Mound plantation in coastal area with non-mangrove plant species for land stabilization [Bangladesh]

Mound plantation

technologies_4732 - Bangladesh

Completeness: 92%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

Md. Anowar Hossain

Bangladesh Forest Department


land user:

Mohammad Rahman

Local community people


Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Decision Support for Mainstreaming and Scaling out Sustainable Land Management (GEF-FAO / DS-SLM)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Bangladesh Forest Department (Bangladesh Forest Department) - Bangladesh
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
FAO Bangladesh (FAO Bangladesh) - Bangladesh

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Mound plantation with non-mangrove species to transform mono-culture plantations subsequently into more ecologically resilient, mixed species plantations and as well as to accelerate natural processes of accretion and land stabilization in coastal areas.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Bangladesh has nearly five decades of experience of coastal afforestation and reforestation on offshore islands and newly accreted lands. Coastal plantations were originally planted mainly to protect coastal populations against tidal bores, cyclones and storm surges and as well as to speed up the stabilization of newly accreted lands that eventually protect interior agricultural land from saline intrusion. According to the historical approaches to coastal afforestation and reforestation in Bangladesh, only a few pioneer mangrove species are suitable for planting on newly accreted coastal lands. Mangrove plantations that were established with a handful of pioneer species require increasing levels of management to promote ‘artificial succession’. There is need to transform these predominantly monoculture plantations subsequently into more ecologically resilient, mixed species plantations. Mound plantation with non-mangrove species was introduced in some places to address this issue.
Under the ‘Climate Resilient Participatory Afforestation and Reforestation Project’ non-mangrove mound plantations were established in 2013 in South Salimpur area of Sitakundu upazila (administrative unit) in Chittagong district by the Forest Department. Earlier, in 1983 the newly accreted char land (river islands formed from sedimentation) was planted with mangrove species Keora (Sonneratia apetala). Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees that cope with salt water immersion and wave action and are adapted to life in waterlogged and harsh coastal conditions. Due to cyclones and illegal removal of trees the Keora plantations were destroyed in many spots. In the meantime, the mangroves had accumulated sediments and the land was raised as compared to the adjacent inland areas. This accreted and stabilized land is suitable for non-mangrove plantation as the water does not flood the raised land regularly.
However, the area is regularly inundated by the tide during the monsoon. In addition storm surges flood the land and cause waterlogged conditions, which are not suitable for the survival of non-mangrove species. To successfully plant non-mangrove species along the coast, mound plantation is practiced. The mound served as a raised bed to protect the seedlings from waterlogged conditions in monsoon seasons. Akashmoni (Acacia auriculiformis), Jhau (Casuarina equisetifolia), Arjun (Terminalia arjuna), Rain-tree (Albizia saman), Babla (Vachellia nilotica) tree species are planted in mound. The major activities of this practice are cleaning of site from weeds & making of round shaped mounds. The diameter of the mound in the base is 1m and in top is 0.6m with a height of 0.6m. The mound is prepared through soil heaps from the plantation site. Inter and intra row spacing is 2.6m x 2.6m center to center of the mounds. 1500 mounds per hectare are constructed and one bamboo stick put inside every mound to support the plated seedlings to stand firmly.
The dimension of pit in each mound is 0.3m x-0.3m s 0.3m and the pit needs to be kept open for two weeks for drying before the one year old seedling can be transplanted in the pits. The seedlings were raised in the nursery of Forest Department under the project. While planting seedlings 0.5 kg compost and 0.5 kg loamy soil are mixed in the pit to increase the fertility of the soil. Vacancy filling is required in the next year and weeding practice continues till 3rd year of plantation.
Advantage of mixed-species over monocultures is the promotion of diversifying production under different rotation periods. Mixed-species plantations are more resistant to damage caused by storms, insects or diseases. Mound plantation with non-mangrove mixed species increased the diversity and ecological services. Mound plantations are vulnerable to a variety of threats from livestock grazing, mainly buffalo, to extraction of timber and outright conversion of plantations to other land uses such as agriculture, aquaculture and salt production.
However, the mound plantation practice contributes in coastal greenbelt species diversification along with speed up the natural processes of accretion and land stabilization.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Chittagong district

Further specification of location:

Kattoli coast area

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2
Is/are the technology site(s) located in a permanently protected area?


2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Climate Resilient Participatory Afforestation and Reforestation Project’ by the Forest Department established the technology

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • reduce risk of disasters

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

  • Tree plantation, afforestation
Tree plantation, afforestation: Specify origin and composition of species:
  • Mixed varieties
  • Coastal afforestation with non-mangrove plant species
Type of tree:
  • Acacia auriculiformis
  • Casuarina equisetifolia
  • Terminalia Arjuna, Albizia Saman, Vachellia nilotica
Are the trees specified above deciduous or evergreen?
  • evergreen
Products and services:
  • Timber
  • Fuelwood
  • Nature conservation/ protection
  • Recreation/ tourism
  • Protection against natural hazards

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • Yes (Please fill out the questions below with regard to the land use before implementation of the Technology)
Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Unproductive land

Unproductive land


Earlier the area was covered with mangroves species but due to cyclones and illegal logging the mangrove stand destroyed and the area turned to an unproductive land. However, the mangroves had stabilized the accredited land raised the land due to sediment deposition.


Only some mangrove plant species found in scatter

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • forest plantation management
  • windbreak/ shelterbelt
  • ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wc: coastal erosion
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cs: salinization/ alkalinization

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

Plant varieties that comes through natural succession process stabilize the newly formed coastal land. Mound plantation with non-mangrove species strengthen that process with other plantation services.

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

The dimensions of structures are explained in the description part


Md. Fazlay Arafat



4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

1 ha

If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha =:

1 ha=2.47 acres

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

500 BDT

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Nursery establishment October-November
2. Raising seedlings January-February
3. Site preparation: clearing of site and mound construction April-May
4. Transplantation of seedlings June
5. Fertilizer application: Compost mixed with loamy loamy soil June

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Nursery preparation person-days 17.0 500.0 8500.0 100.0
Labour Earth clearing and mound preparation person-days 150.0 500.0 75000.0 100.0
Labour Plantation work person-days 25.0 500.0 12500.0 100.0
Equipment Bucket pieces 15.0 250.0 3750.0 100.0
Equipment Spade pieces 15.0 500.0 7500.0 100.0
Plant material Seeds for nursery bed Lump sum 1.0 1000.0 1000.0 100.0
Plant material Poly bags Pieces 1800.0 1.0 1800.0 100.0
Plant material Bamboo stick to support seedlings Pieces 1600.0 2.0 3200.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Compost to apply in plantation kg 1000.0 4.0 4000.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Urea for poly bag seedling kg 4.0 35.0 140.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides TSP for poly bag seedling kg 4.0 40.0 160.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides MoP for poly bag seedling kg 4.0 30.0 120.0 100.0
Construction material Bamboo for nursery fencing pieces 4.0 250.0 1000.0 100.0
Other Seedling transportation cost Lump-sum 1.0 1000.0 1000.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 119670.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 1424.64

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Vacancy filling June
2. 1st year weeding 3 times in a year
3. 2nd year weeding 3 times in a year
4. 3rd year weeding 2 times in a year
5. Fertilizer application to the newly planted trees June

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Seedling transportation person-days 1.0 500.0 500.0 100.0
Labour Vacancy filling person-days 4.0 500.0 2000.0 100.0
Labour Fertilizer application to the newly planted trees person-days 4.0 500.0 2000.0 100.0
Labour Weeding person-days 40.0 500.0 20000.0 100.0
Plant material Bamboo stick to support seedlings pieces 350.0 2.0 700.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides NPK fertilizer kg 75.0 30.0 2250.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 27450.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 326.79

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:


5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):


Water quality refers to:

both ground and surface water

Is water salinity a problem?



Due to regular tidal inundation the soil become saline and only support to grow mangrove plant species

Is flooding of the area occurring?




5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low
Habitat diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
Individuals or groups:
  • employee (company, government)
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • women
  • men
Age of land users:
  • youth
  • middle-aged
  • elderly
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Bangladesh Forest Department established the coastal plantation through participatory approach of co-management with adjacent local communities.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Water use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system?


5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


wood production


forest/ woodland quality


risk of production failure

Comments/ specify:

Due to diversified non-mangrove species used in the plantation the risk of failure reduced

production area

Comments/ specify:

Mound plantation increase production area through converting unproductive land areas

land management

Comments/ specify:

Once established, the non-mangrove species do not require much silvicultural operation

Socio-cultural impacts

recreational opportunities

Comments/ specify:

The spot become popular to tourist

SLM/ land degradation knowledge


Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

Comments/ specify:

surface runoff decrease as raised mounds acts as a barrier



soil cover


soil loss

Comments/ specify:

Soil loss with water decreased as mounds reduces surface runoff

soil accumulation


soil organic matter/ below ground C

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover


biomass/ above ground C


plant diversity


beneficial species


habitat diversity


pest/ disease control

Climate and disaster risk reduction

flood impacts

Comments/ specify:

flood impact decreases as the mound forest act as a barrier and protect the raised land

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases


wind velocity


6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

wind transported sediments


impact of greenhouse gases


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well
seasonal rainfall wet/ rainy season increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
tropical storm moderately
local rainstorm well
local thunderstorm well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
storm surge/ coastal flood well
Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
epidemic diseases moderately
insect/ worm infestation moderately

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
sea level rise moderately

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 1-10%
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
The mixed plantation is now more pest resistance
The aesthetic beauty is increased and attract more tourists
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The mixed stand with mound plantation supports more ecological services like supply of fuel wood, wildlife habitat, timber, tourism, greenbelt, etc.
Species mixtures maximize the use of resources, and consequently increase stand-level productivity and carbon sequestration.
Speed up the natural succession process. Otherwise it takes long period of time to grow non-mangrove species in coastal areas.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The mounds often requires to be repaired when it faces frequent tropical storms and storm surges
Grazing hampers the stand at the initial stage Community awareness
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Only salt tolerant plant species can be planted

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

Number of field visit:02

  • interviews with land users

Number of informants: 03

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

Number of informants: 02

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:


7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:


7.4 General comments

WOCAT questionnaire covers all the technical aspect of the practice

Links and modules

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