trees / shrubs

Aligned: -along boundary
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, F : fruit trees / shrubs
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 3
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 3

Scattered / dispersed
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): <10

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Trees/ shrubs species: Spectabilis, Calliandra, Mangiam

Fruit trees / shrubs species: Coconut, Mulberry

Other species: Oranamental

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 2-5%%

Construction material (other): Trees (hard wood and fruit trees)

4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Philippine Peso

Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.4 Establishment activities

Activity Type of measure Timing
1. Grass Brushing Vegetative
2. Hole Digging Vegetative
3. Planting Vegetative

4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Grass brushing, hole digging and planting ha 1.0 117.0 117.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 117.0

4.6 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Type of measure Timing/ frequency
1. Brushing of grasses Vegetative Every 3 months
2. Pruning Vegetative Every after cropping season/at maturity

4.7 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Brushing of grasses and pruning ha 1.0 78.0 78.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 78.0

Machinery/ tools: Pruning Shear

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

Thermal climate class: tropics

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altidudinal zone: 101-500 m a.s.l. (497m)
Landforms: valley floors (256)

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • commercial/ market
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • employee (company, government)
Level of mechanization:
  • mechanized/ motorized
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: < 10 persons/km2
Annual population growth: < 0.5%
100% of the land users are average wealthy and own 100% of the land.
Market orientation: Commercial/market (pineapples are exported in neighboring Asian countries)

5.7 Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • large-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • leased

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


wood production


product diversity


production area


land management

Income and costs

farm income


diversity of income sources


Socio-cultural impacts

cultural opportunities


conflict mitigation


Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff


soil cover


soil loss


soil organic matter/ below ground C

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C


plant diversity


animal diversity


beneficial species


habitat diversity


pest/ disease control

Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases


wind velocity

Other ecological impacts

Operating conditions

Comments/ specify:

Serves as temporary shade for laborers/workers

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season


downstream siltation


wind transported sediments


damage on neighbours' fields


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season Type of climatic change/ extreme How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm well
local windstorm not known
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period not known

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 90-100%

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Land user's view agree with experts opinion.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Protection of wildlife by providing food and shelter

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Inclusion in the protocol of the company the prohibition of hunting and preying of alien or wildlife species present in the area.
Preservation of wildlings and endemic species by retaining native tree species during clearing operation.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Maintenance and protection of these trees by marking them.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Land user's view agree with experts opinion.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Reduction of the pineapple production area due to the area allocated for growing trees. Planting of trees that could be beneficial to the company and to the employees such as fruit bearing trees and those that improve the soil condition.
Trees shades some areas for pineapple production. Regular pruning of the canopy.
Vulnerability to extreme event such as strong winds/typhoons Introduce new species tolerant to those events

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