Integrated Soil and Water Conservation Approach in Improving Biophysical Condition of Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Development Corporation (MKADC) Pineapple Production [Philippines]

approaches_1970 - Philippines

Completeness: 89%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Approach

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Dinamling Djolly Ma. P.

Bureau of Soils and Water Management


SLM specialist:

Bersabe Teodoro M.

Bureau of Soils and Water Management


SLM specialist:

Betonio Gloria L.



SLM specialist:

Manubag Jerry M.

(088) 221 4302

Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Development Corporation, Lurugan, Valencia City, Bukidnon

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Decision Support for Mainstreaming and Scaling out Sustainable Land Management (GEF-FAO / DS-SLM)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Department of Agriculture-Region VIII (DA-8) - Philippines

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?


The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Reference(s) to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Technologies

Mulching and Cover Cropping

Mulching and Cover Cropping [Benin]

Mulching is the practice of spreading non-living organic matter - such as crop residues - onto the soil for its protection and improvement while cover cropping is the planting of a legume species such as mucuna which protects the soil surface and fixes nitrogen,

  • Compiler: Gatien AGBOKOUN CHRISTOPHE
Sediment Traps

Sediment Traps [Philippines]

Sediment traps are structures built in the area which includes cascading catchment canal, silt traps and catch basin along perimeter, between pineapple fields and along diversion ditches to collect runoff during rains, preventing and minimizing the eroded soils cascading into natural bodies of water.

  • Compiler: Philippine Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies
Contour Straight Block Layout

Contour Straight Block Layout [Philippines]

It is a package of soil and water conservation technology that integrates contouring, bedding, and blocking.

  • Compiler: Philippine Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies
Trees as Buffer Zones

Trees as Buffer Zones [Philippines]

Trees as buffer zones are vegetative measures established in the area to prevent pest from crossing in between blocks. Further, the technology provides haven for flora and fauna which are endemic in the area.

  • Compiler: Philippine Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies

2. Description of the SLM Approach

2.1 Short description of the Approach

Integration of soil and water conservation technologies primarily aim to protect the area from loss of biodiversity and land degradation.

2.2 Detailed description of the Approach

Detailed description of the Approach:

Aims: (1) To improve biodiversity in the area; (2) To prevent on-site erosion; and (3) To minimize off-site impacts like siltation of natural water bodies.

MKADC is internationally renowned producer of export quality fresh pineapples. They cater different countries in Asia as a proof of their excellent service in pineapple production. Along with this success in MKADC, environmental management system is incorporated in their production area which gives additional merit in the protection of our ecology. This system includes various soil and water conservation technologies namely: 1) buffer zones; 2) sediment traps, brush dams and catch basins; 3) contour straight block lay-out technology; 4) natural vegetative strip; 5) pineapple as erosion control commodity; and 6) relay cropping which aim to minimize soil erosion and improve biodiversity in the area.

Stages of implementation: (a) Site development for 4 to 6 months; (b) Land preparation for 3 months; (c) Planting and replanting; (d) Plant care and crop management which include fertilization and weed control when the pineapple is at 2 to 11 months; (e) Flower induction, fruit development, fruit care and fruit estimates when pineapple is at 12 to 17 months; (f) Degreening and harvesting at 18 months; (g) Ratooning; and (h) Maintenance i.e manual weeding (as needs arises).

The primary stakeholders are the land owners of the leased lands and MKADC.The approach of MKADC ensures that at the end of the contract between the company and the land owners, the land is still productive.

2.3 Photos of the Approach

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Approach has been applied



Region/ State/ Province:

Brgy. Lurugan, Valencia City, Bukidnon

2.6 Dates of initiation and termination of the Approach

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date when the Approach was initiated:

less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Type of Approach

  • recent local initiative/ innovative

2.8 Main aims/ objectives of the Approach

The main objectives of the approach are to prevent soil erosion and improve biodiversity.

2.9 Conditions enabling or hindering implementation of the Technology/ Technologies applied under the Approach

legal framework (land tenure, land and water use rights)
  • enabling

Contract leasing minimum of ten years. After ten years and the owner wish to have its land back, the company is obliged to return the land to its original state/ or productivity. They conduct before and after fertility sampling to ensure the area is productive for cultivation.

workload, availability of manpower
  • enabling

Compliment labor needs from field operations thru internal environmental management services. Filling up the labor requirement thru reassignment of regular labor from other areas.

  • enabling

Fences were built along boundaries to prevent the entry of stray animals and assignment of watchmen in critical areas.

3. Participation and roles of stakeholders involved

3.1 Stakeholders involved in the Approach and their roles

  • local land users/ local communities
3.2 Involvement of local land users/ local communities in the different phases of the Approach
Involvement of local land users/ local communities Specify who was involved and describe activities
initiation/ motivation self-mobilization Sustainability of pineapple production inspite of identical issues on soil erosion, slope protection, and soil fertility loss.
planning self-mobilization Yearly review and modification of farm field layout to correct deficiencies and to enhance control measures.
implementation self-mobilization Integrated in the pineapple field production approaches.
monitoring/ evaluation self-mobilization Internal audits / self-monitoring during high rainfall.
research self-mobilization Benchmarking on new approaches to address identified issues.

3.4 Decision-making on the selection of SLM Technology/ Technologies

Specify who decided on the selection of the Technology/ Technologies to be implemented:
  • land users alone (self-initiative)

The land user in this approach is the company itself (Mt. Kitanglad Agri Development Corporation). Trial and error method was applied to determine the most optimum design of the SWC technology structures.

Specify on what basis decisions were made:
  • personal experience and opinions (undocumented)

4. Technical support, capacity building, and knowledge management

4.1 Capacity building/ training

Was training provided to land users/ other stakeholders?


Specify who was trained:
  • field staff/ advisers
Form of training:
  • on-the-job

4.2 Advisory service

Do land users have access to an advisory service?


4.3 Institution strengthening (organizational development)

Have institutions been established or strengthened through the Approach?
  • no

4.4 Monitoring and evaluation

Is monitoring and evaluation part of the Approach?


If yes, is this documentation intended to be used for monitoring and evaluation?


4.5 Research

Was research part of the Approach?


Specify topics:
  • technology
Give further details and indicate who did the research:

Collection of sediment/ silt from sediment traps and catch basins. Attempt to conduct research by third party, however cost constraints are foremost. In-house are conducted thru practical approaches and benchmarking.

5. Financing and external material support

5.1 Annual budget for the SLM component of the Approach

If precise annual budget is not known, indicate range:
  • 10,000-100,000
Comments (e.g. main sources of funding/ major donors):

MKADC (land owner,company) 100%

5.2 Financial/ material support provided to land users

Did land users receive financial/ material support for implementing the Technology/ Technologies?


5.3 Subsidies for specific inputs (including labour)

  • none

5.4 Credit

Was credit provided under the Approach for SLM activities?


5.5 Other incentives or instruments

Were other incentives or instruments used to promote implementation of SLM Technologies?


6. Impact analysis and concluding statements

6.1 Impacts of the Approach

Did the Approach help land users to implement and maintain SLM Technologies?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Retention of soil fertility since eroded soils are trapped in the catchment canals, embankments and other structures to prevent the further movement of the soil downstream.

Did the Approach empower socially and economically disadvantaged groups?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

It provided additional source of income for laborers to support their families.

Did the Approach improve issues of land tenure/ user rights that hindered implementation of SLM Technologies?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

The land used for the pineapple production are leased from private owners. If the owner decided not to renew the lease of contract then the company needs to revert back the state of the land before returning to the owner.For this, soil fertility analysis is being practiced.Water rights use is exclusive under National Irrigation Administration (NIA). Need for water are arrange thru fees.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Some private companies are starting to adopt the approach. Small-scale farmers nearby the plantation are also encouraged in establishing SWC structures but most of them did not adopt the technology as it lessened the production area and would entail additional cost for them.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

The program of MKADC encourages additional job opportunities for the people in the barangay and neighboring communities especially if other companies and individual farmers adopt the system.

6.2 Main motivation of land users to implement SLM

  • increased production
  • increased profit(ability), improved cost-benefit-ratio
  • environmental consciousness
  • customs and beliefs, morals

6.3 Sustainability of Approach activities

Can the land users sustain what has been implemented through the Approach (without external support)?
  • yes
If yes, describe how:

The company has the financial capabilities to sustain the program since it is part of their workplan.

6.4 Strengths/ advantages of the Approach

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Pineapple produced are exported in Japan, Korea, Middle East and China.
Physical environment is favorable for pineapple production.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Improves livelihood of farmers/ land-users without compromising the productivity of the land since it is ecologically viable.
Financial capabilities of the company to implement and sustain the program.

6.5 Weaknesses/ disadvantages of the Approach and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Physical destruction of field planted with trees providing additional environmental depletion by outside parties (eg. charcoal making, firewood, others).
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
High input and labour requirements.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users

Links and modules

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