Assisted Natural Regeneration [Bangladesh]


technologies_4372 - Bangladesh

Completeness: 92%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Morshed Hoq Mahabub

Bangladesh Forest Department


land user:

Islam Md. Saiful

Bangladesh Forest Department


land user:

Rahman Md.

Community Patrolling Group (CPG), Medhakocchopia


Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Decision Support for Mainstreaming and Scaling out Sustainable Land Management (GEF-FAO / DS-SLM)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Bangladesh Forest Department (Bangladesh Forest Department) - Bangladesh
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
FAO Bangladesh (FAO Bangladesh) - Bangladesh

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Assisted natural regeneration (ANR) is a simple, low-cost forest restoration method that can effectively convert deforested lands to more productive forests.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Medhakachapia National Park (MKNP) is nationally known for protecting the most extensive stands of mature critically endangered Garjan (Dipterocarpus turbinatus) trees in Bangladesh. Other native trees present in MKNP include Telsur Hopea odorata, Boilam Anisoptera scaphula, Gamar Gmelina arborea and Chapalish Artocarpus chaplasha. MKNP is tropical semi-evergreen forest in the low hills of the Fulchari Forest Range and covers 396 hectares. The park is located in Chakaria Upazila, not far from Cox’s Bazar in the southeast part of the country. Originally, the entire park area was densely covered with Garjan forest, but now there are about 9000 mature Garjan trees as many parts have been encroached upon with agriculture. MKNP is bordered by 13 villages where most of the people depend directly or indirectly upon the forest. Encroachment by settlements and agriculture has been associated with illegal tree cutting, hunting, and collection of fuel wood, bamboo and cane and other forest products. These activities are encouraged by sawmills in the vicinity and unemployment. Due to reduced canopy coverage, the forest soils have been exposed degraded. In order to restore forest health, the Bangladesh Forest Department introduced Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR) practice. The access for public recreation and education and research is allowed inside national park. However, the collection of fuel woods and non-timber forest product from national park area by the local communities is a common scenario here.
ANR aims to accelerate, rather than replace, natural succession processes by removing or reducing barriers to natural forest regeneration such as competition with weedy species and recurring disturbances (e.g., fuel wood collection, grazing, fire and wood harvesting). Compared to conventional reforestation methods, which involve planting tree seedlings, ANR offers the significant advantage avoiding costs associated with propagating, raising, and planting seedlings. ANR is most effectively utilized at the landscape level in restoring the forest protective functions, such as soil protection, and is most suitable for restoring areas where some level of natural succession is already in progress. ANR offers distinct advantages over other forest restoration methods but also has some limitations. ANR is much cheaper to implement and can be applied over larger areas than other restoration planting approaches, but may be less effective in enhancing floristic diversity at the initial stages. Some of ANR’s disadvantages can be overcome by enrichment planting with desirable species. ANR aims to accelerate, rather than replace natural succession process by removing or reducing barriers to natural forest regeneration.
Soil degradation of MKNP has been greatly reduced through practicing ANR and co-management. In MKNP co-management was established on 2009 engaging local communities. As a part of co-management activities, the Forest Department (FD) formed a Community Patrolling Group (CPG) with 35 members from the local community to protect the Garjan trees and look after the whole forest along with forester officers. Under the support from Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL) project of USAID, the CPG along with FD intensively patrol the forest in rotating groups to ensure that no harm is done to the mature trees and natural seedlings. As a result, sufficient tree regeneration is now taking place and their growth is accelerating. Even where weeds dominate, seedlings of pioneer tree species are often found. The minimum required number of preexisting seedlings to implement ANR depends on the acceptable length of time for the forest to be restored and site-specific conditions that influence the rate of forest recovery. As a general reference, a density range of 200–800 seedlings/ha (>15 cm in height; counting clumps in 1 m2 as one seedling) has been suggested for ANR reforestation, and it has been estimated that at least 700 seedlings/ha are needed during the early treatment period in order to achieve canopy closure within three years. Although the forest restored through ANR in MKNP will have lower commercial value in terms of timber, it will support greater biodiversity and more effectively provide for the subsistence needs of the local people compared to commercial plantations.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Chittagong division

Further specification of location:

Medakacchapia National Park under Cox's Bazar North Forest division

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1-10 km2
Is/are the technology site(s) located in a permanently protected area?


If yes, specify:

Medakacchapia is a National Park with an area of 395.92 ha. In Bangladesh, the access for public recreation and education/research is allowed inside national park. However, the collection of fuel woods and non-timber forest product from national park area by the local communities is a common scenario here.

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:


2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL) project of USAID

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem
  • preserve/ improve biodiversity
  • create beneficial social impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

  • (Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands
(Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands: Specify management type:
  • Dead wood/ prunings removal
  • Tropical semi-evergreen forest
  • Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Syzygium grande, Chukrasia tabularis, Hopea odorata
Are the trees specified above deciduous or evergreen?
  • mixed deciduous/ evergreen
Products and services:
  • Timber
  • Fuelwood
  • Fruits and nuts
  • Nature conservation/ protection
  • Recreation/ tourism
  • Oil from Dipterocarpus turbinatus

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • No (Continue with question 3.4)

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • natural and semi-natural forest management
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
management measures

management measures

  • M2: Change of management/ intensity level

Earlier the ground vegetation was suppressed by weeds and non-valuable plant species. Various alien invasive plant species also disturbed the natural succession process of these area. The management practice also changed from plantation in vacant area to assisted natural regeneration with the involvement of local community.

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bs: quality and species composition/ diversity decline

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

Canopy coverage of the area were poor and top soil erosion occurred due to exposed forest cover. Through ANR the canopy coverage will be regained and reduce land degradation.

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Step 1: Marking of Woody Regeneration
Once the target area is identified and its boundaries are demarcated, the site is surveyed to assess its succession status and to locate any natural woody regeneration growing in the weedy vegetation. The located seedlings should be clearly marked with stakes. Decision on the minimum size of seedlings to be protected and released depends on the density and distribution of seedlings in the area, as well as budget and time constraints. However, the seedlings should be large enough to have a reasonable chance of survival.
Step 2: Liberation and Tending of Woody Regeneration
The next step is to accelerate the growth of the marked seedlings by reducing competition from the weedy species for water, nutrients, and light. The initial weeding and climber cutting should be implemented at the onset of the rainy season so that the liberated seedlings will have the full growing season of accelerated growth. All competing vegetation such as weeds and climbers within at least 0.5 m radius around the stem of the marked seedlings are removed. In some cases, clumps of woody seedlings may need to be thinned in order to liberate the largest individuals or the more desirable species.
Step 3: Protection from Disturbance.
Protecting against fire and other forms of disturbance is the most important ANR activity. Establishing firebreaks around blocks of ANR-treated sites is important, if the area is prone to fire. If animal grazing is prevalent in the area, fencing should be established, or patrols/guards should be assigned to protect the site from such activity. Long-term community involvement and support is critical in preventing the re-occurrence of disturbance events that will set back succession to the before-treatment state.
Step 4: Maintenance and Enrichment Planting.
It is suggested that the maintenance of weeding, and liberation of any additional seedlings that establish or that are newly found, should be conducted three times in first two years and two times in next two years. In the fifth year one climber cutting should be conducted in rainy season. The frequency of maintenance operations can be adjusted according to field observation and monitoring data on the growth of the liberated seedlings and the density of natural woody regeneration. Enrichment planting can also be carried out to accelerate canopy closure, add useful tree species, and increase floral diversity. Even after the restoration of canopy cover, large-seeded primary forest trees and rare species are unlikely to colonize naturally. If restoring some of the floral diversity of the original forest is one of the restoration objectives, species or functional groups of trees lacking in natural regeneration will need to be planted either at the initial treatment stage or after canopy closure depending on the ecological requirements of the species.


Nazrin Sultana



4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

1 hectare

If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha =:

1 ha = 2.47 acres

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

500 BDT

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Site preparation (Boundary demarcation, site map preparation with GPS, marking of woody regeneration) May-June
2. Care and maintenance of natural regeneration (liberation and tending of woody regeneration, protection from disturbance) June-July

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Survey for map preparation and marking of woody regeneration person-days 1.0 500.0 500.0
Labour Tying up seedlings and young trees person-days 4.0 500.0 2000.0
Labour Tending of woody regeneration person-days 10.0 500.0 5000.0
Labour Application of fertilizers person-days 4.0 500.0 2000.0
Equipment Weeding equipment (manual weeding tool) lump sum 1.0 1000.0 1000.0
Equipment Bamboo sticks for tying up seedlings pieces 800.0 2.0 1600.0
Equipment Rope lump sum 1.0 1000.0 1000.0
Fertilizers and biocides Compost fertilizer Kg 625.0 4.0 2500.0
Construction material Rod, Cement, Sand, Khoa, etc for RCC signboard Lump sum 1.0 1000.0 1000.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 16600.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 197.62
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

Bangladesh forest department is the land user and the total cost of the establishment borne by CREL project

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. 1st year weeding 3 times
2. 2nd year weeding 3 times
3. 3rd year weeding 2 times
4. 4th year weeding 2 times
5. 5th year climber cutting 1 time

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour 1st year weeding person-days 15.0 500.0 7500.0
Labour 2nd year weeding person-days 15.0 500.0 7500.0
Labour 3rd year weeding person-days 10.0 500.0 5000.0
Labour 4th year weeding and 5th year climber cutting person-days 15.0 500.0 7500.0 100.0
Equipment Weeding equipment (manual weeding tools) lump sum 1.0 1000.0 1000.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 28500.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 339.29
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

The 4th year weeding and 5th year climber cutting borne by forest department

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

The most important factor affecting the costs is labor

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

The driest month is December. The greatest amount of precipitation occurs in June.

Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

Mean annual temperature is 25.6 °C

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

poor drinking water (treatment required)

Water quality refers to:

surface water

Is water salinity a problem?


Is flooding of the area occurring?


5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Habitat diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
Individuals or groups:
  • employee (company, government)
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • women
  • men
Age of land users:
  • youth
  • middle-aged
  • elderly

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Water use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system?



Under co-management system


Co-management of forest ensures active participation of all concerned parties in the management or maintenance of natural resources on the basis of consensus among the stakeholders involved in the management of the natural resources of an area

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


wood production

Comments/ specify:

ANR support the growth of woody vegetation and regular monitoring of ANR also provide security to the mature trees of the stand

forest/ woodland quality


non-wood forest production


risk of production failure


production area

Comments/ specify:

Through ANR the fellow and degraded forest land now bring under productive forest

land management

Comments/ specify:

ANR is a comparatively easy method than clear felling with artificial regeneration, mixed plantation or enrichment plantation to manage forest area

Income and costs

diversity of income sources

Comments/ specify:

The local communities can collect NTFP from the ANR site. Due to the increase of vegetation and presence of wildlife in MKNP, the area also attract tourists. The CPG people also worked as tourist guide

Socio-cultural impacts

cultural opportunities

Comments/ specify:

aesthetic beauty of forest improved

recreational opportunities

Comments/ specify:

eco-tourism increased

SLM/ land degradation knowledge


situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

Comments/ specify:

Poor people working in Community Patrolling Group (CPG) taking care of ANR with forest department. Social status of these poor people improved.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff


groundwater table/ aquifer



Comments/ specify:

Due to increased canopy coverage evaporation decreased


soil moisture


soil cover


soil loss


nutrient cycling/ recharge


soil organic matter/ below ground C

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover


biomass/ above ground C


plant diversity


invasive alien species

Comments/ specify:

Through ANR only native plant species promoted to grow here

animal diversity

Comments/ specify:

Animal diversity increased as the habitat improved

beneficial species


habitat diversity

Comments/ specify:

habitat diversity increased with the canopy coverage and tree density improvement

Climate and disaster risk reduction

landslides/ debris flows


emission of carbon and greenhouse gases


6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season

Comments/ specify:

Due to the presence of vegetation on slope the stream flow become stable

downstream siltation


impact of greenhouse gases


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well
seasonal temperature summer increase well
annual rainfall decrease moderately
seasonal rainfall wet/ rainy season increase moderately

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
landslide not well

Note to coping with landslides; Due to the events of landslides in the upper slope sometimes the seedlings and young trees suffered at the foot slope. The degraded upland area can be recovered through ANR with enrichment planting to reduces the events of landslides and slope stabilization.

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 1-10%
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
It is a low cost intervention to regain the protective roles of the forest.
Community Patrolling Group (CPG) are involved in maintenance of ANR forest through co-management of natural resources. Regular patrolling activity reduces the disturbance in forest and help to prevent land degradation.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Biodiversity conservation and wildlife habitat restoration are accelerated through ANR.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
ANR is less effective in enhancing floral diversity than techniques e.g. mixed plantation, enrichment plantation, selection cum improvement etc. It promotes the existing regeneration and significant portion of regeneration comes from the dominant trees of the stand. Enrichment plantations with ANR can increase the floral diversity.
The forest restored through ANR may have less commercial value in terms of timber compared to commercial plantation. This weakness of ANR is only valid for the forest which is managed for production purpose. Desirable timber species can be planted as enrichment with ANR.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
ANR is suitable for areas where some level of natural succession is in progress. This, because sufficient tree regeneration must be present on the targeted site so their growth can be accelerate through ANR. Plantation activity with other restoration method should be practiced where natural succession is low or absent.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

number of informants: 04

  • interviews with land users

number of informants: 03

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

number of informants: 02

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

number of informants: 02

When were the data compiled (in the field)?


7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Shono, K., E. A. Cadaweng & P. B. Durst (2007) Application of assisted natural regeneration to restore degraded tropical forestlands. Restoration Ecology, 15, 620-626.

Available from where? Costs?

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Medhakachapia National Park


7.4 General comments

The WOCAT questionnaire covers all the technical aspects of this SLM practice

Links and modules

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