Technologies

Planting of Acacia ampliceps as a vegetative measure to control severely salt-affected land. [Thailand]

Planting Acacia ampliceps on the severely salt-affected land leveling with ditches and dikes.

technologies_4149 - Thailand

Completeness: 94%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Tathaisong Nurean

-

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Phaosrakhu Chakkaphan

Land Development Regional Office 3

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Chuaysanoi Phatranit

Land Development Regional Office 3

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Oechaiyaphum Kaewjai

Land Development Regional Office 3

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Prachansri Saowanee

Land Development Regional Office 3

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Phiprakon Apisit

Land Development Regional Office 3

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Prawanna Prasit

Land Development Regional Office 3

Thailand

National consultant:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Decision Support for Mainstreaming and Scaling out Sustainable Land Management (GEF-FAO / DS-SLM)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Land Development Department (Land Development Department) - Thailand

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

No

Comments:

The technology is very well accepted by the land users.

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Acacia ampliceps is a very salt-tolerant species that can grow well on the severely salt-affected area. Land leveling with ditches and dikes is needed, they were planted along the east-west direction. The technology is very well accepted by the land users.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle, a leguminous Australian shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in the Northeast of Thailand for the remediation of saline soils) is a very salt-tolerant plant that grows well on the severely salt-affected land. Leveling the land and furnishing with ditches and dikes is needed, and the trees could be planted along the affected area, appropriately along the east-west direction. The technology is very well accepted by the land users. Planting such tree on the severely salt-affected land in Kham Tale Sau, Nakhon Ratchasima Province is a subproject of the LDD project on "Planting Perennial Salt-tolerant Trees in Salt-affected Areas in the Northeast of Thailand", which started since 1997. In the subproject, Acacia ampliceps was grown on 68 rai covering >50% of salt patches of the area of heavily salt-affected barren land owned by Mrs. Nurian Tathaisong at Ban Kok Sa-ad Village, Dansay Sub-district, Buayai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province. In a recent study, after growing the acacia tree in 2015, her land changed noticeably from barren to be covered with trees that provide shading; native grasses then returned to become grazing land and a source for fodder for her 14 cattle. The purposes of the project have been to maximize the use of the land with low input and to decrease salinity to the level that other less salt-tolerant plant species can survive and produce crop yields for some higher income, and eventually to result in better soil properties.
The technology started with locating severely salt-affected sites (approx. 45 rai), leveling the land and furnishing it with ditches and dikes. For the dimensions, the dike is 2 m wide, 0.5 m high, the top of the dike being 1.5 m wide. The ditch is 0.5 m deep and 1 m wide. Acacia ampliceps seeds are treated to break the dormancy by soaking in hot water (80°C) for 10 min before planting in the nursery. The 2-month-old seedlings are planted in a pit of 0.3x0.3x0.3 m on the dike, with an addition of 1 kg each of compost and rice husk, at a spacing of 2 m as a single row in the middle of the dike. The ridges are 20 m apart. According to the land user, 1 year after planting the native grasses that did not exist had returned while the salt crusts had disappeared. At 2-year old, the average plant height was 1.65 m and became higher than 2 m after 3 years of planting, producing 8-10 coppices per tree and lots of leaves that favor cattle shading. Acacia ampliceps wood is normally used to produce charcoal. Three years after planting the tree, the land user has converted 23 rai of less saline land to paddy fields. The acacia leaves fallen on the ground helped improve the soil properties. After a period of 3 years, the technology induced better microclimate and richer diversity of flora and fauna species, e.g. wild flowers, native grasses, frogs, dragonflies, earthworms, birds and rats. The fragrant Acacia ampliceps flowers attract bees, thus in the near future the land user prefers doing apiculture as well as producing essential oil to making charcoal. The only visible threat of Acacia ampliceps is the forest-fire risk due to its high essential oil content; the fire that may be caused by any means will damage crops in the vicinity.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Date:

28/11/2018

Date:

28/11/2018

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Thailand

Region/ State/ Province:

Nakhon Ratchasima

Further specification of location:

Ban Kok Sa-ard, Moo 10 T. Danchang, A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • applied at specific points/ concentrated on a small area
Is/are the technology site(s) located in a permanently protected area?

No

Comments:

On farmer's land.

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:

2015

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Land Development Department and Local authorities had demonstrated Acacia ampliceps plantation on farm ridges in the salt-affected area, under the project of salinity-tolerant crop plantation to suppress salt-affected soil distribution, at A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima since 2014 up to now.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem
  • preserve/ improve biodiversity
  • Desalination

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

No


Unproductive land

Unproductive land

Specify:

Barren land

Remarks:

There are salt crusts in the area of heavily salt-affected barren land.

Comments:

Acacia ampliceps plantation on land leveling with ditches and ridges, had potential salinity watertable control.

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • No (Continue with question 3.4)
Land use mixed within the same land unit:

No

Cropland

Cropland

Unproductive land

Unproductive land

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed
Comments:

Average annual rainfall 900-1,100 mm.

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • improved ground/ vegetation cover
  • desalination

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
structural measures

structural measures

  • S1: Terraces
other measures

other measures

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cs: salinization/ alkalinization
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pc: compaction
  • Pw: waterlogging
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bl: loss of soil life
water degradation

water degradation

  • Hg: change in groundwater/aquifer level

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation
  • adapt to land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

The technologies start with locating severely salt-affected sites and land leveling with ditches and dikes. The dike is 2 m wide, 0.5 m high, the top of the dike is 1.5 m wide. The ditch is 0.5 m deep and 1 m wide. Acacia ampliceps seeds are treated to break the dormancy by soaking in 80°C hot water for 10 min before planting in the nursery. The 2-month-old seedlings are planted in a pit of 0.3x0.3x0.3 m on the dike, with an addition of 1 kg each of compost and rice husk, at a spacing of 2 m as a single row in the middle of the dike. The ridges are 20 m apart.

Author:

Chakkaphan Phaosrakhu

Date:

09/10/2018

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

45 rai

If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha =:

1 ha = 6.25 rai

other/ national currency (specify):

THB

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

32.0

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

300 THB/day

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Nursery of Acacia ampliceps. May-July
2. Preparing the pit for planting May-July
3. Planting Acacia ampliceps May-July
Comments:

There is no irrigation water, therefore planting time depends directly on the period of early rainy season which is May-July.

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Cost of hired labour on planting process (cost of hired labour/ day is 300 THB, 1 rai needs 2 labourers. Hence, the total cost of hired labour is 600 THB) rai 1.0 600.0 600.0 0.0
Plant material Cost of Acacia ampliceps nursery (1 young seedling costs 1.50 THB). 1 rai needs 80 young seedlings. So, the total cost of young seedlings is 120 THB. seedling 80.0 1.5 120.0 0.0
Fertilizers and biocides The cost of compost is 3.5 THB/kg. Rate of application is 0.5 kg/pit kg 40.0 3.5 140.0 0.0
Fertilizers and biocides The cost of rice husk is 4 THB/kg. Rate of application is 1 kg/pit kg 80.0 4.0 320.0 0.0
Fertilizers and biocides The cost of chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) is 20 THB/kg. Rate of application is 0.1 kg/pit kg 8.0 20.0 160.0 0.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 1340.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 41.88
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

-

Comments:

Land Development Department supports the operational budget particularly cost of Acacia ampliceps plantation, while land users are in charge of maintenance and forest fire control during dry seasons.

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Forage harvesting after 1 year of Acacia ampliceps plantation rainy season, 4 times
Comments:

After 1 year of planting, the native grasses that did not exist have returned while salt crusts disappear.

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Cost of hired labour on trimming process: 1. The cost of hired labour: 300 THB/8-hr day and 2. Trimming process for 1 rai requires 4 hours each time, twice a year. Hence, the total cost of hired labour on trimming process is 300 THB/rai/yr) time 2.0 150.0 300.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 300.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 9.38
Comments:

Land users operate trimming process; however, labour cost is calculated.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Land Development Department supports the operational budget particularly cost of Acacia ampliceps plantation at first year, then users are in charge of maintenance and forest fire control.
At the first year, the initial cost for Acacia ampliceps plantation is about 1,340 THB. This includes: the cost of hired labour on planting process, 600 THB/rai; the cost of young seedlings, approximately 120 THB/rai and the cost of compost, rice husk and chemical fertilizer, about 620 THB/rai. For the expenditure part on the 1st year, there is a hired labour for harvesting fodder in a period of 6 months, approximately 300 THB/rai (from the early to the end of rainy season). However, land user can produce fodder and have grazing land for 14 cattle for around 180 days/yr. Each cattle needs about 30 kg of fodder a day. The cost for the fodder is 1 THB/kg. Land user can save the cost for cattle feeding approx. 5,400 THB/cattle/yr. In conclusion, land user can save the cost for fodder production and grazing land approximately 1,680 THB/rai. For the expenditure part on 2nd and 3rd year, there is fodder harvesting, trimming process and charcoal production. Land users may obtain approx. 10 bags of charcoal that costs 120 THB/bag. Thus, there is a direct income from charcoal production (about 26.7 THB/rai/yr) and an increase of rice production (up to 5%). Land users can have increased income from selling rice at 100 THB/rai.
In conclusion, there is a cost of maintenance during 3 years for approx. 900 THB/rai. Part of the income, the land user can have income from the increased rice yield approx. 100 THB/rai/yr. Otherwise, charcoal production can reduce fuel’s expenditure in daily life for approx. 26.7 THB/rai/yr. Fodder production and grazing land can reduce cost of cattle feeding for approximately 1,680 THB/rai/yr. The land user, however, wants to leave the branches of Acacia ampliceps for watertable control and for cattle shading.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:

1084.95

Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered:

Meteorological Department

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

for agricultural use only (irrigation)

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low
Habitat diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Gender:
  • women
Age of land users:
  • elderly

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

crop quality

decreased
increased

fodder production

decreased
increased

fodder quality

decreased
increased

animal production

decreased
increased

wood production

decreased
increased

forest/ woodland quality

decreased
increased

non-wood forest production

decreased
increased

risk of production failure

increased
decreased

product diversity

decreased
increased

production area

decreased
increased

land management

hindered
simplified

energy generation

decreased
increased
Water availability and quality

drinking water availability

decreased
increased

drinking water quality

decreased
increased

water availability for livestock

decreased
increased

water quality for livestock

decreased
increased

irrigation water availability

decreased
increased

irrigation water quality

decreased
increased

demand for irrigation water

increased
decreased
Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased

farm income

decreased
increased

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

health situation

worsened
improved

land use/ water rights

worsened
improved

cultural opportunities

reduced
improved

recreational opportunities

reduced
improved

community institutions

weakened
strengthened

national institutions

weakened
strengthened

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

conflict mitigation

worsened
improved

situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

worsened
improved

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity

decreased
increased

water quality

decreased
increased

harvesting/ collection of water

reduced
improved

surface runoff

increased
decreased

excess water drainage

reduced
improved

groundwater table/ aquifer

lowered
recharge

evaporation

increased
decreased
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil loss

increased
decreased

soil accumulation

decreased
increased

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

soil compaction

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased

salinity

increased
decreased

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased

acidity

increased
reduced
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover

decreased
increased

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased

invasive alien species

increased
reduced

animal diversity

decreased
increased

beneficial species

decreased
increased

habitat diversity

decreased
increased

pest/ disease control

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

flood impacts

increased
decreased

landslides/ debris flows

increased
decreased

drought impacts

increased
decreased

impacts of cyclones, rain storms

increased
decreased

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased

fire risk

increased
decreased

wind velocity

increased
decreased

micro-climate

worsened
improved

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability

decreased
increased

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season

reduced
increased

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

downstream siltation

increased
decreased

groundwater/ river pollution

increased
reduced

buffering/ filtering capacity

reduced
improved

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced

damage on neighbours' fields

increased
reduced

damage on public/ private infrastructure

increased
reduced

impact of greenhouse gases

increased
reduced

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought not well
forest fire moderately
land fire moderately
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
flash flood moderately

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
extended growing period not well
reduced growing period not well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

Comments:

Plantation cost in the 1st year is the main cost; the rest is the maintenance cost after 1-2 years of the growing period, including weed control. All kinds of weed can be used for raising animals. Hence, there is not much maintenance cost after growing the Acacia tree.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 11-50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

4,665 rai (746.4 ha)

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%
Comments:

Land user claimed that planting Acacia ampliceps on the severely salt-affected land can decrease salinity to about 50% after 3 years of planting. This project made farmers understand the methodology of desalination.

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?

Yes

other (specify):

Acacia ampliceps plantation

Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.):

The farmer attempted to grow Acacia ampliceps on the leveled land with two methods. The first one: 1) To grow by removing the plastic bag and 2) To grow without removing the plastic bag. The farmers found that removing the plastic bag before planting is better, as the plant growth will not be disrupted.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
1) Desalination to 40% after 3 years of planting;
2) Branches of Acacia ampliceps are used as forage and for producing charcoal;
3) The plants provide shade, with increased air humidity, resulting in a better atmosphere to live in; and
4) The plants increase the amount of flora, especially the forage crop.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
1) Desalination, thus preventing the spread of salt-affected soil;
2) To increase rice yield and, thus, farmers’ income;
3) To induce better microclimate and biodiversity of both flora and fauna species, e.g. wild flowers, native grasses, frogs, dragonflies, earthworms, birds and rats.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
One year after Acacia ampliceps planting, farmers had to investigate their technology, to prevent their technology from animal and fire attack. 1) The farmer had to investigate his technology, to prevent their technology from trapping animals. They have to build firebreak.
2) The farmer should request his neighbors who raise buffalos and cows to prevent their animals from destroying the technology.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Farmers who do not join this project do not know how to plant Acacia ampliceps on farm dikes. Moreover, they do not know where to buy the seeds. Thus, LDD officers or farmers who are engaged with this project have to inform them. LDD officers or farmers who are engaged with this project have to educate other farmers.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

Visit 1 farmer/land user.

  • interviews with land users

Interview with 1 farmer.

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

The Land Development Department officers and planners (7)

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

5

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

03/11/2018

Comments:

The interviewer on field visit and interview process must be by a person who is knowledgeable about the background of this project.

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Land Development Department

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.ldd.go.th/ LDD project on planting perennial salt-tolerant trees in salt-affected areas in Northeast Thailand, Mr. Pramote Yamklee,2005

Title, author, year, ISBN:

LDD project on planting perennial salt-tolerant trees in salt-affected areas in the Northeast. Thailand, Mr. Pramote Yamklee,2005

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.ldd.go.th/Lddwebsite/web_ord/Technical/HTML/Technical03030.html

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

URL:

https://www.wocat.net/library/media/27/

Title/ description:

where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)

URL:

https://www.wocat.net/en/projects-and-countries/projects/drr

7.4 General comments

The questionnaire is very complicated.

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all

Modules