Community-Based Watershed Management [Afghanistan]

  • Création :
  • Mise à jour :
  • Compilateur :
  • Rédacteur :
  • Examinateur :

Mudiriat Aabreza Tawasut Mardum (Dari)

approaches_2612 - Afghanistan

État complet : 86%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de l'Approche

Personne(s) ressource(s) clé(s)

Spécialiste GDT:
Spécialiste GDT:
Spécialiste GDT:
Spécialiste GDT:

Montzieux Mathilde


Spécialiste GDT:

Hazem Zainullah


Spécialiste GDT:

Alemi Saadat


Spécialiste GDT:

Ershad Mustafa


Spécialiste GDT:

Ahmadi Reza


Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de l'Approche (si pertinent)
HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Quand les données ont-elles été compilées (sur le terrain)?


Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:


1.4 Références au(x) questionnaire(s) sur les Technologies de GDT

Stone wall

Stone wall [Afghanistan]

Contour stone walls constructed on moderate to steep slopes to retain water and sediments and trap snow.

  • Compilateur : Aqila Haidery
Contour Trench Bund

Contour Trench Bund [Afghanistan]

Contour trench bund applied on contour lines of moderate slope to trap run-off to improve infiltration and reduce flash floods.

  • Compilateur : Aqila Haidery

2. Description de l'Approche de GDT

2.1 Courte description de l'Approche

Sustainable implementation of watershed management through appropriate SLM technologies, formation of organizational structures and capacity building of stakeholders

2.2 Description détaillée de l'Approche

Description détaillée de l'Approche:

The overall objective of the community-based watershed management project implemented at Sar-e-Ahangaran was to reduce water induced disaster risks and improve people’s livelihoods. The project was implemented by Catholic Relief Services (CRS) with people’s support and funding assistance from USAID.

About 67 hectares of degraded land has been rehabilitated since 2009 through various soil and water conservation measures like stone walls, contour trenches and plantation of fodder species such as alfalfa. The local communities are also protecting the treated areas from grazing and shrub cutting.

With facilitation from CRS, a 15-member watershed management committee was appointed by the participating families. This was important for organizing watershed related works and for the sustainability of project interventions. Some rules for managing the selected watershed were also formulated in a participatory way. For instance, if anyone is found grazing animals at the site, he has to give one sheep to the watershed committee as a fine.
CRS has provided training and technical support to the watershed committee members and workers for project implementation and monitoring. The daily workers were selected from the local communities by the watershed committee and paid in cash as per national norms for their labor. CRS also organized awareness raising workshops regarding environmental conservation and water-shed management and the entire community including teachers and students participated in these village events.

As a result of Sar-e-Ahangaran watershed management project, the people have a more positive attitude towards natural resource management. The formation and capacity building of the watershed management committee is a step towards ensuring long-term sustainability of the project outputs and community owner-ship. The watershed committee is not yet registered with the government but for future sustainability, this will be an important activity. The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is in the process of formulating a comprehensive community-based natural resource management strategy. Once in place, the Sar-e-Ahangaran community can take advantage of that strategy if the watershed committee is formally registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (Bamyan).

The Community-Based Watershed Management approach is documented by Sustainable Land Management Project /HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation which is funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation with close support and cooperation of the Catholic Relief Service (CRS).

2.3 Photos de l'approche

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où l'Approche a été appliquée



Région/ Etat/ Province:


Autres spécifications du lieu :

Sar-e-Ahangaran, Bamyan center

2.6 Dates de début et de fin de l'Approche

Indiquez l'année de démarrage:


2.7 Type d'Approche

  • fondé sur un projet/ programme

2.8 Principaux objectifs de l'Approche

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Disaster Risk Reduction, Rural Livelihoods Improvement)

The overall objective of the project was to reduce watershed induced disaster risks and improve rural livelihoods through SLM technologies and community based sustainable approaches

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Lack of people’s knowledge regarding sustainable management of natural resources and disaster risk reduction, lack of knowledge, technical and organisational capacities on sustainable land management technologies for degraded lands

2.9 Conditions favorisant ou entravant la mise en œuvre de la(des) Technologie(s) appliquée(s) sous l'Approche

normes et valeurs sociales/ culturelles/ religieuses
  • entrave

People did not have a good idea about how to conserve the environment and at the same time reduce disaster risks and improve their livelihoods

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Training and education via sharing knowledge with watershed committees in Waras forming maintenance committees who should look after restrictions about grazing. Practical demonstration of potential SLM technologies

disponibilité/ accès aux ressources et services financiers
  • entrave

People do not have financial capacities

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Project had a Cash for Work but learning approach

cadre juridique (régime foncier, droits d'utilisation des terres et de l'eau)
  • entrave

As the land is formally owned by the government, people did not invest much in sustainable practices. During project initiation, people were also sceptical and rejected the project idea as they thought that by digging trenches, the project was trying to search for gold

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Through several discussions and clarifications and by assurances from the government, people were convinced that the project had no hidden motives and gradually their trust in CRS increased

connaissances sur la GDT, accès aux supports techniques
  • entrave

Lack of knowledge about SLM measures

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Training and technical support from CRS

3. Participation et rôles des parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche

3.1 Parties prenantes impliquées dans l'Approche et rôles

  • exploitants locaux des terres / communautés locales
  • organisations communautaires
3.2 Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales aux différentes phases de l'Approche
Participation des exploitants locaux des terres/ communautés locales Spécifiez qui était impliqué et décrivez les activités
initiation/ motivation interactive CRS discussed land use problems and formulated the project. Project site was selected by the participating families and respective CDCs
planification interactive CDC and watershed members were involved in the planning but not the whole community
mise en œuvre soutien extérieur Implementation was by the local communities with cash for work approach
suivi/ évaluation auto-mobilisation Voluntary monitoring group to look after the environment. Also joint monitoring by project stakeholders
Research passive

3.3 Diagramme/ organigramme (si disponible)


The organizational Chart of Sar-e_Ahangaran Watershed Management Committee


Catholic Relief Service (CRS)

3.4 Prises de décision pour la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies

Indiquez qui a décidé de la sélection de la Technologie/ des Technologies à mettre en œuvre:
  • principalement les spécialistes de la GDT, après consultation des exploitants des terres

The area was selected by the community

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by SLM specialists with consultation of land users. However, workers were selected by the watershed committee members in consultation with their community development councils (CDCs).

4. Soutien technique, renforcement des capacités et gestion des connaissances

4.1 Renforcement des capacités/ formation

Une formation a-t-elle été dispensée aux exploitants des terres/ autres parties prenantes?


Spécifiez qui a été formé:
  • exploitants des terres
  • Project field officers, Land users, CDC and Watershed Management Committee members, teacher and students, both women and men
Formats de la formation:
  • sur le tas
  • entre agriculteurs (d'exploitants à exploitants)
Formats de la formation:
  • organizing courses
Thèmes abordés:

contour trench and stone wall technologies, tree planting, importance of pasture management and watershed management

4.2 Service de conseils

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils accès à un service de conseils?


Décrivez/ commentez:

CRS provided continuous advice; Key elements: increase awareness by forming a watershed committee, technical support of the committee

Advisory service is inadequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; The government or other advisory service is still inadequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities. The government authorities visited the project only once, at the end of the project. They did not provide much support; however, as the land belongs formally to the state, they did not have any objections for applying watershed management measures.

4.3 Renforcement des institutions (développement organisationnel)

Des institutions ont elles été mises en place ou renforcées par le biais de l'Approche?
  • oui, modérément
Spécifiez à quel(s) niveau(x), ces institutions ont été renforcées ou mises en place:
  • local
Donnez plus de détails:

CDCs and watershed management committees. Schools teachers and students also received training

4.4 Suivi et évaluation

Le suivi et l'évaluation font ils partie de l'Approche? :



bio-physical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Water quality and quantitative measurements

technical aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff, land users, other through observations; indicators: ad hoc field visits and monitoring of structural quality

socio-cultural aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Hosuehold survey

economic / production aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Household survey

area treated aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through observations; indicators: Other areas where technology has been applied

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by land users through measurements; indicators: Selecting the beneficiaries

management of Approach aspects were None monitored by land users through observations; indicators: Monitoring the community which looks after the pasture management

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: especially with regard to organisational structure for monitoring works

4.5 Recherche

La recherche a-t-elle fait partie intégrante de l’Approche?


  • Farm research
Donnez plus de détails et indiquez qui a mené ces recherches:

Topics included technology functions, vegetation status before and after project, monitoring of spring (located below) water quality and quantity.

5. Financement et soutien matériel externe

5.1 Budget annuel de la composante GDT de l'Approche

Si le budget annuel précis n'est pas connu, indiquez une fourchette:
  • 10 000-100 000
Commentez (par ex. principales sources de financement/ principaux bailleurs de fonds):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international non-government: 99.0%; local community / land user(s): 1.0%

5.2 Soutiens financiers/ matériels fournis aux exploitants des terres

Les exploitants des terres ont-ils reçu un soutien financier/ matériel pour la mise en œuvre de la Technologie/ des Technologies?


5.4 Crédits

Des crédits ont-ils été alloués à travers l'Approche pour les activités de GDT?


5.5 Autres incitations ou instruments

D'autres incitations ou instruments ont-ils été utilisés pour promouvoir la mise en œuvre des Technologies de GDT?


6. Analyses d'impact et conclusions

6.1 Impacts de l'Approche

Est-ce que l'Approche a aidé les exploitants des terres à mettre en œuvre et entretenir les Technologies de GDT?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

Land cover by vegetation improved significantly. Flash floods and snow avalanche problems were reduced, and the community members were more aware about the technologies and approaches for sustainable land management.

Est-ce que l'Approche a autonomisé les groupes socialement et économiquement défavorisés?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

People got cash for work and some of the families could pay back their loans through this income.

The land belongs to the state and the water use right is as well open access and and organized manner. In this particular land land use problem or water use problems have not been seen.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

There were constraints from the people in the beginning. Now a similar approach with some modifications is being implemented in other watersheds as well as a result of this project.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

They got more money via the cash for work; however, there is no impact for the livestock because the pasture area is big enough.

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • Non
  • Oui, un peu
  • Oui, modérément
  • Oui, beaucoup

due to cash for work approach and increased production of wheat, potato and other agricultural products as a result of reduced flood risks

6.2 Principale motivation des exploitants des terres pour mettre en œuvre la GDT

  • augmenter la rentabilité/ bénéfice, rapport coûts-bénéfices
  • règles et règlements (amendes)/ application
  • to get employed through cash for work
  • reduce flood risks
  • Understand the importance of watershed
  • Understand the importance of NRM
  • Ownership of the project activities

6.3 Durabilité des activités de l'Approche

Les exploitants des terres peuvent-ils poursuivre ce qui a été mis en œuvre par le biais de l'Approche (sans soutien extérieur)?
  • incertain
Si non ou incertain, spécifiez et commentez:

but CRS continues to build capacities of watershed committees and support plantation of fodder species so that people get direct benefits and the project is sustained.

6.4 Points forts/ avantages de l'Approche

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
Less damage to some agricultural land located below the watershed sites due to flash floods
Prevention of snow slide
Increased water in the spring
Plant coverage of the area increased
Prevention from soil erosion

6.5 Faiblesses/ inconvénients de l'Approche et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Watershed management committee is not registered CRS should facilitate registration of the committee with the Department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock in Bamyan
People are not taking care of the plantations People must understand the importance of plantations. The project should figure out the reasons why people are not interested in plantation activities and adjust approaches accordingly

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

  • visites de terrain, enquêtes sur le terrain
  • interviews/entretiens avec les exploitants des terres